Total quality management Essay

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Total quality management Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1439

  • Pages: 6

Total quality management

1. What is total quality management

1.1 Total
1.2 Quality
1.3 Management

2. Primary elements of Total Quality Management

2.1.Commitment
2.2.Control
2.3.Customer focus
2.4.Communication
2.5. Continuous improvement
2.6.Cooperation

3. How information system improved Total Quality Management

3.1 Reduced cycle time and simplify the process
3.2 Benchmark
3.3 Use customer demands
3.4

ABSTRACT

In recent years, studies have shown that the method of total quality management can improve the performance of a Project manager. The purpose of this paper is to further define the meaning of total quality management by evaluating the 6 concepts of

TQM . The 6 elements of TQM are : 1) Commitment, 2) Control, 3) Customer focus, 4) Communication, 5) Continuous improvement, and 6) Cooperation. Then the role of the Information system in improving the total quality management will be explained. The final point to be addressed would be how Project managers would benefit from the utilization of TQM as well as how TQM will bring benefits for the whole organization.

1.What is Total Quality Management: In order to further define TQM, it is relevant to define each word separately:

1.1 Total: TQM involves the whole organization, supply, product’s life cycle.

1.2 Quality: TQM enquires a high degree of the quality of products or services.

1.3 Management: The steps of TQM include organizing, planning controlling…

Total quality management (TQM) makes quality the responsibility of all people and functions within an organization. In a TQM effort, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they are employed. In short, the definition says “continuously meeting agreed customer requirements at the lowest cost by realizing the potential of all employees”. Lauden ( 2013, p.93 ) says ‘TQM holds that the achievement of quality control is an end in itself. Everyone is expected to contribute to the overall improvement of the quality- the engineer who avoids design errors, the production worker who spots defects, the sales representative who presents the products properly to the customers, and even the secretary who avoids typing mistakes.’

2. PRIMARY ELEMENTS OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT:

The primary elements of TQM are Commitment, Control, Customer focus, Communication, and Continuous improvement, Cooperation, which are known as the six C’s of TQM. (James, 2012) Commitment: Commitment can be defined as Total employee Involvement. When fear has been driven from the work place, when empowerment has occurred. All employees participate in working hard toward common goals and being committed to their responsibilities. Commitment is an important fact in the business world as Francois de La Rochefocauld stated, “ When work, COMMITMENT, and pleasure all become one and you reach that deep well where passion lives, nothing is impossible” Control: the definition is influence or authority over (someone or something). In the organization, Control is a way in which IT managers are able to measure and check processes within various ongoing projects. Points to consider when properly implementing the element of control are : 1) When to inspect? 2. How often to inspect? 3. How much to inspect? Maintaining control is an important function as it helps to check for errors and to take corrective actions when errors are discovered. Customer focus: Nowadays, customer satisfaction as well as customer expectations play a significant role in the success of the business.

The customer ultimately determines the level of quality of product and service. Throughout his article (James, 2012) introduced four ways to improve customer focus : 1.constantly gathering information, 2. Get embedded in their strategy, 3. Emphasize customer retention, 4. Debrief after customer engagements. Communication: During times of organizational change, as well as part of day-to- day operations, effective communication plays a large part in not only maintaining morale but also in motivating employees at all levels. A strong management group will use various methods, strategies, and timelines to communicate with employees and stake- holders for better results in their operations. By planning monthly meetings, kick-off meetings, creating different charters, and WBS communicating with employees, sponsors and stakeholders is more effectively. Continuous Improvement: It’s important for organizations to continually improve their processes. It is a manager’s goal to continually improve processes by using continual process measurement , analyzing , defining, and controlling to be both analytical and creative in finding ways to be more successful and effective in meeting stakeholders expectations. Cooperation: Every successful manager has a strong relationship with his/her employees. It is the Project manager’s role to provide an effective team building environment and try to align team work with enterprise goals.

3. HOW INFORMATION SYSTEMS IMPROVE TQM

Here is a short summary of his ideas:

1.3.1. Reduce cycle time and simplify the production process: Lauden explains that by the help of various Information Systems, the processes have shorter cycle times. This means that problems are caught earlier in the process, often even before the production of product or service is completed. Recent Information Systems are helpful in finding ways to simplify production steps. The fewer steps involved in the process, the less time and opportunity there is for an error to occur. 1.3.2. Benchmark: when companies set a standard for products, services, and other activities, it is easier for managers to handle the huge workload. Standardization helps companies face less complexity in their operations.1.3.3. Use Customer Demands to Improve Products and Services Improving customer service, meeting customer expectations, and making customer service the number one priority will also improve the total quality management in organizations. 1.3.4. Improve Production Precision and Tighten Production Tolerances When the production process is more precise, additional time and money will be saved throughout the organization. As a result, the total quality of products and services will improve dramatically.

4. What are TQM profits for organization and How Project Managers take advantage of TQM

TQM reduces the life cycle of operations and as a result, a greater number of errors will be caught faster, enabling management to respond to the environmental changes in a more expedited fashion.

TQM brings higher productivity and profitability in Organizations. This leads to more of the companies budget to be allocated for other project investments in order to enroll in potential projects.

TQM improves customer focus, which is an important task for Project management to improve enterprise organizational development. TQM helps Project managers provide an essential frame work in which to train the team members with the needed skills to meet and exceed customer expectations.

TQM enhances shareholder and stakeholders value, which is an essential component for project managers to be successful in their projects . Every unique project needs the support and cooperation of internal and external stakeholders to meet the project’s goals and scopes.

How project managers can implement TQM efficiently

CONCLUSION

Total Quality Management is an important task in organization’s processes. Commitment, Communication, Control, Customer focus, Continuous improvement, and Cooperation are the six parts of TQM. Different Information Systems play a main role in improving TQM by reducing process time cycle, standardization, customer demands, and more precise production process. IT Managers can take advantage of TQM in improving organizational development, enhancing shareholders value, and align the IT system with enterprise strategies by higher productivity and profitability more efficiently.

REFERENCES:

1. Laudon, K. (2013). Essentials of managment information systems. (10th ed., p93). New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. 2. James, G. (2012, November 06). Be customer-focused: 4 basic tactics. Inc, Retrieved from http://www.inc.com/geoffrey-james/be-customer-focused-4-basic- tactics.html

3. Dale, B.G. and Plunkett, J.J., Quality Costing, Chapman and Hall, London, 1991. 4. Dale, B. G., & Cooper, C. L. (1994). The role of senior management. Management Decision , 32, 20-26. 5. Laudon, K. (2013). Essentials of managment information systems. (10th ed., pp.95). New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. 6. Dahlgaard-park, S. M. (2009). total quality management journal. Quality control. Quality assurance. Production management., 20(2), DOI: 10.110817542730810857345

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 194

  • Pages: 1

Total Quality Management

Quality has become a significant element among the competitive factors in the operations system. Quality is now recognized as a powerful strategic weapon, enables the organization to continually sustain in a global competition.

Quality can improve operation management by emphasizing the operation management to focus on producing product that is fit for the purpose of the users, based on Juran’s view of quality. The issues of quality is defined by Deming as to produce product that is satisfy to the needs of customers, who plays an essence role in production system. To meet both of the issues of quality, operation management may employ Quality Function Deployment, which is part of the Company Wide Quality Control in Japan under a strict Japanese Industrial Standard, and is refer as the “voice of the customers” used to translate customers’ expectations in term of specific requirements, into instructions on how a product should be developed. Dr Mizuno, the Professor of Tokyo created the QFD system and was first applied in Mitsubishi, Heavy Industries, Ltd, in Kobe Shipyard, Japan in 1972.(Yoji Akao, 1990).

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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1108

  • Pages: 4

Total Quality Management

In today’s world of globalization the need for total quality management is an important aspect of any organization remaining competitive. This paper will define quality management as well as include a description of the impact of globalization on quality as well as compare and contrast traditional management styles with quality focused management styles. Lastly, this paper will explain how total quality management (TQM) applies of should apply to the Public Schools.

Ross J.E. (1999) defines total quality management as “the integration of all functions and processes within an organization in order achieve continuous improvement of the quality of goods and services the goal is customer satisfaction” (p. 1). The various functions within an organization that contribute to the continuous improvement of products and services include; marketing, finance, design, and customer service. These elements contribute to an organization standing out among the various competitors locally and globally.

Organizations want to retain and recruit customers and in order to do this the organization needs to create a strategy who is customer focused. According to Burrill and Ledolter (1999), “customers want quality, and to satisfy this want, organizations must provide customer-driven quality” (p. 8). Customers expect to receive a product that lives up to the advertising of this product or service. This has created a need for organizations to not only create a quality product or service but to also persuade consumers that their products are of the best quality.

How Globalization Impacts Total Quality Management In today’s age of increased competition due to globalization, organizations have to increase the quality of its products and services as well as its customer service. According to Godfrey (2000), “globalization affects quality in many ways. Some of the most noticeable are people’s rising expectations and their demand for products and services of equal quality to what they see others receiving” (p. 1). The use of the internet and media coverage has given consumers more knowledge than in the past and with this knowledge comes the desire to have a particular product or service.

Globalization has also created a need for ISO 9000, which helps to support superiority in manufacturing at all levels of production. The ISO 9000 has set principles that allow an organization to sustain quality as well as to find solutions to rectify problems that may occur. Managers can also collaborate with suppliers to ensure that the company is creating a quality product by ensuring that supplies that are ordered are of quality.

Another aspect that globalization has affected Total Quality Management is the need for the organization to respond to the rapidly changing demands of consumers. Organizations need to develop a strategy that allows them to be flexible by limiting stock that is on hand and maintain a steady stock level without having too much or too little on hand.

Management Styles Total quality management has changed the way organizations view management roles. The traditional management style was more concerned with the internal workings of the organization and focused on creating quality products and services for the consumer. Total quality management focuses on how to please the customer rather than how to produce a product or service.

According to Lean Manufacturing Concepts (2006), “one of the major differences between total quality management and traditional management styles is the assignment of the responsibility of the quality to the management. Especially responsibility of the quality goes into middle management in the operational level” (p. 1). The consumer and not necessarily the workers within the production plant determine the quality of a product.

While traditional management styles is based on management styles and not around team work, total quality management is based on team work and the unity of all individuals within an organization (Lean Manufacturing Concepts, 2006). This unity creates a team environment in which the input from employees and management helps to create a strategy that will allow for continuous improvements.

How TQM Applies to the mortgage industry as a whole has taken a worst for the turn in recent months. The author was recently laid off due to the ripple affects of the mortgage industry; however, the need for total quality management is essential to the way in lending practices is received within the community. According to Weaver (1992), “Customers can be either internal or external to an organization. Just as a customer is the person buying a product in a store, an employee is the customer of management. By removing barriers between departments will create a more unified organization.

While total quality management is not used throughout the industry, in order to continue the practice of lending money to purchase a home TQM needs to play a vital role in the coming years. TQM should be used to help the borrower find ways to purchase a home. TQM needs to set the standards of lending institutions in order to move forward in this very volatile market. TQM should also be used to establish ways in which an incentive is given to current borrowers in these times of hardship.

Conclusion

The main objective of TQM is to keep consumers content by providing high quality products and services. This requires an organization to use employees and customers in the decision-making process and giving employees the tools and knowledge to correct problems when they arise. While no two organizations are exactly alike, the need for TQM practices is not only vital but an important part of creating a quality product or service that will help the organization remain competitive in today’s global environment.

References

Burrill, C.W., & Ledolter, J. (1999). “Achieving Quality through Continual Improvement”. 1e, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Godfrey, A.B. (2000). “Global Quality” Quality trends affect businesses around the world. Electronic document, retrieved on September 13, 2007 from:http://www.qualitydigest.com/jan01/html/godfrey.htmlManufacturing Concepts (2006). “Total Quality Management vs. Traditional Management Styles”. Electronic document retrieved on September 13, 2007 from: http://www.leanmanufacturingconcepts.com/TQMVsTraditionalManagementStyle.htmRoss, J.E. (1999). “Total Quality Management: Text, Cases, and Readings”. Third Edition. CRC Press, 1999.

Weaver, T. (1992) “Total Quality Management” ERC Digest, Number 73. Electronic document, retrieved September 13, 2007 from:http://www.ericdigests.org/1992-2/total.htm

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1534

  • Pages: 6

Total Quality Management

TQM or Total Quality Management it is a business philosophy through which the appropriate strategy, processes, training, motivation, commitment, tools and resources leads to the success of the company, which is resulting in full satisfaction of the customer. Total quality management is also described as an integrated organizational effort designed to improve quality at every level. Motto of TQM is continuous improvement of operations. TQM focuses not only just on quality but also on long, medium or short term process which can improve efficiency of an organization’s business while reducing or eliminating any wasteful processes.

Considering the practices of TQM as discussed in six empirical studies researchers identified the nine common TQM practices as cross-functional product design, process management, supplier quality management, customer involvement, information and feedback, committed leadership, strategic planning, cross-functional training, and employee involvement TQM involves everyone in the organization and includes its every function: administration, communications, distribution, manufacturing, marketing, planning, training, etc. n order to meet or exceed customer expectations. The methodology for getting TQM implemented is motivation and seeking to satisfy the internal and external customers and to continuously improve process by working smarter and using special quality methods. There are two types of customer, internal and external. Internal customer can be someone within the organization for example someone at customer service or any staff employed by the company. It is someone who helps the organization serve the end customer.

The external customer is someone who isn’t part of organization; it is someone who receives service or product from it. They have choice and if they don’t like the product or service they take the business elsewhere and they can find another company that offers better product or services. When customer was promised delivery of goods at specific and the delivery was late because of the problems in production, it will automatically lead to unsatisfied customer which might not want to use the company’s service anymore. External customer looses trust because nternal customer isn’t providing the accurate information. TQM is engaged with ensuring excellent level of service to the customers hence its application improves customer retention and profitability of business. The two primary objectives in Total Quality Management are zero defects and 100% customer satisfaction. Zero defects mean that everyone should do things right first time. This phrase was coined by Philip Crosby in his 1979 book titled ‘Quality is free’. [i] The idea is that by with a philosophy of zero defects you can improve quality and reduce cost.

To allow this to happen, a process, method or system of working has to be established which will ensure achievement of zero defects. Customer satisfaction refers to extent to which customers are happy with their products and services provided by business. Customer satisfaction levels can be measured by doing questionnaires survey or by asking them personally. The most common method for collecting information if customer is happy with service they get is survey which very brief, few questions taking no longer than few minutes.

Gathered information is very helpful, it tells us what customers like, what they want and need and based on this information organization can improve their service and quality. The main principles of Total Quality Management are: • Prevention – Prevention is better than the cure. In the long run, it is less costly to identify risks related to production and mitigate them than pay for rework • Zero Defects – The aim is no (zero) defects. Getting things right first time – Ensure the highest level of compliance with processes and procedures leading to excellent product or service quality • Quality involves everyone – Quality is not just the concern, it involves everyone within the organization • Continuous improvement – Business should always be looking for ways to help and improve quality • Employee involvement – Those involved in production and operations have a vital role to play in improvement for quality and in identifying quality problems. [ii]

According to TQM a quality product comes from a quality process. This means that quality should be built into the process. Quality at the source is the belief that it is far better to uncover the source of quality problems and correct it than to discard defective items after production. If the source of the problem is not corrected, the problem will continue. Total Quality Management is essential for companies seeking to provide quality goods and services to their customers. The end result is that they will enjoy long term growth.

In order to compete in global economy, our products, systems and services must be of a higher quality than our competition. Increasing Quality is the priority which every organization is following to achieve the goal. There are many methods for quality improvement; examples of them are Six Sigma and Lean. These cover product improvement, process improvement and people based improvement. World-class organizations such as General Electric and Motorola attribute their success to having one of the best quality management programs in the world. These companies were some of the ? st to implement Six Sigma, where the level of defects is reduced to approximately 3. 4 parts per million.

To achieve this, everyone in the company is trained in quality. Quality affects all aspects of the organization and has dramatic cost implications. The most obvious consequence occurs when poor quality creates dissatis? ed customers and eventually leads to loss of business. However, quality has many other costs, which can be divided into two categories. The ? rst category consists of costs necessary for achieving high quality, which are called quality control costs.

These are of two types: prevention costs and appraisal costs. The second category consists of the cost consequences of poor quality, which are called quality failure costs. Part of the TQM philosophy is to empower all employees to seek out quality problems and correct them. With the old concept of quality, employees were afraid to identify problems for fear that they would be reprimanded. Often poor quality was passed on to someone else, in order to make it “someone else’s problem. ” The new concept of quality, TQM, provides incentives for employees to identify quality problems.

Employees are rewarded for uncovering quality problems, not punished. Workers are empowered to make decisions relative to quality in the production process. They are considered a vital element of the effort to achieve high quality. Their contributions are highly valued, and their suggestions are implemented. In order to perform this function, employees are given continual and extensive training in quality measurement tools, ie Black Belt training in Six Sigma. Total Quality Management tools and techniques are a subject of research and various theories for past 60 years.

These tools and techniques are used to identify the potential problems, frequency of their occurrences, and method to control these problems and to adopt world best class practices. It is estimated that more than 100 TQM tools are being used so far. But in different books, different tools are described. Following are some of the most commonly used tools and techniques:

• Benchmarking is method of comparing company’s practices with the practices of best in class organization in the areas of quality, productivity, Human Resources and cost etc. Total productive Maintenance (TPM) is a new way of carrying maintenance activities and invented by Japanese. • Brainstorming is method of looking for problem solution by a group of people. • Quality Management System (ISO 9001) is set of standards for Quality Management system for any organization by International Organization for Standardization (ISO). • Kaizen is a Japanese tool for small but incremental changes in daily business life. In current business environment Kaizen would be defined as continuous improvement blitz event.

Statistics tools like (among others): Pie Chart and Bar Graph, Histogram, Pareto Analysis, Cause & Effect/Fish Bone/Ishikawa Diagram, Flow Charts/Flow Diagram, Scatter Diagram, Plan Do Check Act (PDCA). [iii] In conclusion Total Quality Management is a powerful tool that is designed to make an organization faster, flexible, focused, and friendly. It leads to a structured system that focuses each employee on the customer. It encourages teamwork which creates a better product or service. It creates an environment that allows organization-wide participation in planning and implementing a continuous improvement process to meet customer needs.

The concept of TQM can be expressed as achieving success through delighting our customers. The decision to implement total quality management concepts throughout the company is strategic in nature. It sets the direction for the ? rm and the level of commitment. Virtually every aspect of the operations function must change to support the commitment toward total quality management. Successful companies understand the powerful impact customer-de? ned quality can have on business. For this reason many competitive ? rms continually increase their quality standards.

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 586

  • Pages: 2

Total Quality Management

1..A committed and involved management to provide long-term top-to-bottom organizational support. 2.Unwavering focus on the customer, both internally and externally. 3.Effective involvement and utilization of the entire work force. 4.Continuous improvement of the business and production process 5.Treating suppliers as partners. 6.Establish performance measures for the process.

These concepts outline an excellent way to operate a business organization:

1. Management must participate in the quality program. A Quality Council must be organized to develop a clear vision, set long-term goals, and direct the program. Quality goals are included in the business plan. An annual quality improvement program is organized and includes input from the entire work force. Managers participate in the quality improvement teams and also act as advisers to other teams. TQM is a continual activity that must be inculcated in the organizational culture – it is not just a one-shot program. TQM must be known and communicated to all workers.

2. The key to an effective TQM program must be directed to customer satisfaction. The best way to start is by satisfying customers. We must always listen to the “voice of the customer” and emphasize design quality and defect prevention. Does it right the first time and every time, for customer satisfaction is the most important commitment.

3. TQM is an organization-wide challenge that is everyone’s responsibility. All workers must be trained in TQM, Statistical Process Control (SPC), and other appropriate quality improvement skills so they can effectively participate in project teams. Including internal customers and, for that matter, internal suppliers in project teams are excellent approach. Those affected by the plan must be involved in its development and implementation. They should understand the process better than anyone else. Changing behavior is the goal. People must come to work not only to their jobs but also to think about how to improve their jobs. Personnel must be empowered to perform processes in an optimum manner at the lowest possible level.

4. There must be continuous improvement of all business and production process. Quality improvement projects, such as on-time delivery, order entry efficiency, billing error rate, customer satisfaction, scrap reduction, and supplier management, are good things to start. Technical techniques such as SPC, concurrent engineering, benchmarking, quality function development, ISO 9000, and Taguchi’s quality design are excellent for problem solving.

5. A partnering relationship rather than an adversarial one must be developed. Both parties have as much to gain or lose based on the success or failure of the product or services. The focus should be on quality and life cycle cost rather than price. Suppliers should be few in number so that true partnering can happen.

6. Performance measures such as uptime, percent nonconforming, absenteeism and customer satisfaction should be determined for each function area. These measures should be posted to everyone to see. Quantitative data are necessary to measure thecontinuous quality improvement output.

The purpose of TQM is to provide a quality product or service to customer, which will in turn, increase productivity and lower cost. With a higher quality product and service and lower price, competitive position in the market place will be enhanced. These series of events will allow the business organization to achieve the objectives of profit and growth with the great ease.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

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  • Words: 1250

  • Pages: 5

Total Quality Management

Concept of Leadership

Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Though there is no universal definition of leadership and indeed many books have been devoted to the topic of leadership, Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. James Mac Gregor Burns describes a leader as one who instills purposes, not one who controls by brute force. A leader strengthens and inspires the followers to accomplish shared goals.

So leadership requires an intuitive understanding of human nature- the basic needs, wants, and abilities of people. It helps leaders direct them on the right track. So leadership should be based on the following concepts: 1) People, paradoxically, need security and independence at the same time. 2) People are sensitive to external rewards and punishments and yet are also strongly self-motivated. 3) People like to hear a kind word of praise. Catch people doing something right. 4) People can process only a few facts at a time, thus, a leader needs to keep things simple. 5) People trust their gut reaction more than statistical data. 6) They distrust the leader’s rhetoric if the words are inconsistent with the leader’s actions.

Characteristics of Quality Leaders

There are 12 behaviors or characteristics that successful quality leaders demonstrate: – 1) They give priority attention to external and internal customers and their needs. Leaders place themselves into the customers’ shoes and service their needs from that perspective. They continually evaluate the customers’ changing requirements. 2) They empower, rather than control, their subordinates. Leaders have trust and confidence in the performance of their subordinates. They provide the resources, training and work environment to help subordinates do their jobs. However, the decision to accept responsibility lies with the individual. 3) They emphasize improvement rather than maintenance. Leaders use the phrase “If it isn’t perfect, improve it” rather than “If it isn’t broken, don’t fix it.” There is always room for improvement, even if the improvement is small. Major breakthroughs happen but it’s the little ones that keep the continuous process improvement on a positive track. 4) They emphasize prevention; “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” is certainly true.

It is also true that perfection can be the enemy of creativity. We can’t always wait until we have created the perfect product. There must be a balance between preventing problems and developing better but not the perfect one. 5) They encourage collaboration rather than competition. When functional areas, departments or work groups are in competition, they may find subtle ways of working against each other or withholding information. Instead, there must be collaboration among and within units. 6) They train and coach rather than direct and supervise. Leaders know that the development of the human resource is a necessity. As coaches, they help their subordinates learn to do a better job. 7) They learn from problems. When a problem exists, it is treated as an opportunity rather than something to be minimized or covered up. “What caused it?” and “How can we prevent it in future?” are the questions quality leaders ask.

8) They continually try to improve communications. Leaders continually disseminate information about the TQM effort. They make sure that TQM is not just a slogan. Communication is two way- ideas will be generated by people when leaders encourage them and act upon them. 9) They continually demonstrate their commitment to quality, that is; they just do what they have committed to do. They walk their talk- their actions, rather than their words. They let the quality statements be their decision making guide. 10) They choose the suppliers on the basis of quality, not price.

Suppliers are encouraged to participate on project teams and become involved. Leaders know that quality begins with quality materials and the true measure is the life cycle cost. 11) They establish organizational systems to support the quality effort. At the senior level, a quality council is provided, and at the first-line level, work groups and project teams are organized to improve the process. 12) They encourage and reorganize team effort. They encourage, provide recognition and reward individuals and teams. Leaders know that people like to hear that their contributions are appreciated and important. This action is one of the leader’s most powerful tools.

The Seven Habits of highly effective people:

Habit is an intersection of knowledge, skill and desire. Knowledge is what to do and the why; skill is the how to do; and desire is the motivation or want to do. In order for something to become a habit one must have all the three. Stephen R. Covey introduced “The Seven Habits”- a highly integrated approach that moves from dependency (you take care of me) to independence (I take care of myself) to interdependence (we can so something better together). The first three habits deal with independence- the essence of character growth. Habit 4, 5 and 6 deal with interdependence- teamwork, cooperation, and communication. Habit 7 is the habit of renewal. That’s why, these habits are necessary for leaders to be effective. Habit 1: Be Proactive

Being proactive means taking responsibility for your life- the ability to choose the response to a situation. Proactive behavior is a product of conscious choice based of values, rather than reactive behavior, which is based on feelings. Reactive people let circumstances tell them how to respond. On the other hand, proactive people let carefully thought-about, selected and internalized values tell them how to respond. It’s not what not what happens to us but our response that differentiates the two behaviors. No one can make you miserable unless you choose to let them. The language we use is a real indicator of our behavior. Comparisons are given in the table below:

Habit 2: Begin with the end in mind

The most fundamental application of this habit is to begin each day with an image, picture or paradigm of the end of life as the leader’s frame of reference. All things are created twice- there’s a mental or first creation and a physical or second creation all things. To build a house we first create a blueprint and then construct the actual house. If we want to have a successful organization, we begin with a plan that will produce the appropriate end; thus leadership is the first creation and management is the second. Leadership is doing the right thing and management is doing things right. In order to begin with the end in mind, leader should develop a personal philosophy like:-

* Never compromise with honesty
* Maintain a positive attitude
* Exercise daily
* Do not fear mistakes
* Read a leadership book daily

By centering our lives on correct principles, we create a solid foundation for a the development of the life supporting factors of security, guidance, wisdom and power. Principles are the fundamental truths. They are tightly interwoven threads running with exactness, consistency and strength through the fabric of life.

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1316

  • Pages: 5

Total Quality Management

To do this you will need to examine the standards that underpin the service or product, looking in particular at the extent to which:

  • They meet the expectations of the variety of customers ,service users and other stakeholders who need and value the service
  • The are understood and accepted by staff
  • They are realistic and achievable , and
  • There are systems in place for monitoring success and planning for improvement

“Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management approach that aims for long-term success by focusing on customer satisfaction. TQM is based on the participation of all members of an organization in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work”. According to “The Juran Institute”, “TQM is the set of management process and systems to create delighted customers through empowered employees, leading to higher revenue and lower cost.

     The quality of a product or service contain a number of elements, which each of them has a certain function that contributes to making the product fit for it is intend use. The theory is to work on the way of using the best feasible processes to offer the best possible products in order to generate the best possible customer satisfaction. Crosby, Deming, Feigenbaum, Ishikawa and Juran are the most significant gurus of the quality management movement. However, their approaches are not the same. The examination of Feigenbaum and Ishikawa has previously been considered but the focus of attention is now turned to Crosby, Deming and Juran.

Before starting evaluating the quality management of the service/product of our choice we have to examine the standards that underpin the service/product.

The main issue for a TQM is the Customer Satisfaction or else customer expectations.

Customer and supplier interface exist internally and externally. Commitment, communication and culture are the foundation of TQM and they are supported by the key functions of people, process and systems in the organisation. Customer-supplier relationships exist in every organisation. There are quality chains, and they can be broken at any point by one person who fails to meet the customer requirements. It is very vital, meeting customer expectations since a failure of that will create problems leading to chaotic situation.

Another core component of TQM is the staff commitment and leadership that will be developed through the empowerment of all the members. However, it must primarily start from the top with the leaders of the organisation and finish at the bottom with the last employee. A manager must demonstrate commitment to quality; make sure that he communicates the principles, strategies and benefits to the people that are under his span of control in order to gain the understanding and acceptance of the staff. “The quality required by customers should be translated into the language of internal needs and driven back through all levels in the organisational hierarchy.

It is important that the requirements are put it to terms that are measurable, realistic and achievable”. An organisation will be improved by setting an efficient quality management system which can be defined as “A set of co-ordinated activities to direct and control an organisation in order to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of its performance.” QMS allow the organizations to recognize measure, control and improve the range of main business procedures that will eventually lead to the improvement of business performance.

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies. ISO 9000:2000 series explains standards for a Quality Management System concentrate on the principles and procedures surrounding the design, development and release of a product or service. Organizations can take part in a systematic qualifications process to ISO 9001:2000 to show their fulfilment with the standard, which comprise a condition for continual development of the QMS.

ISO 9000:2000 give guidance on Quality principles and on the common language used by quality professionals.  And finally ISO 9004:2000 provides guidance on improvement methods.

Numerous organisations now consider that the only direction forward is Total Quality Management. In the second part of this assignment will assess the quality management of Marks and Spencer.

Marks & Spencer is a chain retailer. It opened its first shop in 1884 and by 1915 the company had constructed several stores and it has been growing fast ever since. Marks and Spencer begins with quality control, like any other large retailer and it quickly develops its quality control laboratories into research, development and design centres. Marks and Spencer is recognized by the high quality products. Their objective is to satisfy the majority of individuals by tempting advanced quality goods at attractive prices.

Mark and Spencer use total quality management and this goes further than quality guarantee. This is all about producing quality culture as a result each member of the staff look for delighting customers. TQM need the devotion of all the employees in terms of doing as much effort as they can in order to do the best in their jobs, increase the chance of the customer in what they want. In order to communicate this characteristic of quality, they encourage the thought of Internal Customers. That means that an employee has to see his colleagues he works with or for them as customers, that they must give the highest quality service.

In order to motivate personnel to offer such quality, employees are shown in training the significance of their own job in relation to the end product encouraging them to see themselves as a key link in the ‘quality chain’. Additionally, recruitment is made according the appropriate level of education, experience and more important of all aptitude. Through induction they gain knowledge about the company as a whole and the significance of their role in the organisation. Short training courses are also given to establish the ideas of TQM. To encourage each employee to contribute to Total Quality they might have also operate ‘Quality Circles’.

Even though when Marks & Spencer was Britain’s, and maybe the worldwide, most admired retail chain, it had some noticeable failures. One of this is the window-dressing that year after year fell obviously short of the best standards.

     In conclusion it has to be noted though that what one company consider as TQM possibly will differ greatly from another. What is accurate in all cases is that the pursuit of Total Quality is a difficult era but companies must continually seek to move forward in relation to ensuring quality, even if they are to remain at their current level of achievement.

 

REFERENCES:

  1. Lal (1990), Total Quality Management: A Practical Approach, New Age International (Page 1,229)
  2. Duffin(1995),  The shoulders of giants, Journal: The TQM Magazine, Volume 7,Issue 3,Page 26-27
  3. G. Dale, H. Bunney (1999), Total quality management, Wiley-Blackwell, Page 15

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 2676

  • Pages: 11

Total Quality Management

INTRODUCTION

The level of risk and uncertainties in operation of contemporary business requires that managers of businesses come up with unique decision-making that will bring about strategies, which their rivals would find difficult to imitate. This will position them in a vintage point of curving a niche over their competitors. Information technology is a useful tool that enhances the modeling process for business organization; which ensure effective decision making process.

Business intelligence tool in recent times have greatly assisted business organizations in fashioning out effective strategies that would position their organizations i9n meeting their objectives and goals by adequately utilizing its resources to cope with the environment they operate in. an organization need to carry out a vibrant, pragmatic and effective strategy for it to adequately compete in an industry with high dynamic level of ways of conducting business, and high level of uncertainties and risks. Thus, to have that strategy that would give the organization a niche over its rivals, business intelligence tools are used by reorganization in supporting their strategic planning and strategic management.

According to Vriens (2004), “Due to the increasing complexity and dynamics of the environment the need to produce relevant ‘actionable’ intelligence is increasing as well. Because, of, for instance, increased global competition, (speed and impact of) political changes, and rapid technological developments”. With the rapid changes and stiff competition the selection of the right business intelligent tool would go along way in bringing about effective strategic management which result in total quality management.

CONCEPTUALIZATION OF TERMS

Quality: According to Dale (2003: 4), the term    quality has no universally accepted definition. But it is usually associated with distinguishing one organization product, service, event, person, result, action or communication from another. “Internationally definition of quality is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements.” “It is also defined as that which gives complete consumers satisfaction.”  (Bert Dearborn Ltd, cited in Dale 2003)

USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AS BASIS FOR TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) WITHIN AN ORGANIZATION

TQM entails the delivery of quality in every process of organizational operations. Through information technology tools, which comprises of business intelligence tools, adequate planning is ensured, which result in quality delivery.

Business Intelligence tools, such as data mining, data warehousing, OLAP etc, support an organization in its strategic management plans. This, they do by providing the organization with the necessary data in which its strategic plans are based upon. Effective strategic management, which entails immediate strategic planning and long-term forecast plans, has to depend on the availability of vital information for it to adequately meet the organization’s objectives and goals. This information needed to support the strategic management of an organization is derived from the database provided by different business intelligence tools.

Database derived from business intelligence tools, such as Data Mining (DM), forms the bases on which strategic management information are derived for planning for an organization. According to Thearling (1995), “Database marketing supports a variety of business processes. It involves transforming a database into business decisions”. For building a new catalog for a retailing business, the historical database of customers would be utilized; this will include information on their location, zip code, sex, age etc. database marketing software would use this information to build a model of customer behavior that would generate a mailing list of customers most likely to respond to a new catalog.

The catalog built, would enable the marketing organization to strategize in line with the information derived from the data mining process. This goes to show that data mining business intelligence tool is a supporting tool for strategic planning and not a solution-proffering tool for business problem (ibid). The importance of generating vital information for effective decision making through the aid of business intelligence tool, is further buttressed by Vriens (2004), “To (re-) formulate their strategy; organizations need to collect and process information about their environment- about, for instance, competitors, customers, suppliers, governments, technological trends or ecological developments”.

FOUR STAGES OF TQM THAT IS OPERATED THROUGH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN AN ORGANIZATION

The aim of TQM in an organization is to bring about perfection in the processes of an organization. This perfection leads to qualitative service delivery, which results in the satisfaction of clients needs. There are four stages in the implementation of Total quality Management (TQM) for an organization. Information technology plays significant roles in the effective and efficient accomplishment of these four TQM stages.

The four identified stages to a successful implementation of TQM in an organisation include:

The diagnostic phase: under this phase the organisations seek to find out those ways and pattern it would operate in order to bring about the delivery of quality service to its customers. In TQM diagnostic stage, it is mostly focus in analytical thinking. Its strength is in developing simple problem-solving algorithms that can be easily disseminated for mass use.

Its Diagnostic methods are based on linear- cause-and-effect relationships. This makes TQM most effective in dealing with physical properties and the types of problems that can be isolated. The Diagnostic phase involves the setting out of questions that is vital in brining about a positive turn around in the quality state of products or services to the consumer. Diagnostic methods of TQM are based on linear- cause-and-effect relationships. This makes TQM most effective in dealing with physical properties and the types of problems that can be isolated.

The diagnostic phase in TQM has to with raising questions about those functional part of the organisation activity, that is not well carried out. Thus, solutions on how these observed problem are prescribed the planning stage of TQM has to do with the drawing out of ways in which the diagnosed problem and intended functions for improvement, how they would be carried out.Diagnostic methods of TQM are based on linear- cause-and-effect relationships.

This makes TQM most effective in dealing with physical properties and the types of problems that can be isolated. In this stage of TQM implementation those fundamental question can be diagnosed through business intelligent information tools, such as data mining, data warehousing. These business intelligient tools provide the data on which diagnoses could be applied on for effective planning. “Careful planning and goal setting during the diagnostic stage can overcome many of the problems of evaluation and institutionalization, especially where TQM is in place.

Diagnostic information can be obtained from observations, questionnaires, interviews, and records. This stands as a major source of deriving a useful tool in analyzing and seeing those sphere of the organizational activities where quality performance can be improved upon. Thus, vital questions are raised in this effect”. (Jamshid 2005).

Under this phase, decisions are made on those alternative that best suit the situation at hand. Also, decision on who should operate the different functions in the organization is decided upon and which material option is preferred to the other and that should be adopted. The importance of the diagnostic stage of TQM is that it is used in identifying problems and solving problems. Thus, it is very vital in the process of an organisation’s TQM implementation.

The next stage is the Planning stage in the TQM implementation. Planning consists of strategic planning and developing more short-term detailed plans. Thus, in the TQM planning stage, this involves a strategic plan on which course to take in implementing the company’s TQM, to make it a successful venture. Furthermore, according to Thomas (1995), TQM must be built into other systems, particularly those involving planning and rewards. Leaders should expect a long-term process, including a transition period. They will need to be persistent, using constant reinforcement, for example, through continuous training.

Cohen and Brand suggest that TQM should eventually be made an “invisible” part of the organization, permeating all areas and the responsibility of everyone. In the view of Nurre (2005), in the planning stage, managers make decisions concerning which alternatives should be selected. Financial information is often a vital component of this decision-making. Once the alternatives have been selected, detailed planning is possible.

These detailed plans are usually stated in the form of budgets. The control function of management is aided by performance reports that compare actual performance to the budget. This feedback mechanism directs attention to activities where managerial attention is needed. That data presented by information technology tools gives the decision maker the choice to make the right by choosing the most feasible and productive alternative.

The strategy preparation stage has to do with the identification and solving of quality issues by involving all management and supervision in a proper scheme of training and communication. Here, the organisation is oriented along the organisation’s move to bring about top quality in all its services, targets are set and these information are further relayed to subordinates to keep them abreast with the organisation strategy. The role of information technology comes to play in the area of information dissemination to top-level managers who are to partake in the implementation of the organization strategy on TQM. In addition, suggestions from the senior workers are welcome in drawing the strategy on which the organisation seeks to operate.

This is also derived by the proper utilization of information technology tools. TQM strategy preparation requires systematic changes in management practice, including the redesign of work, the redefinition of managerial roles, the redesign of organizational structures, the learning of new skills by employees at all levels, and the reorientation of organizational goals. These make all the organizational functions to be directed at bringing out the best quality as outcome in every stage of the organizational activities.  “The strategy is based as the systems concepts and structured around the business processes of an organization.

Such an approach makes the entire system documentation user-friendly and therefore easily implementable and upgradeable, in response to changing needs.” (Nandi, 2005). TQM’s strategy preparation stage, thus requires systematic changes in management practice, including the redesign of work, the redefinition of managerial roles, the redesign of organizational structures, the learning of new skills by employees at all levels, and the reorientation of organizational goals. It becomes very important in the TQM implementation because it gets the organization ready for the proper implementation of the TQM. Thus, this leads to the organization success.

The implementation stage is the carrying out of service or giving customer the quality product to meet their needs as they envisage it. Under this stage, everybody including the supplier and consumer are linked in the quality chain of the TQM of the organisation.

Current approaches to total quality implementation initially, when managers “do TQ” they tend to utilize exemplars specific to, and introduce bundles of activities primarily from, one mindset Many managers measure the success of their TQ implementation programmes in terms of increases in systems predictability, reductions in waste or system leakage, and improvements in system outputs per unit of input (Ibid). In this stage, there is the need to rely always on a control measure as a way of checking and preventing the TQM strategy from derailing and missing its target. Thus, statistical data need to be taken to see the satisfaction of clients from time to time. This information is derived from business intelligent tools.

CONCLUSION

The contribution of information technology to an organization strategic process is of great importance when such organization which to embrace total quality management. Through basic business intelligence tools like Data mining, Data warehousing, Online Analytical Processing (OLAP), Queries etc. the vital information needed for effective strategic planning is derived from databases.

Also, these tools give the organization the medium of transmitting its information across the organization. Data mining brings about those hidden information unknown to an organization to utilize this for its advantage, while Data warehouse through its software collate those redundant data in the organization’s database and formulate a database useful for its planning process.

The utilization of business intelligence tools requires that it is structured to suit the organization’s problem. Hence, it requires that a great understanding of an organization is known to the experts and practitioners of these business intelligence tools for it to be effective in aiding the organization in strategic drives in meeting its objectives and long term goals.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chopoorian, John A. et al (2001), “Mind Your Business by Mining Your Data” in SAM Advanced Management Journal Vol. 66, No. 2

Dale, B. (Ed.) (2003), Managing Quality 4th edition. Blackwell. Oxford.

Drucker, Peter (1969), The Age of Discontinuity: Guidelines to Our Changing Society, New York: Harper and Row.

Flynn, B.B. & Flynne, E. J. (1996), “Achieving Simultaneous Cost and Differentiation Competitive Advantage through Continuous Improvement: World Class manufacturing as a Competitive Strategy” in Journal of Managerial Issues. Vol. 8, No. 3

Jamshid Gharajedagi, (2005) “ Making TQM work for America: The interactive design approach” http://www.interactdesign.com/tqm.html (3/ 09/ 2005)

Jayamalini, G. (1999) “An Overview of TQM in Libraries” Documentation Research and Training Centre, Indian Statistical Institute January 6-8.

Morris, Foster (1994), “Regenerating Your TQM Effort: What to Do When It Runs out of Steam” in  The TQM Magazine, Vol. 06 Issue 4

Nandi,S.N. (2005) “TQM, benchmarking and Sips Division” http://www.npcindia.org/tqm.htm (4/09/2005)

Nurre, Rosemary (2005), “Introduction to management accounting” http://smccd.net/accounts/nurre/online/chtr1.html  (4/11/05)

Peter, J. Dowling, et al (2005), Strategic Management: Competition and Globalization (2nd Pacific Rim Edition)

Porter, E. Michael (1985), Competitive Advantage: creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. New York

Ringland, Gill (1998), Scenario Planning: Managing For the Future. London: John Wiley & Sons Limited

Ross, J.E. (1999), Total Quality Management: Text, cases and readings. Florida: St. Lucie Press, Boca Raton.

Sims, Ronald R. (2002), Organizational Success through Effective Human Resources Management. Westport, CT: Quorum Books

Thearling, Kurt (1995), “From Data Mining to Database Marketing” DIG White Paper. October http://www.thearling.com/text/wp9502/wp9502.htm (29/09/06)

Thomas, Packard, D.S.W (1995), “TQM And Organizational Change And Development” in Total Quality Management in the Social Services: Theory and Practice. Burton Gummer and Philip McCallion, Eds., Albany, NY: Rockefeller College Press.

Vriens, Dirk (2004), “The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Competitive Intelligence” University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands www.bi-kring.nl/bi-kring/community/partners/contentlev/abk/01chap.pdf (29/09

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  • University/College:
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  • Words: 2733

  • Pages: 11

Total Quality Management

Management of sustainable performance results is quite a challenging task and should be based on comprehensive, historic approach to performance improvement and management (prof Zairi, 2005) .For good results to be obtained by a company there are some tasks that its managers has to do, for example all the organization function need to be integrated putting emphasis on meeting customers needs and organization objectives.

An organization is supposed to be viewed as a collection process that should aim at improving the processes by integrating the knowledge and experience of workers. New production approaches require companies to apply the concept of total quality management in order to improve the production of goods and services, management and employees should work as a team in order to increase business production and reducing losses due to wasteful practices by applying quality and management tools (Smith, 1993)

Among the key principals or total quality management tools that ensure increased production in a business environment entail a number of factors. There is the management commitment. Under this principle the manager is charged with a responsibility of ensuring that the various activity in a business is properly planed (Gilbert, 1992), to realize organization objectives.

Employee empowered is another driver of performance and management controls in today’s business environment. Under employee empowerment factors such as training, suggestion scheme, measurement and recognition, and excellence teams should be considered (Ishikawa, 1985). All organization members need training in order to improve the results in the firm.

This is the responsibility of the supervisor charged with the responsibility of implementing total quality management (IQM) within the various departments (Rue and Byars, 2004). Some of the training that employees may need includes job management performance analysis and improvement, business economics, interpersonal skills, problem solving skills decision-making and ability to function without a team.

 Assessment tests should be done to measure effectiveness of training equipment to be used in delivering the training. Methods of training may include use of computers, video, classrooms or holding conference. When using these methods, the supervisors need to do assessment first to ensure effective training.

Employee empowerment may also include improving productivity for teams. Teamwork has become a big part of today’s workforce. (Mc Connell, 2002). Productivity in team can be improved through delegation and doing follow up. The supervisor when delegating duties should be aware of the team’s cultural backgrounds and experiences very well to help in assigning the right duty to the proper person.

Teamwork productivity is also brought through follow up. Follow up ensure that each team member is performing the task that is assigned to him or her. Jobs done by individuals in the teams should be checked at individual level and as a team. By doing this each member will feel satisfied, important and will likely perform his/her task effectively. These activities help in ensuring that the morale of the team is kept high.

Employee empowerment may also comprise of improving employee relations in the organization in order to increase the results (Martin, 1993). Good relationships are normally built in an organization to ensure that there is a positive contact between the supervisor and other company’s members. Positive contacts should be made on a daily basis to increase the employee’s self esteem. Holding regular meetings where the problems can be heard and addressed by the leaders can do this.

Use of rewards and positive reinforcement’s mechanism also empower employees. Any good work done by the workers should be rewarded. This will ensure increased production since employees will feel that their interests are well catered for. The management may also conduct performance appraisal to ensure that employees perform to their level best. The supervisor is therefore charged with the responsibility of checking the way jobs are done at the same time should look into the improvements required. By doing this, guidance on how production or performance can be improved should be done.

 While working in a team, employees feel more comfortable as their problems can be listened to possible solution can then be identified and put into place. Generally there are three types of teams that total quality management adopts (Hyde, 1992). The first team is concerned with quality improvement sometimes called quality excellence teams. This group is charged with the responsibility of dealing with specific problems that often reoccur in the production process. The team in most cases is recruited or appointed on temporally basis like a period of three months to one year.

The second group is the problem solving teams (PSTs), which are also appointed on temporary basis. The problems solving team is concerned with solving specific problems as well as identifying and preventing the causes of these problems. The last group comprise of a team consisting of small groups of skilled workers who perform most of the tasks and responsibilities using the concept like self-managing teams, employee involvement teams are and at times quality circles.

These people are normally referred to as Natural work teams (NWTs). What should be noted about teamwork is that it is the key element of total quality management. Organizations that apply the concept of total quality management have ended up realizing the best results so far. This is because teams have proved to provide permanent improvements in production processes and operations.

The concept of continuous improvement by total quality management is also one of the drivers of performance and management controls in today’s business environment. This comprise of good strategic planning, sound decision-making and detailed execution of work elements in the organization (Kavasseri, 1997). Areas that should be focused on the concept of continuous improvement include demand generation supply generation, technology use and operations and employee capability, which have been discussed.

All the system operating in an organization should be checked to ensure that unnecessary mistakes are avoided. Mistakes do happen during the production process but those brought by facility system can be prevented through inspection (Swiss, 1992). Changing the process that is the production system can prevent repetition of mistakes. Quality control is a matter of how best the goods produced meets the required standards. Continuous check up on the production process therefore is very important and this can be done by the use of various quality control charts used in class (Hill, 1991).

Managing transition is also a good indicator of improving performance and management controls in today’s business environment. According to Hodgetts (1993) there are five steps in managing transitions in order to improve production. The first step includes identification of the task to be done by the employees. Second one is creating the necessary management structures, developing strategies for building commitment, designing mechanisms to communicate the change and assigning resources. Task identification purposely is to study the present situation in order to come up with a system of which production can be improved.

This can be done through carrying out what is called field analysis. The current business environment requires organizations to shift from the traditional way of production to the modern way in order to satisfy the customers’ needs. When a change is to be introduced in the organization it is the responsibility of the top management to ensure that this is communicated in the right channel. The reasons why the change is being introduced should also be made clear to all departments in the organization. This will include assigning new responsibilities to different people and resources. Leaders should and must play a key role in designing transition management structures to ensure smooth transition (Smith, 1993)

Development of commitments strategies is also an approach that ensures improved performance and management controls in today’s business environment (Kavasseri, 1997). During the development of commitment strategies the manager needs to articulate the new vision of the future in order to ensure that organization members understand it. Ways of how the top management can come up with good strategies is by conducting what is called SWOT analysis. Through SWOT, the manager is able to identify the firm’s weaknesses, strengths, opportunities and threats from the environment.

The organizations vision should clearly spell out what the firm intends to achieve in general. Strategies on how to manage risks are also very important environmental analysis is therefore vital when developing the new strategies that will ensure improvement in production. The manager therefore should make a sound strategic decision by integrating the principles of strategic planning, strategic management and strategic learning. These are the engines of the vehicles needed to enable the change to occur and become institutionalized (Smith, 1993).

 During the development of strategies all the executives from various department should be consulted in order to ensure that no important element is left out when decision is made. This will work well especially when the change is to be communicated. Total quality management newsletter may be developed and passed to serve as a communication tool to make employees aware of their role and accomplishments.

Total quality managements towards improvements of production also deals with effective managements of resources- for the change process created by demands of new business environment. Those concerned with this task should have appropriate skills and knowledge to ensure that managements of human resources and financial resources are done effectively. All the employees in the organization should actively get involved in the change brought by the total quality management. The leadership styles and organization culture of various employees should match with the requirements of total quality management’s strategy (Guy, 1997).

            Effective communication is another driver of performance and managements control in today’s business environment. Soft communication simply makes things to be done well. In any building and construction process the quality of the concrete sued will determine the strength of the building. The same applies to the total quality management where performance and production will only be determined by the way communication is made in the organization.

Effective communication involves creating an environment of commonness with the person receiving the message. For total quality management to be successful communication should be made among all the organization members, suppliers and customers (Tichey, 1983). It is the responsibility of the supervisor of the organization to ensure that the information that is communicated to the members is full, accurate, timely and understandable in relation to the total quality management.

There are three different ways of communication in quality control. There is downward communication, upward communication and sideways communication. . Down ward communication is the most common one done through presentations and discussions. During discussion the supervisor is able to clarify various things to his employees about total quality management. Upward communication on other hand means advice is coming from the low level employees to their leaders at the top.

The employees communicate the various suggestions that can improve performance in total quality management. By doing this the employees feel that they are part of the organization through empowering communication. There is some trust between the employees and their supervisors. Sideways communication involves various departments. It is important because it removes any barrier that might exist between the total quality management departments. The three major quality departments comprises of suppliers, customers and organizational members. It therefore promotes the professional way of dealing with people.

Good leadership skills are also an element required in today’s business environment more so in total quality management. Generally leadership skills are required in all organization. In total quality management leadership demands that the manager should be one with some unique skills that will help the organization excel. For example the manager should provide an inspiring vision and strategic direction that is understandable to all organization members. The supervisor should understand the principles under which total quality management operates. He should believe in these principles and be committed to the daily practices of total quality management (TQM) (Guy, 1997).

It is the responsibility of the supervisor to ensure that the policies, strategies and objectives of the organization are met. The top management should therefore be committed to ensure appropriate values and goals are passed down throughout the organization to provide clarity and direction. The vision stated by the organization should be related to the objectives set.

The supervisor and the manger are therefore charged with the responsibility of ensuring that good strategies are formed that meets the demands of the business environment. The success of the business will depend on the way supervisor is committed in leading his employees. This is why leadership skills are very necessary in any organization

Conclusion

To ensure the success of total quality managements, the total quality management tools discussed above very important. It is the duty of the supervisor to ensure that all the elements in the organization starting from top to the bottom are properly integrated. Teamwork as earlier on said should be encouraged through carrying out the effective communication and use of leadership skills. Lack of communication between the departments and TQM members may interfere with the production process. Employees’ interest should also not be ignored meaning that they also form part of the production process or organization.

Above all it can be said that the success of the total quality management in an organization depends on how the supervisor and manager handles all the elements discovered.

 

 

 

 

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