University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Verbal language like the main tool of communication
Verbal language has been the main tool of communication among many people; however, its smoothness on their mastery of the language. Many studies have been done over years documenting the existence of variable rules in English language. These researches were intended to address the questions about interaction of the learning of categorical rules and that of variable rules. In most cases, the acquisition of the –t/d deletion have been a matter of concern about people’s degree of mastery of phonological, grammatical, and social constraints. Some of these researchers compare in their work about both t and d deletion also known as coronal stop (Baker, Neu, Roberts, and Wang). In the present paper, different discussions about t/d deletion from different researches have been reviewed.
In research article by Sali and Rosalind (2005), the interest in –t deletion is variable apparently, not solely on the universal phonetic continuous speech, but also consistent in functions of higher levels of linguistic organizations specifically on morphology. The research indicated that this deletion varies roughly in proportion to the sonority of the preceding segments. In obligatory contour principle (OCP), the autosegmental phonology prohibits adjacent identical segment and features. According to this research, some of the segmentations are similar in that the d-deletion and –t deletion cannot be really be ranked; for instance, [+cor-son] and [–son-cont].
According to Baker (1985), the t context in the American English takes the small length of syllable compared to that of d –deletion. He also noted that the highest deletion rate is found for monophones, and then an immediate effect for semi-weak verbs such as lost, left, and told. Neu (1976) gave the same a sociolinguistic approach that the t-deletion is the deletion of apical stops in final structures. That is, it is simple to hear a t deletion in case of such an example; then he pass’ me his plate. In this case, the deletion is based on social aspects such as speaking style, age, sex, ethnicity, and class. On his side, Wang (2010) argued that due to different nature of variables, some cases cannot be looked at variationist but in qualitative analysis. For instance, you can’t tell.
According to the research by Sali and Rosalind (2005), the main difference between the two could be noted on the phonemes where the two deletions could not share the same distribution with respect to final cluster. For instance, in case of words such as land and old, the d-deletion will only follow voiced left sisters. The research also indicated linguistic constraints due to nasals from glides and vowels such as lived and liquids. Wang (2010) on his side used phonological environment to explain this concept. He initially stated that there are preceding segments where sounds occur before the deletion and hence, they make the first of the cluster; for example, washed, bagged, banged, among others. On the following segment, class of sounds make up the first part of the following morpheme which includes pauses; for example, planned, warned, cold, among others.
The research by Roberts (1994) indicated that the deletion is only evidenced when a person speaks fast; that is, native speakers who are not fast in English speaking, they rarely think about deletions. He indicated that nasal can only apply to d-deletion where it includes only m and n; the latter relates to monomorphemes while m relates to the paste tense form. In addition, stops and other fricatives, there is a mixture of both applicable and non-applicable environments; for instance, v can only proceed when d is a regular past tense marker. He argued that the more sonorous the preceding segment, the more likely deletion is to occur. However, this case has been criticized on the bases of ambiguity. Together with other researchers such as Guy and Boberg, he postulated that the more distinctive features which have been shared by two constant within the cluster, the more likely is the deletion to occur. He concluded that there is consistency in the way people use language regardless f the phonological constraints that may be experienced.
In conclusion we have noted that, though there are minimal disparities across the distribution of the two deletions, it does not make a lot of difference that may hinder them from being treated as the same variables. This answers the question why most people from different regions are able to communicate yet there are variations in their morphology. According to Tagliamonte and Temple (2005), what has been noted is only a slight gender variation with male characterized by more token than females; however, no overall effect with age. The research has noted dialect differences between British English and American English in the effect of following liquids on the rate of t/d deletion. In some cases, the use of pauses may result to t/d deletion where people are from different continents.
Baker, C. P. (1985). Acquisition of /t, d/ deletion in vernacular Black English: a study of head start preschoolers. Oxford: National Academies Press.
Neu, H. (1976). Final Stop Deletion in American English. Ft. Belvoir: Defense Technical Information Center.
Roberts, J. L. (1994). Acquisition of variable rules: ( -t, d) deletion and (ing) production in preschool children. New York, N.Y.: Yale University Press.
Sali, T., & Rosalind, T. (1993, January 1). Language Variation in South Asia.. The Journal of the American Oriental Society, 17, 302.Wang, A. (2010). Morphogenesis in candida albicans roles and regulation of critical hyphal regulators. Irvine, Calif.: University of California, Irvine.