What Makes an Effective Leader Essay

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What Makes an Effective Leader Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 3190

  • Pages: 13

What Makes an Effective Leader

What makes an effective leader? Is a leader born, or can they be made? This paper will attempt to answer these questions and explain what it takes to become a truly effective leader. First we will discuss what an effective leader is exactly, and then move on to describing what it takes to become someone like that.

What makes a truly effective leader? Are effective leaders only found on the battlefield or the sports arena? No, leaders are found everywhere. Teachers, welders, students, laborers, managers, the list can go on and on. Leaders are found everywhere. According to Lussier & Achua (2013), “Leadership is the influencing process of leaders and followers to achieve organizational objectives through change.” So, in essence, you are already a leader if you influence a follower. A parent is leader to their child, a teacher to their pupil. So, now we know what a leader is, but what makes a leader effective? Hourston (2013) and Drucker (2006), as well as DeKlein & Penstone (1997) have plenty to say on this subject. Drucker (2006) tells us, in his first paragraph, that in order to become an effective executive, “…the executive is…expected to get the right things done.” But what does that mean? It means that effective executives take responsibility for their actions. That they asked, “What needs to be done, & What is right for the organization?” That they develop action plans and focus on opportunities, rather than problems. That they worked as a team, rather than on their own. And, finally, that they run productive meetings. (Drucker 2006) But, can these practices help turn your average executive into a truly effective executive? Well, there is much more than these eight simple practices. Drucker (2006) lead off with telling us that we are not effective unless we get the right things done.

A person can look really busy, working hard all day, but unless they are accomplishing the right things, they really are not all that effective, are they? Hourston (2013) gives us seven steps we can follow to become truly effective: Be bold. Be strengths savvy. Stretch your leadership style. Be “going somewhere.” Be follower-focused. Be balanced. And, be true to you. What does Hourston mean? Let us take a closer look. Be bold. Do not be timid. Show those around you that you have courage, courage to speak up, courage to apologize, courage to go your own way. Be strengths-savvy. Figure out what areas you are strongest in, what areas your personality and temperament support best and work to expand that. Keirsey & Bates’ book, Please Understand Me (1984), can help you to understand your character and temperament type and how to better use it to help you get ahead. The book starts out with a questionnaire to determine your particular personality style and then goes on to explain the different types of personality traits and how they all fit together to form different personality types. Keirsey & Bates go on to help a person see what they should, but not necessarily are, good at and where their strengths should lie. This book can also help you to understand how different temperament types view rewards and punishment, which helps to better understand your different types of followers. Stretch your leadership style. Work at using leadership styles that do not come naturally, styles that you find difficult. By becoming a well-rounded leader, it is easier to adapt your leadership technique for different situations. Leading laborers in a task will likely take a different leadership style than leading a group of accountants in completing a task. Learn different styles and when and how to apply them to different situations. Be “Going Somewhere.” All truly effective leaders have a vision, something they want to see done or some change they want to make. Think about it, this vision is what propels them to push further forward, to work to achieve something new, something different. In addition to having a vision, you still have to be able to effectively communicate this vision to others so that they can follow you on your quest to achieve it. Be follower-focused. Be sure to recognize the contributions of others, giving credit to the team instead of hogging the spotlight. Sure, you may be the leader, but you did not do the work alone. Be aware of your followers needs as well. A truly effective leader cares for his followers. Be balanced. Work towards “…sustainable thought and action.” (Hourston 2013) Know how your actions will affect those around you before following through with them. You can only burn a bridge once. Be true to you. Do not try to fool yourself into thinking that only one leadership style is truly effective or that you cannot use certain styles. A certain style may not be a complete perfect fit, but there are always parts of a style than can be mastered by anyone willing to work at it. Have confidence in your abilities, do not stop learning, and be willing to learn and try new things.

Peter Economy’s article in Inc. magazine, “7 Traits of Highly Effective Leaders” (2013) lists several similar traits and a few new ones. According to Economy, highly effective leaders inspire action, are optimistic, have integrity, are confident, communicate effectively, are decisive, and support their followers. These go right along with Hourston (2013), adding optimism and integrity. “We all want to work with and for people who lift us up into the clouds instead of dragging us down into the mud.” Hourston (2103). No one wants to follow a naysayer. Keep a positive outlook in all that you do. Few people want to climb aboard what seems like a sinking ship, most people want to grab onto a shooting star, reaching high into the sky. The other trait is integrity. Be honest and forthright with your followers. All lies catch up with you eventually. And it is much harder to regain lost trust, than to just tell the truth in the first place. Integrity falls under the Golden Rule: Treat others as you want to be treated. Integrity should be the number one trait in becoming a truly effective executive.

Are leaders born, or can they be made? That is the question I asked at the beginning. The answer is both. Some leaders are just born that way. Charismatic visionaries, able to embody everything we want to be, and everything we think a good leader should have. For the other 99.99% of leaders, work is required. DeKlein & Penstone, authors of the Canadian factsheet, “How You Can Be an Effective Leader” (1994), have something to say on the subject of building yourself into an effective leader. Everyone has leadership potential, just like having the potential to sing or dance. Some people have a natural ability to sing, such as Celine Dion, but we can all crank out “Happy Birthday” with some semblance of ability, no matter how lousy the tune may sound, it is still ability. The same is true with natural leadership. Martin Luther King, jr. was, for the most part, a natural leader. I do not think he took leadership classes, nor had a leadership coach. He could just lead. He was born with these qualities and skills. Adolf Hitler had to work at becoming a leader. He was a social outcast that failed in many early endeavors. He may have used his influence for evil purposes, but no one can deny his oratory skills or leadership abilities later on in his life. (Lussier & Achua 2013) Before I continue, let us look briefly at charisma. Webster’s dictionary defines charisma as:
1. A personal magic of leadership arousing special popular loyalty or enthusiasm.
2. A special magnetic charm or appeal. Most spectacular leaders, the ones we think of when someone says “Effective Leadership” have a high dose of charisma. Martin Luther King, jr., Adolf Hitler, John F. Kennedy, to name a few, were very charismatic leaders. With charisma, other shortcomings can be ignored. And charisma, at least in part, can be learned. According to Lussier & Achua (2013), charisma can be taught by following a few steps: Working on speech and public speaking skills by using a speaking coach. By educating yourself to better develop visionary skills. Practice being candid and open, while maintaining a level of sensitivity to others’ feelings and needs. And, developing “…an enthusiastic, optimistic, and energetic personality.”

Now, back to DeKlein & Penstone’s Factsheet. A leader should be well organized have their thoughts and ideas well-thought out. A leader should know what skills they possess, what skills they are lacking and what skills they need to work on to become a better leader. “A successful leader makes an effort to learn and practice new skills.” (DeKlein & Penstone 1997). A successful leader should have a profound knowledge of the organization that they are attempting to lead. It is rather difficult to lead an organization that you nothing about. Not impossible, but very difficult. A good working knowledge of the areas that you are involved in will go a long way, while a lack of knowledge may turn your followers away, no matter how good your leadership skills. Team work is another essential part of being an effective leader. When Drucker first published The Effective Executive in 1967, team-based leadership theories were just a dream. Today, most companies use some form of team-based leadership style somewhere in their organization. (Lussier & Achua 2013) The thought of the leader as the top man is long gone, even today’s CEOs consider themselves part of a larger mechanism. Without their teammates, leaders are just people standing alone. Considering the office politics that have such an influence on whether a project gets funding and support, having the support of a team, whether it be a work team or just a coalition of office supporters, help to make the wheels on the organizational bus go round. An effective leader is a risk taker. I am not saying that they take unnecessary risks but a willingness to go out on a limb in order to make what they see as a necessary change. An effective leader is an innovator. This goes hand in hand with taking risks. Look at the Wright brothers. They were willing to take a risk on a new innovation, flight. They became the leaders in flight innovations and are seen as visionaries today. An effective leader must be willing to roll the dice and learn from his successes and failures. An effective leader should always recognize the work and achievement of others. This is a partially covered under integrity, the not taking of other people’s credit, but here, I am talking about giving kudos to those that have achieved. Whether it is a pat on the back, a handshake, a “Job well done,” or a promotion; never fail to recognize the achievements of your followers and offer encouragement to those that need it. “Showing a genuine concern and respect for your work, your people, and your community may be the best strategy in reaching your goal of outstanding leadership.” (DeKlein & Penstone 1997)

So, what makes an effective leader? Is a leader born, or can they be made? I think these questions have been answered. A leader can be born, but they can be made. Through hard work, a willingness to learn, and a willingness to try new things it is possible to enhance your innate abilities to lead. We all have some leadership ability, just like we all have some ability to sing. To some it comes naturally, and to others, it is something that must be worked at. What makes an effective leader? An effective leader is someone that influences others, that has a vision, that pushes us to be better. An effective leader effectively communicates, not only is vision, but recognition to those that have achieved under him. An effective leader knows what needs to be done, and then does that which needs doing, all the
while influencing those around him to be better and to accomplish more.

Annotated Bibliography

DeKlein, K., & Penstone, M. (November 1997). How You Can Be an Effective Leader. Factsheet. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Retrieved from http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/rural/facts/94-081.htm DeKlein & Penstone give us a generalized snapshot in the form of a factsheet article that tells us some of the basics to becoming a more effective leader. The article begins by telling the reader about everyone’s innate ability to lead. DeKlein & Penstone agree with Economy and Drucker in many of their points on leadership, such as leadership traits. The authors go on to give us four situational leadership styles and their possible uses and situations: the “Directing/Telling” leader, for when group members are unwilling and unable to do a particular task; the “Coaching/Selling” leader, for when group members are willing but lack the skills to complete a task.; the “Participating/Supportive” leader, for when group members are unwilling but have the skills to complete the task; and the “Delegating/Trusting” leader, for when group members have the skills and are willing to complete the task. The article provides some very interesting leadership quotes, such as, “The future will require those of us in such positions to keep our eyes, ears and minds open. It will require us to listen and to involve, to coach and to develop, to enrich and to motivate, to risk and to credit, to care and to express concern, and to laugh – especially at ourselves.” (John H. Anthony, Therapeutic Leadership, 1989)

Drucker, P. (2006). The Effective Executive. New York, NY. HarperCollins Drucker provides a plethora of knowledge covering what makes an effective executive. Regardless of what type of organization, “…the executive is… expected to get the right things done.” Drucker’s first paragraph of the measure of an effective executive sums it up nicely. Drucker goes on to explain that effective leaders, while rarely born, can in fact be made; by learning the necessary acquired habits that make an executive very effective. Drucker covers these traits and habits and how best to acquire these necessary skills to become more effective, habits such as running meetings more productively, getting the most from them, and knowing when too many meetings are a waste of time. The downside to Drucker is that this book was written in the 60’s, before team-lead leadership styles were popular. However, Drucker is recognized as having an enormous impact on modern leadership style and his advice and theory is still very relevant today.

Economy, P. (August 27, 2013). 7 Traits of Highly Effective Leaders. Inc. Retrieved from http://www.inc.com/peter-economy/7-traits-highly-effective-leaders.html Mr. Economy gives us a summarized view of what it takes to become a highly effective leader. His article runs parallel to Peter Drucker’s The Effective Executive in its brief wisdom of what it takes to become an effective leader. Mr. Economy lists several key traits as the seven traits necessary to becoming an effective leader. A highly effective leader should try to inspire action in his followers, pushing them to do what is necessary to succeed. A leader should be optimistic, as no one wants to achieve for a naysayer. A leader should show integrity, being honest and fair, treating others as you would like to be treated. A leader should support and facilitate his team by making followers feel safe in taking risks and speaking up, without allowing them to worry about being punished for doing so. A leader should be confident, making his team as though they can accomplish anything. And, a highly effective leader should communicate with his team, as knowledge is power; empower your followers with up-to-date information about what is going on.

Hourston, R. (April 4, 2013). 7 Steps to a Truly Effective Leadership Style. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/womensmedia/2013/04/24/7-steps-to-a-truly-effective-leadership-style/ Hourston shows us seven steps that she thinks will help to form a person into a truly effective leader. Her approach mirrors Lussier, Drucker, Economy, and DeKlein. She leads off with three types of leaders that person does not want to be: the Mushroom, that keeps everyone in the dark; the Seagull, that swoops in and dumps; and the Kipper, two-faced and gutless. Hourston goes on to remind us that leadership traits and habits can be learned. That all a person needs to become a successful and effective leader is to have the desire and pursue the knowledge that would make it possible. Hourston then touches on those traits and offers tips on how they can be acquired, using quotes from some up-and-coming leaders in today’s markets. After each step, Hourston offers questions to the reader, mainly to get you thinking of ways to implement what was just read.

Keirsey, D. & Bates, M. (5th Ed.). (1984). Please Understand Me: Character & Temperament Type. Del Mar, CA. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. Keirsey & Bates show us that we really are all different and that different personalities lead in different ways. The book starts out with a questionnaire to determine your particular personality style and then goes on to explain the different types of personality traits and how they all fit together to form different personality types. Keirsey & Bates go on to help a person see what they should, but not necessarily are, good at and where their strengths should lie. This book is a compliment to those previously listed, which all tell a person that leadership skills can be learned. In that sense, knowing your personality type can help a person to decide which skills are better suited to their personality, making it easier to develop your personal leadership skills. Knowledge of personality types and their descriptions is also very helpful in learning how to lead these different personality types. While the text is thirty years old, plenty can still be learned from Keirsey & Bates.

Lussier, R.N. & Achua, C. F. (5th Ed.) (2013) Leadership: Theory Application, & Skill Development. Mason, OH. South-Western, Cengage Learning. Lussier & Achua delve deeply into the theory behind leadership skills, the application of a wide variety of different leadership skills, and how leaders can develop their skills. They echo DeKlein & Penstone in their types of Path-Goal leadership styles and description, though Lussier & Achua take a much more in-depth look at what makes up these styles and how best to implement them. Lussier & Achua echo parts of Drucker as to the make-up of an effective executive. That rarely are leaders born.

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What makes an effective leader? Essay

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What makes an effective leader? Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1108

  • Pages: 4

What makes an effective leader?

A leader is an individual who guides a community, country, or group. Alexander The great, Asoka, and Jesus are leaders who exemplify all the qualities of an effective leader. Despite hardships, these men had to over come, they ended up helping their people and their empires and showed that they weren’t pushovers. These three men got respect from their followers by means of charm and fear. They all were accepting of people who did not follow them. Asoka and Alexander expanded their empires and Jesus expanded the number of people who followed him in believing that he had a message from God. An effective leader is an individual who earns the respect of his people, who is determined and ambitious, and is tolerant of people who do not share the same beliefs as him.

An important quality in leading a large group of people is that the followers have to respect the leader. In 336 B.C.E., Alexander became emperor of Rome. Before Alexander could be respected as a young leader, he had to show that he was not a pushover. When Thebes revolted, he slaughtered the people of the city, and took the rest of the people in as slaves. No other city would revolt because of fear and respect of their leader. Asoka also gained respect in this way. When Asoka became king of the Mauryan Empire in 269 B.C.E., he had a policy of war to gain power and respect. He also made people fear him. He had a war against the state of Kalinga in which over 100,000 soldiers and even more people were killed. After Asoka had done this, the people were intimidated and scared of what else he could do. This prevented uprisings and mass disorder against thie government. Asoka made the citizens know and understand where there place was. On the other hand, Fear is not the only way to gain respect. Jesus gained respect of his followers because of the ideas that he had introduced. Around, 25 A.D., Jesus began to preach his beliefs which appealed to many people because they accepted everyone as a unity and a whole group entity. Jesus gained respect because he was a kind man who never turned his back on anyone. Alexander, Asoka, and Jesus all gained respect of their followers and this helped them be effective leaders.

As an effective leader, one should be determined and ambitious. The main ambition for these leaders were to gain followers and rule over more land so that they could spread their ideas. Alexander and Asoka, both being rulers over an empire, had to expand their land to gain natural resources. At the height of Alexander’s empire, it stretched from the kingdom of Kassander to the Mauryan Empire, to the kingdom of Ptolemy. This included many rivers, mountains, and oceans that all helped form the booming empire that Rome was in 323 B.C.E. Asoka built extensive roads to connect his empire. He had rest houses and trees to provide shade. Asoka worked to keep his empire unified, and in 232 B.C.E, when Asoka left his rule, the empire began to fall apart because the lack of a leader that wanted to unify his people. Jesus wanted to spread a message to people everywhere.

He wanted to tell people that he had a message from god. He had 12 followers in the beginning called the “12 apostles” who truly believed everything he said. These apostles got many people to follow Jesus and he began to have many followers. Since the time of Jesus, Christianity has spread all over the world, and beginning with these few 12 people, Christianity because one of the most widespread religions in the world. Being ambitious is important for a leader because a person should never have to settle. To strive for better and larger results is the purpose of being a leader in the first place and if a leader doesn’t have any goals, then hey is not a leader, but a man who enforces what has been told to him, and doesn’t make a change. The most memorable leaders were ones who were determined and ambitious.

Tolerance is a very important leadership quality. Asoka was a Buddhist who accepted everyone. He had pillars around the cities that were engraved with messages of equality between every individual. Others preached to end violence. Asoka was very religious himself but never forced others to conform to Buddhism. This shows how his concern was not to make his people more like him, but to make each of them a better person. Jesus was also a very tolerant leader. Jesus’ main beliefs were that everyone was equal to each other. This is one of the reasons why so many people followed him. In Christianity, a person is another persons “brother” or “sister”. This shows how equal everyone was. Though Jesus did preach his word, he did not force anyone to conform. Jesus just spoke his mind and people believed him. He felt that it was unnecessary to force beliefs onto people. In his eye, whether a person was Jewish, Muslim, a slave, or a noble was just a quality about the person. Deep down, everyone was the same. It is important for a leader to be tolerant of others because people will not respect a leader that segregates his people. When a leader diminishes a group of people, he outcasts them from society and this can lead to violence and anger. A leader should know his place and know that its not to force his opinions unto other people.

What happened in the past formed where we are today. If Alexander hadn’t expanded the empire to become so vast, Rome might not have become the advanced modern-day city it is now. Asoka helped expand India and created a roads system that is still used today. After the death of Jesus, Paul went on to create a religion, Christianity, which is now followed by billions of people worldwide. An effective leader is an individual who earns the respect of his people, expands to more people who follow his/her rule, and is tolerant of people who do not share the same beliefs as him. Alexander, Asoka, and Jesus all exemplify these qualities and were merited for their advances and accomplishments. An effective leader should know that whatever he does is affective and it affects everyone.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1732

  • Pages: 7

What Makes an Effective Leader

Gary Wills, a professor and cultural historian whose many books provide broad analysis of some of the world leaders, has once said: “The leader is one who mobilizes others toward a goal shared by leaders and followers. Leaders, followers and goals make up the three equally necessary supports for leadership. ” (Nkwocha, 2011) Thory (2011) defines leadership as the ability to influence people toward the attainment of organizational goals.

Although there are people who are leaders by nature, it is strongly believed that successful management traits can be exercised and honed. ‘Leadership as capacity is developed through building interpersonal skills, social awareness, mutual respect, and trust. ’ (Roberts, Roper, 2011) Much has been written about the leaders and the effectiveness of their power and impact on the other people. Infinite discussions often refer to the previous and present world leaders, analysing their family background, education or personal traits and comparing one to another.

Even though different types of researches into leadership styles and skills had been carrying out for more than a century, there is still no common definition about what it takes to be an effective leader. The aim of this essay is to define the basic skills that most of the world leaders share. The methods of research refer to some influential management books and reliable journal articles. Three theories of leadership (trait theory, behavioural and situational) are to be discussed hereafter.

The conclusions will provide the summary of the research suggesting the factors that contribute to leadership effectiveness based on the essay content. One of the first hypotheses concerning to point out the main features that define a successful leader was called the trait theory. However, this phase, which ran from the turn of the century to about 1950, was largely unfortunate in pinpointing universal leadership characteristics (Schriesheim, Neider, 1989). The reasons of failure to prove the effectiveness of this theory are to be discussed later in this essay.

This theory attempted to explain distinctive characteristics in leader effectiveness through the identification of a set of personal traits (Goff, 2003). ‘Traits are the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader, such as intelligence, values, self-confidence and appearance’ (Thory, 2011). It was assumed that specific qualities most of the leaders share are the factors that determine success in their managerial styles. Such qualities can be separated into two categories: physiological and psychological.

Physiological characteristics include height, weight, appearance, physical endurance, etc. , while psychological characteristics include intelligence, diligence, con? dence, discipline, etc. ’ (Tsai, 2008) Looking back to 1990s to such leaders as Henry Ford or M. K. Gandhi, it can be easily noticed that physiological characteristics as height does not contribute to the power of leadership due to the fact that physical measures of leaders differ widely (see Appendix 1). When studying psychological traits, researchers tried to define the most common qualities that can affect leadership success.

For instance, in a report to the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), Hockaday and Puryear (2000) provided a list of nine traits needed by the effective community college president. Those nine traits are: “vision; integrity; confidence; courage; technical knowledge; collaborators; persistence; good judgement; and the desire to lead. (Goff, 2003) In addition to that, Ralph Stodgill (1974), the originator of the trait theory, highlighted such features as high activity level or tolerance to stress, as well (see Appendix 2).

Trait theories are sometimes referred to as ‘Great Man’ theories both because leadership was thought to be the province of males and because leadership had a mythical, heroic sense of destiny (with leaders assumed to be born, not made). ‘ (Nohria, Khurana, 2010) The early research focused on leaders who had achieved a level of greatness and the main idea was to find out what made these people great, and select future leaders who already exhibited the same traits. However, the research found only a weak relationship between personal traits and leader success. Thory, 2011) All in all, even if it was possible to prove that there are certain traits that all leaders share, this theory still raises a disagreement about why other people who have the same qualities (either physiological or psychological) fail to become successful leaders. ‚As a result scholarly attention turned to other explanations, refocusing away from „who leaders are“ (traits) to „what leaders do“ (behaviours)‘. (Nohria, Khurana, 2010)

Behavioural theories focus on a leader’s style of action. Nohria, Khurana, 2010) It was assumed that qualities do not always determine effective leadership so deeper research into the behaviours of leaders was carried out. Two basic leadership behaviours were identified as important for leadership: task-oriented behaviour and people-oriented behaviour. (Thory, 2011) This approach emerged to be applicable in many situations and it is being adapted to organizational practice even these days. The task-centred dimension refers to behaviour in which the leader organizes and defines the relationships in groups, establishes patterns and channels of communication, and directs the work procedures.

Such type of leader is viewed as strongly concerned with goals and performance-facilitative behaviours (Deluga, 1988). He primarily works to get the task done and meet his objectives (Weinberg, Gould, 2011). Successful task-oriented leaders are instrumental in contributing to their groups’ effectiveness by setting goals, allocating labour, and enforcing sanctions (Brooks, 1982). However, they are likely to keep their distance psychologically from their followers and to be more cold and aloof.

The people-centred dimension refers to behaviour in which the leader shows friendship, trust, respect, and warmth toward subordinates. Leaders with this style emphasize the needs of the subordinate and are viewed as strongly concerned with supportive human relations as well as interactive-facilitative behaviours (Deluga, 1988). They are characterized by involved support, friendship, and mutual trust. It is leadership that is democratic and employee oriented, rather than autocratic and production oriented (Brooks, 1982).

Relationship-oriented leaders develop interpersonal relationships; keeps open lines of communication, maintain positive social interactions, and ensure that everyone is involved and feeling good (Weinberg, Gould, 2011). T-P Leadership Questionnaire is a direct result of the empirical research of Sergiovanni, Metzcus and Burden (1969) and originated from the Leader Behaviour Description Questionnaire form XII (LDBQ) (Brooks, 1982). It is being used by many companies to analyse the characteristics of employees and increase work efficiency by delegating appropriate tasks to different people.

This questionnaire was designed to explore whether a person is more task-oriented or people-oriented (The full questionnaire with explanations is provided in Appendix 3). Another well-known application to define the style of leadership is the managerial grid of Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. (Kriel, 2007) In this table, the leader’s concern is evaluated by a nine point scale where one stands for minor engagement and nine for a maximum concern (Egner). It is based on two conflicting factors: attention to people and to production.

The model was designed to help leaders find out what part of the grid they occupy in order to help them understand whether they are more concerned about employees, tasks or both. There can be five outcomes of types of management: Country Club Management, Team Management, Impoverished Management, Authority-Compliance and Middle-of-the-Road Management. (Thory, 2011) They all differ depending on leader’s attitude to his workplace and its environment (for broader explanation, see Appendix 4). In addition to that, a substantial number of behavioural leadership styles were examined.

Probably some of the most popular researches are Lewin, Lippitt, and White’s emphasis on autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire leadership styles, where it is claimed that most of the leaders can be separated into three different groups depending on the way they manage their subordinates and qualities they maintain (Nohria, Khurana, 2010). Another research of University of Michigan states that leaders can be differentiated into two groups: employee-centred leaders and job-centred leaders depending on their effectiveness when managing work and behaviour towards subordinates (Thory, 2011).

In contrast to trait and behavioural theories, contingency (or situational) theories explicitly assume that leadership can vary across situations and that there may not be a universally effective way to lead (Nohria, Khurana, 2010). The prime example of a contingency theory of leadership is Fiedler’s model, proposed in 1967 (Redding, 1993). His theory assumes that leader effectiveness is a joint function of leader’s personal style (task or relationship oriented) and situational control (the ability of a leader’s relations to provide follower clarity in group tasks and authority) (Kenny, Livi, 2009).

Fiedler considered a person‘s leadership style to be relatively fixed and difficult to change (Thory, 2011). It is notable that the more theories are being created, the wider definition of what it takes to be an effective leader is made. It can be assumed that Fiedler’s model links both skills and behaviours of leaders that affect their style of management and remarks the importance of other external or internal situational factors that might contribute to the effectiveness of their leadership style.

Another widely known leadership approach is Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory which basically focuses on the followers rather than the leaders. Their model consist dimensions, two of which are associated with relationship and task behaviour. These are used to produce four categories: (Papworth, Milne, Boak, 2009) •Delegating (Low task focus, low relationship focus) •Participating (Low task focus, high relationship focus) •Selling (High task focus, high relationship focus) •Telling (High task focus, low relationship focus)

The point of Hersey and Blanchard is that subordinates vary in readiness level (Thory, 2011) which means that effectiveness of leadership can be maximised by matching the level of leadership style with the follower readiness (Papworth, Milne, Boak, 2009) It is significant to recognize different categories as using inadequate approaches can cause collapse of followers’ performance level and their morale distraction. (Thory, 2011) (For illustrative material of Hersey and Blanchard’s Theory see Appendix 5).

The path-goal theory developed by House (1971) states that the main goal of the leader is to help subordinates attain their goals effectively, and to provide them with the necessary direction and support to achieve their own goals (Silverthorne C, 2001) by removing barriers and frustrations that arise along the way (Rainey, 2009). In brief, this model should be applied when subordinates face difficulties in their day-to-day tasks and leader needs to select the most suitable behaviour that would contribute to follower‘s success and high efficiency in the working environment.

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