Treaty of Waitangi Essay

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Treaty of Waitangi Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 763

  • Pages: 3

Treaty of Waitangi

The treaty of Waitangi is a formal agreement between two states or sovereign powers. It was signed on the 6th February 1845 and there were 512 signatories. Michael King suggested that politics and economics were intertwined in the 19th century. NZ and this situation can be highlighted when examining the causes for the signing of the treaty of Waitangi, this included Lawlessness, the roles of the humanitarians, fear of French , the role of Busby and also the NZ company. The consequences of the signing can be separated more clearly through an emphasis on the issue of sovereignty (politics) in the short term and concentrated on the bay of islands as colonisation increased back in the late 1800’s. The long term impact of the signing of the treaty can be best seen through the issue of land (economic) impacting on wider NZ. One long term consequence of the treaty of Waitangi is lawlessness; this is one of the most significant causes because there were heavy concern about the activities of the settlers, whalers, sealers and traders.

The British colonial office was worried about their inability to control their subjects from Sydney let alone the other side of the world and the effect it was having on their imperial image. An example of this is the Elizabeth affair in 1830 Terauapahau hired captain Stewart to sail some of his Ngati toa chiefs to surprise attack on Ngai tahu in banks pensuila , they succeeded , but then Ngai tahu turned to British legal system to sort it out. Attempts to have steward tried in a NSW court highlighted Britain’s inability to control its citizens in relation with Maori. Reports were exaggerated by missionaries which lead them to how the humanitarians reacted. The humanitarians pressured the colonial office in London to control the impact of lawlessness and disease on Maori, highlighting the need of annexation. Another short term political cause of the treaty of Waitangi was the fear of French and the role of busby . In 1722 when Du fresne was killed on his ship the LA favourite appeared over 50 years later in NZ sparking further fears of French. This was kindled by the CMS who feared the French and the French Catholics as rivals in the conversion of the Maori. Barrion de theirry threatened to set up French colony in NZ and proclaimed himself king of sovereign chief meaning he had political power.

This then caused Britain to be worried as their use of New Zealand’s resources was jeopardized. In response Busby sent to act as British resident 1833, his job was to enforce law and protect Maori however he failed to do so due to lack of military and financial support, he was then known as the “man o war without gun” by Nga puhi. British then disrespected him and to the Maori he has no Mana. Because of this he was attacked by some nga puhi at his house at Waitangi but no other chief would help him. In response Busby drew up declaration of independence 1835 to eliminate threat posed by de Thierry which was signed by 35 northern chiefs. Maori were recognised as independent people and therefore New Zealand an independent nation. Another short term economic cause of the signing of the treaty of Waitangi was the NZ Company. The NZC under Edward Gibbon wakefield was organising large scale settlement in NZ and dispatched the ship TORY with a number of settlers on board that had bought land from settlement plans in England. There was a lot of concern about the legality of their purchases and the impact many more settlers would have. As British intervention became more likely at the end of the 1830’s, there was a sudden rush in large scale land purchases especially from NSW the claim of NZC to 20 million acres. Maori were pressured into flimsy deals for large areas.

It was also debateable whether Maori viewed land transactions the same way as Europeans. The British government felt a head to protect its investment and prevent conflict which might occur as a result of land transactions. An example of this is when Baron de Thierry claimed he bought the land , Maori thought otherwise ( one of may dubious land deals). Therefore this was the third most important cause to the signing of the treaty. Its impact was limited however it speed up the signing of the treaty as its incoming immigrants gave the treaty process a deadline.

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Treaty of Waitangi Essay

Facebooktwittergoogle_plusredditpinterestlinkedinmail
Treaty of Waitangi Essay
Rate this post

  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 659

  • Pages: 3

Treaty of Waitangi

With the relocation of the colonial capital to Auckland, the increased prices of goods and the course of trade reduced, many chiefs suffered economically. The Crown was held from their exclusive right of land purchase to satisfy the northern chiefs who didn’t want any restrictions on who they dealt with. The Pakeha and the Maori both had different interpretations of what the treaty meant which led to disagreements and confusion. When the government got involved with Maori affairs, many Maori chiefs and tribes became upset.

Hone Heke and Te Ruki Kawiti began to rebel again the British, writing letters however as that did not stop the British interfering, they cut down the British flag pole to make a stronger point. Hone Heke did this three times before Governor Fitzroy placed soldiers around the area. Some Maori aided the British troops as fighting broke out between the British and the Maori. Heke’s action threatened the basis of FitzRoy’s authority and settlers urged him to take a firmer stand with the Maori. Heke allied with Kawiti so they could have a stronger force.

The flagpole in Russell was cut down four times between 1844 and 1845 as a consequence of the British settling there and as Heke saw it as a symbol that Maori had lost their status and the British ruled the country. This was a way to get a strong point across to Pakeha without affecting settlers or the economy. Heke ordered Te Haratua to cut the flagstaff down as he did not want to break his promise with Henry Williams. FitzRoy sent troops from New South Wales and set up a meeting with Maori chiefs. Heke did not go but the other chiefs promised to keep an eye on him in return for the meaning to be removed of his actions.

FitzRoy agreed and removed customs duties for all ports, replacing it with a property tax. The flag was put back up and the troops sent back. Heke called for united action as tribesmen began attacks. Heke gave Kawiti a greenstone smeared with his faeces to represent what the Maori felt they were being treated like. The township was burnt down and looted, leaving only the churches to remain the same and residents were evacuated to Auckland. In January an announcement was made in both languages offering a reward for Hone Heke’s arrest. Maori defensive enabled them to beat the British troops, making them victorious as the British withdrew.

In 1845 British troops and their Maori allies fought against Maori. The British were victorious and the Maori accepted the fact that the British has authority in Aotearoa. In 1846, the British government instructed that all Maori landownership was to be registered; land deemed to be unused or surplus was to become Crown land. Bases were essential for water and other supplies on dry land. Whalers favoured the shores of the Bay of Islands as they were warm and lush. Maori use of firearms in tribal battles resulted in many more deaths. This along with the whalers’ indulgences brought pressure for an extension of British government.

France’s interest in the country added an incentive, leading to the appointment of a resident, James Busby. He was quite powerless to make improvement in the state of affairs. Captain William Hobson was appointed for stronger actions. He introduced and finalised the Treaty of Waitangi with as many Maori chiefs that could persuade to sign. No one’s land would be secure unless it received Crown’s agreement. British reports were very biased and made it seem like they had taken on a much bigger battle, multiplying the amount of Maori warriors, wounds and deaths. The British command was blamed for total inability to do something successfully.

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