University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Total quality management
1. What is total quality management
2. Primary elements of Total Quality Management
2.5. Continuous improvement
3. How information system improved Total Quality Management
3.1 Reduced cycle time and simplify the process
3.3 Use customer demands
In recent years, studies have shown that the method of total quality management can improve the performance of a Project manager. The purpose of this paper is to further define the meaning of total quality management by evaluating the 6 concepts of
TQM . The 6 elements of TQM are : 1) Commitment, 2) Control, 3) Customer focus, 4) Communication, 5) Continuous improvement, and 6) Cooperation. Then the role of the Information system in improving the total quality management will be explained. The final point to be addressed would be how Project managers would benefit from the utilization of TQM as well as how TQM will bring benefits for the whole organization.
1.What is Total Quality Management: In order to further define TQM, it is relevant to define each word separately:
1.1 Total: TQM involves the whole organization, supply, product’s life cycle.
1.2 Quality: TQM enquires a high degree of the quality of products or services.
1.3 Management: The steps of TQM include organizing, planning controlling…
Total quality management (TQM) makes quality the responsibility of all people and functions within an organization. In a TQM effort, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they are employed. In short, the definition says “continuously meeting agreed customer requirements at the lowest cost by realizing the potential of all employees”. Lauden ( 2013, p.93 ) says ‘TQM holds that the achievement of quality control is an end in itself. Everyone is expected to contribute to the overall improvement of the quality- the engineer who avoids design errors, the production worker who spots defects, the sales representative who presents the products properly to the customers, and even the secretary who avoids typing mistakes.’
2. PRIMARY ELEMENTS OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT:
The primary elements of TQM are Commitment, Control, Customer focus, Communication, and Continuous improvement, Cooperation, which are known as the six C’s of TQM. (James, 2012) Commitment: Commitment can be defined as Total employee Involvement. When fear has been driven from the work place, when empowerment has occurred. All employees participate in working hard toward common goals and being committed to their responsibilities. Commitment is an important fact in the business world as Francois de La Rochefocauld stated, “ When work, COMMITMENT, and pleasure all become one and you reach that deep well where passion lives, nothing is impossible” Control: the definition is influence or authority over (someone or something). In the organization, Control is a way in which IT managers are able to measure and check processes within various ongoing projects. Points to consider when properly implementing the element of control are : 1) When to inspect? 2. How often to inspect? 3. How much to inspect? Maintaining control is an important function as it helps to check for errors and to take corrective actions when errors are discovered. Customer focus: Nowadays, customer satisfaction as well as customer expectations play a significant role in the success of the business.
The customer ultimately determines the level of quality of product and service. Throughout his article (James, 2012) introduced four ways to improve customer focus : 1.constantly gathering information, 2. Get embedded in their strategy, 3. Emphasize customer retention, 4. Debrief after customer engagements. Communication: During times of organizational change, as well as part of day-to- day operations, effective communication plays a large part in not only maintaining morale but also in motivating employees at all levels. A strong management group will use various methods, strategies, and timelines to communicate with employees and stake- holders for better results in their operations. By planning monthly meetings, kick-off meetings, creating different charters, and WBS communicating with employees, sponsors and stakeholders is more effectively. Continuous Improvement: It’s important for organizations to continually improve their processes. It is a manager’s goal to continually improve processes by using continual process measurement , analyzing , defining, and controlling to be both analytical and creative in finding ways to be more successful and effective in meeting stakeholders expectations. Cooperation: Every successful manager has a strong relationship with his/her employees. It is the Project manager’s role to provide an effective team building environment and try to align team work with enterprise goals.
3. HOW INFORMATION SYSTEMS IMPROVE TQM
Here is a short summary of his ideas:
1.3.1. Reduce cycle time and simplify the production process: Lauden explains that by the help of various Information Systems, the processes have shorter cycle times. This means that problems are caught earlier in the process, often even before the production of product or service is completed. Recent Information Systems are helpful in finding ways to simplify production steps. The fewer steps involved in the process, the less time and opportunity there is for an error to occur. 1.3.2. Benchmark: when companies set a standard for products, services, and other activities, it is easier for managers to handle the huge workload. Standardization helps companies face less complexity in their operations.1.3.3. Use Customer Demands to Improve Products and Services Improving customer service, meeting customer expectations, and making customer service the number one priority will also improve the total quality management in organizations. 1.3.4. Improve Production Precision and Tighten Production Tolerances When the production process is more precise, additional time and money will be saved throughout the organization. As a result, the total quality of products and services will improve dramatically.
4. What are TQM profits for organization and How Project Managers take advantage of TQM
TQM reduces the life cycle of operations and as a result, a greater number of errors will be caught faster, enabling management to respond to the environmental changes in a more expedited fashion.
TQM brings higher productivity and profitability in Organizations. This leads to more of the companies budget to be allocated for other project investments in order to enroll in potential projects.
TQM improves customer focus, which is an important task for Project management to improve enterprise organizational development. TQM helps Project managers provide an essential frame work in which to train the team members with the needed skills to meet and exceed customer expectations.
TQM enhances shareholder and stakeholders value, which is an essential component for project managers to be successful in their projects . Every unique project needs the support and cooperation of internal and external stakeholders to meet the project’s goals and scopes.
How project managers can implement TQM efficiently
Total Quality Management is an important task in organization’s processes. Commitment, Communication, Control, Customer focus, Continuous improvement, and Cooperation are the six parts of TQM. Different Information Systems play a main role in improving TQM by reducing process time cycle, standardization, customer demands, and more precise production process. IT Managers can take advantage of TQM in improving organizational development, enhancing shareholders value, and align the IT system with enterprise strategies by higher productivity and profitability more efficiently.
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