University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Understanding adolescence: Current developments in adolescent psychology
Children and young people in their life development pass through various stages that have mental problems. Some of these problems result from self-assessment about life. When one finds that the kind of life that he or she is living, is rather below her expectation tend to be faced by depression emotions that they seek to eliminate. In case from their thoughts one thinks that he or she is leading a life that is higher relatively to his or her friends, there is the likelihood of the person to grow to be proud. Mostly, the problems that affect family at a large in the children result from negative feelings about themselves. Some of the behaviours that young people develop through these development stages are such as disobedience, drug abuse, delayed duties, poor academic performances, and low self-esteem amongst other emotional problems (Freeman, 1985, p. 321).
From the case study, Ben is encountered undergoing psychological problem that have caused an alarm to the whole family. These problems are far from external causes, they are problems that he has built for himself through thought. He is pessimistic about the future and this has brought to him much stress, he sees no need to work hard in class work, he is engaged in drug and substance abuse and disobedient. Bad peer influence has contributed a lot in the behavioural changes of ben. The only remedy to ben’s problems is counsel him I an effort to input positive thought in his mind.
Systematic approach of tackling families and their children problems involve family based approach such as parent training. Parents could be trained on how to approach their children to realize their emotional problems they may be undergoing and try to reach them as per their capacity. The problem of drug abuse could be dealt with by parents’ commitment to free their children from drug abuse (Adams, 1968, p. 67). Parents create drug-free environment if they act as role models by not engaging in drug abuse. It will be very hard to convince a young person to refrain from drugs if you abuse drugs. In the case of Ben, his parents need to embrace a systematic psychology therapy to make him avoid being involved in drug abuse by acting as role models to him.
Central to the cognitive view of people is the idea that they are actively trying to make sense of their environment by imposing order and meaning in the things they encounter. Cognitive explanations of the behaviour are found within the ways in which Ben organise and process information that is relevant to the particular methods of acting. In the case study, we could only recognise the fate of Ben by engaging in efforts to study the causes of what make him behave in a differently way. The idea that Ben is born by old couple contributes and in addition, very busy parents, contributes to a lack of parental love.
Ben’s situation could also be analysed through creative approach. Creative approach in working with young people to build coherent intervention entails an analytical examination of the problems and gathering of various ideas about solving it. The ideas on how to solve the emotional problems could come from experience of the parent. The outcome of a particular psychological problem that Ben has ever been exposed to could guide his parents in solving a related matter at hand (Myers, 2004, p.266).
Integrating creative, cognitive behaviour and systematic approach comprises of merging all these three techniques of solving emotional problems, to a strong design of solving psychological problems. This model may take several routes in efforts to make it realistic. The very first plan in integration of different psychological approaches is common factors. The common factors plan of integration tries to judge the core elements that different approaches have in common.
The merit of common factors approach is that, it emphasis on therapeutic actions that have been demonstrated to be the most effective. This helps to analyse Ben’s emotional problem based on common elements found in all the three methods, therefore, more efficient model in working with Ben to build a coherent intervention (Neenam & Palmer, 2012, p. 56). Young people are taught in a way to conduct. By showing Ben on what is right and wrong, you build on his character. A good character is a great contribution to the society. Young people create the potential future generation and influencing a young person positively adds value in the generation to come.
The other method to psychological approach integration is through technical eclecticism. Through technical eclecticism, Ben’s parents are guided to picking what has worked best for others previously. In solving a mental problem, Ben’s parents would try to look at the past instances of a similar case and adopt the same model of resolution that was past adopted. The model could be improved if the latter situation is more complicated than the previous situation.
The improvement on the design of solving mental problems could be through buying more ideas from every psychological approach. The situation of poor academic performance by ben because of lack of positive attitude could be solving through both systematic and cognitive behavioural approach. Through cognitive behavioural approach, the parent would put himself in the standards of ben and class work through critically obtaining real facts from him, this would help to guide the parent come up with viable ideas about the problem resolution (Mclean & woody, 2001, p.671).
Theoretical integration focuses on merging all small elements of theories in each of the approach and tries to come up with one deep level design. This model arrived at, bears all material facts from all the methods and, therefore, more effective in solving emotional problems. It is believed to be effective than constituent therapies alone. Assimilative integration is another route in integrating different psychological approaches and therapies.
Assimilative integration is a model that would a view from either of the approach to deal with the current problem on the table. It is constructed by assimilating different ideas from different methods in one design that can solve a specific psychological problem.
Parental love enables children to grow healthy emotionally. It helps them avoid emotional worries about their love security. Any child, who grows up in an environment that lacks the touch of love, is likely to improve inhumane behaviours. Some of inhumane behaviour that a person may develop because of lack of parental love is such as misconduct for duty of care, high negligence and immoral behaviours.
Parental control to a child is very essential in the child’s development. Parental control contributes to instil moral virtues in a child, which he grows to mature while to recognize. From a research, psychologists argue that children that grow up under high control are more intelligent than those that grow in a less disciplined environment. This is true because disciplined children rarely waste time in unconstructive engagements; hence, they are more constructive in nature (Ginsberg, 1964, p.551).Ben is found in a family where he is the only child in their family. This has exposed ben to a lonely life. Because of the loneliness that he is undergoing, he suffers from increased mental thinking due to lack of business of friends to share with.
A lot of thought and quietness without a person to share with may amount to stress. A stressed person is prone to some illnesses such as low self-esteem; lack of appetite and poor performing habits is no someone to motivate him (Oxington, 2005, p.99). Systematic dealing of Ben’s loneliness life could help him. The remedy to a lonely life could be by providing a person with an interactive environment. Interactive environment social groups such as ball clubs, study groups, religious groups amongst the others. It is the responsibility of his parents to ensure that Ben interact with a peer group that impact positively to his life (Bierman, 2004, p. 178).
By integrating the cognitive behaviour, systematic and creative approaches in working with Ben, reliable model of solving psychological problem is realized. A model to solving a problem is said to be effective if it achieves its purpose in a way that it leaves no harm. A model also is said to be effective if it can achieve the target on which is set for without many struggles. An effective model is complex enough to reach all forms of psychological problems. From the case study we are provided with, parents to Ben think of visiting a psychiatrist to help them, solve the problem affecting their son. Ben bears the information that a psychiatrist would use to help Ben from his psychological problems. The parents can perform what the psychiatrist would perform only that they need technological skills to conduct it. Through systematic approach of psychology, parents ought to be trained on how to face and solve psychological problems facing Ben. Parental training is a systematic approach psychological treatment of problem solving techniques.
An integrated psychological model covers the whole range of therapeutic models and professionalism. Psychological treatment provision is a multi-professional and multi-agency endeavour. Psychiatrist, psychotherapists, psychologists, counsellors, nurses, social workers and many other organizations are involved all of whom need to communicate and coordinate effectively with one another. Psychological therapies are fundamental to primary mental health care and can make a highly significant contribution to the user satisfaction. Its recommendations are based on the range of well-established scientific evidence but also on professional consensus and views of service users (Feinstem & Kuumba, 2006, p. 249).
It would be a good idea to visit a psychiatrist on a psychological problem. One of the main characteristics of a managed counselling service is that it can be proactive in helping the psychological counselling and testing to conduct health needs assessments and implement the changes to services required, as a result of it (Hearley, 2012, p.107). In other words, if counselling is in the system it can be effective both clinically and organizationally.
However, paradoxically, if there is a lack of counselling services not even an embryonic condition for such, there is often an absence of knowledge at the strategic level about the basic principles of treatment. Psychology and counselling are different professions. Counselling service managers can equally lead the provision of integrated psychological therapy services in primary care or remain in parallel arm (Dorfman & hersen, 2001, p. 455). Although, there is professional difference between psychology and counselling, their main goal is almost the same. Psychiatrists are psychology professionals that help one restore his or her normal state of performance and perception of various issues.
It is important to note that Ben has engaged in some practices because of the impact from peers. Some practices such as drugs and substance abuse are adopted due to influence from other people. Ben has engaged in drug abuse to keep in touch with his friends, keeping away from them and not supporting would mean, unfriending them. Friends fill up the lives with joy, acceptability and self-confidence.
Friends are the source of motivation and power to lead a happy life, nevertheless friendship at time may be running. Ben and his friends engage themselves in drug abuse as a way of passing their leisure time. This bad practice results from efforts to keep friends. It is the mandate of the parents to observe the company of friends that Ben interact with and pass to him a word of advice if necessary. If the friendship is constructive, show parental support on it, if the friendship behaves kind it is destructive, the parents should immediately discourage it (Granot, 2005, p. 115).
By integrating different psychological methods, a design that is cost effective is achieved. The model is said to be cost effective if it is considerate in nature. Both the Ben’s parent and psychiatrist that are using the model should experience a mutual benefit from it. No party, either that seeks to help or the one that utilise the model to support should be in the worse side. The design is flexible enough if it is able to reach all the parties efficiently at their standards. Any matters arising during problem solving, should as well have their appropriate way of dealing with them. This is all that comprises of an efficient model (Cain, 1969, p.23).
Creativity borrows a lot from psychology. Cognitive psychologist tries to build up cognitive models of the information processing that goes on inside people’s mind. A cognitive model of the memory system would suggest that it has two main components, one for dealing with the information that we need to process now. This brain based psychology where psychiatrist tries to measure your brain level of adopting things. It is after this critical brain analysis that the psychologist gets to know how to approach Ben in different brain dealings (Sigston, 1996, p 103).
A clear strength of the cognitive behavioural therapy approach to depression is its grounding in cognitive theory of depression that has been subject to extensive empirical testing over several decades. This has brought the original theory into focus and led to important elaborations and changes (Luxmoore, 2006. P. 17). The cognitive model of depression that contextualizes cognitive behavioural therapy exemplifies the diathesis, stress approach to psychopathology. This is one of the best methods in dealing with stress, as searches for the reason of depression in an individual. Cognitive model tries to examine the sources of the stress to an individual after which it gathers information about on various solutions to the stress.
In the case study, Ben is face within a situation full of depression. The pressure on ben is because of the parental requirement from him that he struggles to reach. Another source of depression comes in where he tries to impress his friends at the expense of his morality. That does not close the list of Ben in terms of being stressed up; Ben is in a depression following poor academic performance in the class. Poor academic performance is caused by being not very serious with his class duties due to engagement in some unproductive activities. Cognitive behavioural approach would guide his parent to try to create a positive attitude in ben that would enable him have a positive attitude toward his undertakings.
Unhealthy social conduct amounts to a psychological problem. This could be dealt with by integrating the three approaches to psychology. An integrated model has all the appropriate ways in ensuring a well Ben’s psychological environment is maintained. By adopting an integrated model that combines the three approaches to solving psychological problems affecting Ben, an efficient way of tackling with social misconducts is realized. It is very vital to note that for a goal to be achieved effort must be made. In solving Ben’s psychological problem, it is very important to create a conducive environment for implementing measures to solve the problem.
Creation of a good environment is achieved by equipping oneself with the entire facts amount to the source of psychological problems. It is also appropriate to approach Ben wisely. Every person does not want be seen as problematic even he or she is in a problem. One best method of creating a conducive environment in Ben is by showing him how importance he is. Once Ben is told about his necessity in the society, it becomes very easily to attack him. By attacking Ben, it means to put effort in counselling or executing the most appropriate measure in solving the psychological problem affecting Ben. For an objective to be achieved, there is should a mechanism to achieve the goal. This mechanism comprises of the method to follow in reaching the solution of the problem.
By integrating approaches to understanding psychological matters, it creates effective models in solving psychological problems that affect Ben. It is easy to approach Ben for correction than an adult. Young people are quick learners and hence, they grasp things at a higher level as compared to the older ones. When it comes to parental guidance, use of disciplinary measures that are fierce is also encouraged; some children and young people are very naughty to change from a bad behaviour. In such a situation, a parent is advice to put into measures things as punishment in controlling the behaviour of their children (Morgan, 1991, p.113). Through correcting children by punishment, they learn faster on how to avoid such a mistake again, unlike just by a mere word of mouth. Due to fear of undergoing punishment, it would very hard for Ben to repeat the same mistake.
The usefulness of integrating cognitive behavioural, systematic and creative approaches in working with Ben to build a coherent intervention has a great contribution in improving his life. It tries to come up with different and effective approaches to deal with psychological problems affecting Ben. Nevertheless, improved models of dealing with psychological problems may fail at times; this is because some psychological problems have some source in biological development of a person. As a young person develops, especially in adolescent, he may develop another psychological problem such as pride that is very hard to deal within integrated cognitive behavioural, systematic and creative approaches.
The growth of cognitive behavioural perspective reflects the impact of a more generally cognitive view of psychology. The cognitive approach focuses on how our behaviour is affect, by the way, in which we take in, mentally represent, process, and store information. Psychologists who take a cognitive approach suggest that there be several ways, in which children learn to be aggressive. Children may see others being reward for acting aggressively and then might be rewarded themselves for doing the same.
Aggressiveness might also be more likely if a child constantly hears that other people can be dangerous and that aggression is the only way to deal with threats, disagreements and another conflict situation. In dealing with the emotional problems affecting Ben, it will be vital to try to examine his logical understanding of the issues; this would help to try change Ben’s way of perceiving an understanding some life aggregate issues (Ashworth, 2000, p.253).
Cognitive approach in solving a mental problem has a significant contribution in decision. It could help Ben change a negative mentality to a positive and composed mind. Psychologist who takes a cognitive approach suggests that mental processes help us to understand many kinds of individual and social behaviours, from decision-making and problem solving to interpersonal attraction and intelligence. The cognitive approach is especially important in the field of cognitive science, in which researchers from psychology and philosophy study intelligent systems in the human (Gallagler, 2011, p 13). Generally, cognitive approach refers to those therapeutic techniques aiming to change or modify Ben’s thoughts or beliefs. Beliefs are assumptions about life values that a person creates.
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