Time Management Essay

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Time Management Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 701

  • Pages: 3

Time Management

Surveying
• pre-reading
• previewing assignment
• Big pictures overview of main ideas and themes
• Skim table of contents, preface, chapter elements
Question
•Step 1: Ask yourself what you know about the topic
Summarize what you already know about topic
•Step 2 : Write questions linked to chapter headings
Examine chapter headings and write down any questions about headings on piece of paper or in margins for book. Read
•After surveying and questioning, retain what you read.
Focus on the key points of your survey – boldface type, raised headings, chapter objectives and summary. oFocus on your Q-stage questions – Read with purpose of answering the “questions” written in the margin of book or separate piece of paper. Write down or highlight ideas related to your questions. oMark up your text, and take text notes – Write notes in margin or separate paper, circle ideas, highlight key points that you want to study for exams. oCreate text tabs – Place plastic index tabs or adhesive notes at the start of different chapters to flip back and forth with ease.

Find Main Idea

Search for topic of paragraph – Topic of paragraph is not the same as main idea, it is broad subject being discussed – President Barack Obama, hate crimes on campus, or the Internet. oIdentify the aspect of the topic that is the paragraph’s focus – If general topic is President Barack Obama, the author may focus on different aspects of that topic, such as health-care policies, first African American president, or public speaking talent.

Find what the author wants you to know about that aspect; this is the main idea – The main idea of a paragraph on President Obama as a public speaker may be:

President Obama is a charismatic speaker who uses his oratorical skills to encourage the American people in times of crisis.

Prioritize Reading Assignments

Ask what is important to remember
Is the information stressed in headings, charts, tables, captions, key terms, and definitions?

Is the information a definition, a crucial concept, an example, an explanation of a variety or type, or a critical relationship or comparison?

Did your instructor stress the information in class? Is it in syllabus, does your assignment ask you to focus on something specific? Recite

•Once you finish reading a topic, stop and answer the questions raised in the Q-stage of SQ3R even if you already did it during the reading phase, do it again with the purpose of learning and committing the material to memory.

•Recite each answer aloud, silently speak the answers to yourself, “teach” the answers to another person, or write it down. Review

•Review immediately and periodically in the days and weeks after you read the chapter to help you learn and memorize material and prepare for exams.

•Some helpful reviewing techniques:
Reread notes and summarize from memory
Review and summarize in writing the text sections you highlighted or bracketed. Try to condense the material so that you can focus on key ideas

Answer the end-of-chapter review, discussion, and application questions

Recite concepts to self, or record/playback on digital recorder

Flash cards with word/concept on one side with definition on other side

Quiz self with questions raised in Q-stage

Discuss concepts with classmate/study group
Ask instructor about difficult material.

Terms to remember
Scanning – rapid reading in search of specific information. Concentration – focusing on one topic at a time and avoiding distractions so you can learn material

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Time Management Essay

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Time Management Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1854

  • Pages: 7

Time Management

Time Management in the Business World
It is true that the majority of the time, people learn to manage their time the proverbial hard way (i.e. working late at night, trial and error, barely meeting deadlines, etc.). The definition of time management can be stated to be the process of both controlling and understanding the time spent on a variety of activities. Time management is by and large affected by a variety of certain methods, techniques that are utilized to accomplish the goals, objectives and tasks at a company within a particular time frame. Time management has typically been discussed in business sectors, however, throughout the years; there have been an incorporation of personal activities within the topic. Literature has noted that how one manages their time is a fundamental question that should be inquired upon within the business management arena. The subject of what is time has also been expressed in the business area in order to get individuals to better understand how to utilize it more effectively and more efficiently.

The definition of effectiveness is being able to accomplish a given project in a prudent manner; while efficiency operates on ensuring that the tasks associated with the given project run as smoothly as they possibly can (Adair and Allen, 2003; Covey, 2004; Saunders et al., 2004). Ritter (1989), Irons (2003) and Schwartz and McCarthy (2007) ruminate that the core issue surrounding time management is that time is a resource that is restricted and that employees have to have energy for a business to run successfully. Schwartz and McCarthy (2007) took a step further by stating that the behaviors and rituals associated with employees at companies have a direct effect on that company’s revenue and reputation in addition to the factors of performance and productivity. Hence, time management becomes an even more precise concept to both analyze and examine in order that businesses function to the best of their ability (Jex and Elacqua, 1999). Time management is a “balancing act” (Friemann, 2000). Employees and staff at certain companies and corporations have problems with time management mostly as a consequence of not learning how to manage their time prior to entering into the career world (Chase, 2003; Gamauf, 2012), personal and/or workplace stressors (Adebisi, 2013) and a lack of discipline (Viswanathan and Olsen, 1992; Kay, 2011; Mancini, 2003).

To combat the issue of time management, certain journal articles have posited that management needs to implement certain types of strategies that help employees, managers and staff manage time well within certain projects and tasks that they are given (Anonymous, 2009; Chesbrough and Appleyard, 2007; Oshagbemi, 1995; Oncken and Wass, 1999; Nagra, 2011). There is reason to believe that certain strategies along the lines of goal setting (Irons, 2003), Pareto analysis; and quadrant goal implementation also referred to as the Eisenhower Method (Adair and Allen, 2003; Mancini, 2003; Thatcher, 2006), as well the my time or yours strategy noted in (Saunders et al., 2004), which outlined the importance of time management for companies and corporations that operate on both virtual teams and what would be perceived as the typical 9-5 work routine. Certain literature has even posited that certain strategies work better at particular times of the year (Bingham et al., 2011). What essentially then is the best practice associated with time management? How can companies and corporations ensure that their staff is managing time to the best of their ability so that they run smoothly?

Statement of the Problem
Time management is a problem. Many companies and corporations often suffer at the hands of goals and projects not being completed on time. This results in cutbacks, frustrated employees and workers who are not being recognized accordingly (i.e. appraisals, compensation) (HRLook.com, 2007; Mancini, 2003) and a lack of output for the company’s products. While trial and error is typically the best way individuals learn to manage their time better, it becomes all the more important in the business management setting that time is managed, and managed properly; just not at the expense of the employees, managers and staff. Description of the Problem

The focus of my research then will be to determine the best strategy (ies) that companies can implement to curtail the issue of time management. What courses of actions and methods best suit all sectors? While that is a loaded question, as there are many strategies that can be put into motion within companies and corporations, there is rationale to ascertain that one strategy or two at a minimum can be employed in all areas of business management (in all sectors). As aforementioned, there are many different courses of action that a company can take in terms of aiding employees and staff to manage their time better so goals are properly executed. Stephen Covey (2004), in his book, The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People stated that time management could be approached from any of his four categories: first generation, which was noted to be based on timepiece, whose job is alerting individuals that a duty needs to be completed; second generation, which was more along the lines of planning solely based on setting goals; third generation, which was a prioritization technique utilizing certain objects daily to elucidate priorities efficiently and fourth generation, which was a blend of the first through third categories with urgent matters taking precedence (Covey, 2004). Perhaps, his discussion on time management can be expounded upon in the research to better understand what strategy actually works and what does not, the best. Definition of Key Terms

Each of the presented key terms will be used throughout the research to highlight the topic of time management in the business sector. * Attention management – which relates to an individual’s devotion of the resources mentally to a particular outcome or task (Mancini, 2003; Warren, 2008). * The action item – which is defined as what needs to take place within a particular task (Mancini, 2003). * Chronemics – the study of nonverbal contact within the field of business management. Perceptions associated with interfacing and promptness fall within the realm of chronemics (Mancini, 2003). * Goal Matrix – technique associated with prioritizing what is most essential to be completed (Mancini, 2003). * Pareto Analysis – a statistical technique used to have efficient use of resources (Mancini, 2003). * Prospective memory – which is remembering to perform tasks when they are needing to be performed (Srivannaboon and Milosevic, 2006). * Perception of time – a psychological term that refers to the subjective interpretation of what time is (Adair and Allen, 2003; Dight, n.d.). * Time management systems – tools that aid and support employees and staff to better manage their time (Mancini, 2003). Purpose of
Study/Methodology

Literature will be examined regarding time management. Each of the terms presented will be explicitly defined and discussed. In addition to the literature, questions will be asked throughout the research paper regarding time management such as why has certain strategies been more effective than others throughout the years; is it a manager’s job to motivate their staff to properly carry out duties; what has happened to companies that did not employ any kind of time management skills and strategies to their business; why is time management such an issue; can time management really be trained.

In addition to these questions being answered in detail, much attention will be paid to the types of strategies associated with time management. Common strategies and not so common strategies will be important. With the methodology area of the research paper, interviews and/or surveys will be needed to assess and examine how individuals manage their time. While the crux of the research paper is on time management in business, time management is an important component in daily living as well. Thus, the function of the interviews and/surveys will be twofold: to delineate whether time management is a problem or is it laziness; and whether certain strategies that are being implemented by individuals in their daily activities can be incorporated into the business arena and vice versa. This will serve to highlight both the importance of time management and efficient use of time. Additional methodologies may arise throughout the course of the research that may lend itself to more literature reviewing, and analysis of a quantitative nature. Presently, there appear to be no limitations with this particular scope of topic, given the considerable and vast amount of information on it. While that does not contend that limitations will not present themselves over the course of the research, it can be posited that the research question will be answered.

References
Adair, J., & Allen, M. (2003). Time management and personal development (ebook ed.). London, UK: Thorogood Publishing Ltd. Adebisi, J. F. (2013). Time Management Practices and Its Effect on Business
Performance. Canadian Social Science, 9(1), 165-168. Anonymous (2009). Defining ‘‘strategy’’. Strategic Direction, 25(4), 9-11. Bingham, C. B., Eisenhardt, K. M., & Furr, N. R. (2011, Fall). Which Strategy When?MIT SLOAN MANAGEMENT REVIEW, 53(1), 70-79. Chesbrough, H. W., & Appleyard, M. M. (2007). Open Innovation and Strategy .CALIFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW, 50(1), 57-76. Covey, S. R. (2004). The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. (Revised ed.). New York, NY: Free Press. Dight, E. (n.d.). How do you view time? asks Eileen Dight. Retrieved July 16, 2013, from PerceptionsofTime.com website: http://perceptionoftime.com/ Friemann, M. (2000, September 14). Time management a key homebuilding skill. The Pantagraph, 1-2. Gamauf, M. (2012, October 1). Time Management Skills. DOM Notebook, 108(10), 1-3. Herbane, B., Elliott, D., & Swartz, E. M. (2004). Business Continuity Management: time for a strategic role? Long Range Planning, 37(4), 435-457. HRLook.com (2007, June 29). Time-management skills concern employers. C2. Irons, L. M. (2003, May). Time Valuing: A Teaching Strategy for Time Management. American Journal of Health Education;, 34(3), 172-173. Jex, S. M., & Elacqua, T. C. (1999).

Time management as a moderator of relations between stressors and employee strain. Work & Stress, 13(2), 182-191. Kay, B. (2011, March). 3 Strategies for Better Time Management. Journal of Financial Planning, 26-27. Mancini, M. (2003). Time Management (ebook ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Nagra, M. M. (2011, October). Human Capital Strategy: Talent Management. October-December 2011 33 THE ARMY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT JOURNAL, 31-37. Oncken, Jr., W., & Wass, D. L. (1999). Management Time: Who’s Got the Monkey? Harvard Business Review, 1-7. Oshagbemi, T. (1995). Management development and managers’ use of their time.Journal of Management Development, 14(8), 19-34. Ritter, M. G. (1989). Cultivating time management skills. Case Notes, 16(6), 264-265. Saunders, C., Van Slyke, C., & Vogel, D. R. (2004). My time or yours? Managing time visions in global virtual teams. Academy of Management Executive, 18(1), 19-31. Schwartz, T., & McCarthy, C. (2007, October). Manage Your Energy, Not Your Time.Harvard Business Review, 1-10. Srivannaboon, S., & Milosevic, D. Z. (2006). A two-way influence between business strategy and project management. International Journal of Project Management,24, 493-505. Thatcher, M. (2006, March). Breathing life into
business strategy. Strategic HR Review,5(3), 28-31. Viswanathan, M., & Olsen, E. M. (1992, Winter). The Implementation of Business Strategies: Implications for the Sales Function. The Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 12(1), 45-57. Warren, K. (2008, Spring). Dynamic Strategy. Business Strategy Review, 68-70.

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Time Management Essay

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Time Management Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1113

  • Pages: 4

Time Management

To begin, it is possible to state that time management is a technology which helps to organize time in the most effective way. Moreover, time management system allows people not only to be more productive in organizing their time, but also not miss something very important. According to different sources, the first attempt to develop a system of time management was made by a Roman philosopher, statesman and poet Lucius Annaeus Seneca in the first decade of the new era. Of course, Seneca’s attempts were different from modern approach to time management, but they were also important for people in ancient times.

So, it becomes obvious that people from the early beginning of our civilization tried to organize their time and to spend it in the more efficient way. Today the organization of time is considered in close connection with the lifestyle of the person as a tool for maximal realization of the personal potential according with the values​​, world view and outlook of the person. We consider the mission of the human being as a prerequisite for the formation of the purposes, goals – as a subject for equipment with criteria, values ​​- as a basis for prioritization, and thirst for self-development – as the primary motivator. Of course, according to Van Eerde (2003), it can be stated that the one who does nothing needs no discipline.

Therefore, the more we have plans, desires, goals and intentions, the more we feel the need for time management. The more interesting and richer life of a man is, the more necessary is an organization, a reasonable allocation of time during the entire set of cases and duties. Thus, discipline, planning, ability to make a schedule and stick to it – all of this is not an end in itself because these concept can be considered the tools with which help the person to carry out his goals, and achieve more success. Time is the capital, which is available to each of us, and we need to dispose this capital correctly. König & Kleinmann (2007) stated that the sense of time management is to subdue the first minute, and gradually all human life to the true purpose of our existence, and learn to separate the values ​​of life from the points which require attention and do not work. The alignment of goals according to their priority will help to organize not only the person’s time but also his life as a whole.

After all, sometimes the most difficult is to do just the first step – to understand own aspirations and formulate plans in life. The priority of a target determines the amount of time that the person will be able to give to its realization. Because of proper assess of the importance of cases the person will be able to allocate time sinks – activities that distract the person from the goal, and that do not have anything to do with the person’s life plan, and which the person can abandon without any regret. In summary, we can say that time management does not give an absolute guarantee of success in business and personal life. Without its presence such a success is impossible in principle. The focus of time management is in the following moments. To manage the own time does not mean living with a stopwatch in hand. True time management, primarily includes:

* ability to set goals
* planning of the own activities: formulation of objectives, selection of optimal solutions, the most effective ways to achieve these goals
* development of skills of self-control, the ability to independently evaluate the success (or failure) of the own actions
* metering of time, the ability to effectively use all available reserves of time. Thus, everything of the mentioned above is neither more nor less than the steps to a more organized, more intense, productive and successful life. Perhaps, an ordinary person has the impression that to build the own life according to the laws of time management means the existence in a rigid framework, continual monitoring, watchful “shadowing” for the own actions.

In reality, it is not necessary to be afraid of such a kind of discipline. In fact, the main “charm” of time management consists precisely in the fact that the person becomes freer, before he opens up broad prospects and new opportunities. It means to take life into the own hands. According to Häfner & Stock (2010), there were made many researches in the area of time management, and it was found that a person who thoughtfully plan the own day has enough time to solve all the priorities, it is even often enough time to deal with secondary tasks, and if a person is lucky, he will also find time for minor problems. However, if a person does not know how to prioritize, if one or another task grabs the one’s attention during the day, then time sorely lacking often the most important thing remains to be done.

If the problem is not solved in a day, it is transferred to the plan to the next day. If a deal roams from one to another page of the person’s diary and remains unfinished then it is necessary to consider carefully whether it is needed to pursue the case at all. If it is necessary to achieve something, then the person should to check whether priority is identified correctly. According to the Pareto principle, only 20% of all cases result in 80% of the planned result. So, people who have achieved success in their lives devote much time to planning. Thus, according to Dobson (2009), everyday planning is very important to improve the efficiency of time management. An important moment is hidden in the fact that planning on paper is more effective than just thinking. In such a way, task list – this is a card that will not let every person to stay on track for the planned objectives. Moreover, working with a list of scheduled tasks multiplies productivity by 25%.

References
Dobson, M. (2009). Real-World Time Management. AMACOM.
Häfner, A. & Stock, A. (2010). Time Management Training and Perceived Control of Time at Work. The Journal of Psychology, 144 (5). König, C. & Kleinmann, M. (2007). Time Management Problems and Discounted Utility. The Journal of Psychology, 141 (3). Van Eerde, W. (2003). Procrastination at work and time management training. The Journal of Psychology, 137 (5).

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Time Management Essay

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 3552

  • Pages: 14

Time Management

Time Management skills are essential for successful people – these are the practical techniques which have helped the leading people in business, sport and public service reach the pinnacles of their careers.

The 80:20 Rule

This is neatly summed up in the Pareto Principle, or the “80:20 Rule”. This argues that typically 80% of unfocussed effort generates only 20% of results. The remaining 80% of results are achieved with only 20% of the effort. While the ratio is not always 80:20, this broad pattern of a small proportion of activity generating non-scalar returns recurs so frequently as to be the norm in many areas. If you work for an organization, calculate how much you cost it each year. Include your salary, payroll taxes, the cost of office space you occupy, equipment and facilities you use, expenses, administrative support, etc. If you are self-employed, work the annual running costs of your business.

If you work normal hours, you will have approximately 200 productive days each year. If you work 7½ hours each day, this equates to 1,500 hours in a year. From these figures, calculate an hourly rate. This should give a reasonable estimate of how much your time is worth – this may be a surprisingly large amount When you are deciding whether or not to take a task on, think about this value – are you wasting your or your organization’s resources on a low yield task? ________________________________________

Personal Time Management for Busy Managers
by Gerard M Blair
Time passes, quickly. This article looks at the basics of Personal
Time Management and describes how the Manager can assume control of this basic resource.
The “Eff” words
The three “Eff” words are [concise OED]:
•Effective – having a definite or desired effect
•Efficient – productive with minimum waste or effort
•Effortless –  seemingly without effort; natural, easy
Personal Time Management is about winning the “Eff” words: making them apply to you and your daily routines.

What is Personal Time Management?

Personal Time Management is about controlling the use of your most valuable (and undervalued) resource. Consider these two questions: what would happen if you spent company money with as few safeguards as you spend company time, when was the last time you scheduled a review of your time allocation? The absence of Personal Time Management is characterized by last minute rushes to meet dead-lines, meetings which are either double booked or achieve nothing, days which seem somehow to slip unproductively by, crises which loom unexpected from nowhere. This sort of environment leads to inordinate stress and degradation of performance: it must be stopped. Poor time management is often a symptom of over confidence: techniques which used to work with small projects and workloads are simply reused with large ones.

But inefficiencies which were insignificant in the small role are ludicrous in the large. You can not drive a motor bike like a bicycle, nor can you manage a supermarket-chain like a market stall. The demands, the problems and the payoffs for increased efficiency are all larger as your responsibility grows; you must learn to apply proper techniques or be bettered by those who do. Possibly, the reason Time Management is poorly practised is that it so seldom forms a measured part of appraisal and performance review; what many fail to foresee, however, is how intimately it is connected to aspects which do. Personal Time Management has many facets.

Most managers recognize a few, but few recognize them all. There is the simple concept of keeping a well ordered diary and the related idea of planned activity. But beyond these, it is a tool for the systematic ordering of your influence on events, it underpins many other managerial skills such as Effective Delegation and Project Planning. Personal Time Management is a set of tools which allow you to: eliminate wastage be prepared for meetings refuse excessive workloads monitor project progress allocate resource (time) appropriate to a task’s importance ensure that long term projects are not neglected plan each day efficiently plan each week effectively and to do so simply with a little self-discipline.

Since Personal Time Management is a management process just like any other, it must be planned, monitored and regularly reviewed. In the following sections, we will examine the basic methods and functions of Personal Time Management. Since true understanding depends upons experience, you will be asked to take part by looking at aspects of your own work. If you do not have time to this right now – ask yourself: why not? Current Practice

What this article is advocating is the adoption of certain practices which will give you greater control over the use and allocation of your primary resource: time. Before we start on the future, it is worth considering the present. This involves the simplistic task of keeping a note of how you spend your time for a suitably long period of time (say a week). I say simplistic since all you have to do is create a simple table, photocopy half-a-dozen copies and carry it around with you filling in a row every time you change activity. After one week, allocate time (start as you mean to go on) to reviewing this log.

Waste Disposal

We are not looking here to create new categories of work to enhance efficiency (that comes later) but simply to eliminate wastage in your current practice. The average IEE Chartered Engineer earns about 27,000 pounds per annum: about 12.50 pounds per hour, say 1 pound every 5 minutes; for how many 5 minute sections of your activity would you have paid a pound? The first step is a critical appraisal of how you spend your time and to question some of your habits. In your time log, identify periods of time which might have been better used. There are various sources of waste. The most common are social: telephone calls, friends dropping by, conversations around the coffee machine. It would be foolish to eliminate all non-work related activity (we all need a break) but if it’s a choice between chatting to Harry in the afternoon and meeting the next pay-related deadline … Your time log will show you if this is a problem and you might like to do something about it before your boss does.

In your time log, look at each work activity and decide objectively how much time each was worth to you, and compare that with the time you actually spent on it. An afternoon spent polishing an internal memo into a Pulitzer prize winning piece of provocative prose is waste; an hour spent debating the leaving present of a colleague is waste; a minute spent sorting out the paper-clips is waste (unless relaxation). This type of activity will be reduced naturally by managing your own time since you will not allocate time to the trivial. Specifically, if you have a task to do, decide before hand how long it should take and work to that deadline – then move on to the next task.

Another common source of waste stems from delaying work which is unpleasant by finding distractions which are less important or unproductive. Check your log to see if any tasks are being delayed simply because they are dull or difficult. Time is often wasted in changing between activities. For this reason it is useful to group similar tasks together thus avoiding the start-up delay of each. The time log will show you where these savings can be made. You may want then to initiate a routine which deals with these on a fixed but regular basis.

Doing Subordinate’s Work

Having considered what is complete waste, we now turn to what is merely inappropriate. Often it is simpler to do the job yourself. Using the stamp machine to frank your own letters ensures they leave by the next post; writing the missing summary in the latest progress report from your junior is more pleasant than sending it back (and it lets you choose the emphasis). Rubbish! Large gains can be made by assigning secretarial duties to secretaries: they regularly catch the next post, they type a lot faster than you. Your subordinate should be told about the missing section and told how (and why) to slant it. If you have a task which could be done by a subordinate, use the next occasion to start training him/her to do it instead of doing it yourself – you will need to spend some time monitoring the task thereafter, but far less that in doing it yourself.

Doing the work of Others

A major impact upon your work can be the tendency to help others with their’s. Now, in the spirit of an open and harmonious work environment it is obviously desirable that you should be willing to help out – but check your work log and decide how much time you spend on your own work and how much you spend on others’. For instance, if you spend a morning checking the grammar and spelling in the training material related to you last project, then that is waste. Publications should do the proofreading, that is their job, they are better at it than you are; you should deal at the technical level. The remaining problem is your manager.

Consider what periods in your work log were used to perform tasks that your manager either repeated or simply negated by ignoring it or redefining the task, too late. Making your manager efficient is a very difficult task, but where it impinges upon your work and performance you must take the bull by the horns (or whatever) and confront the issue. Managing your manager may seem a long way from Time Management but no one impacts upon your use of time more than your immediate superior.

If a task is ill defined – seek clarification (is that a one page summary or a ten page report?). If seemingly random alterations are asked in your deliverables, ask for the reasons and next time clarify these and similar points at the beginning. If the manager is difficult, try writing a small specification for each task before beginning it and have it agreed. While you can not tactfully hold your manager to this contract if he/she has a change of mind, it will at least cause him/her to consider the issues early on, before you waste your time on false assumptions.

External Appointments

The next stage of Personal Time Management is to start taking control of your time. The first problem is appointments. Start with a simple appointments diary. In this book you will have (or at least should have) a complete list of all your known appointments for the foreseeable future. If you have omitted your regular ones (since you remember them anyway) add them now. Your appointments constitute your interaction with other people; they are the agreed interface between your activities and those of others; they are determined by external obligation. They often fill the diary. Now, be ruthless and eliminate the unnecessary. There may be committees where you can not productively contribute or where a subordinate might be (better) able to participate. There may be long lunches which could be better run as short conference calls. There may be interviews which last three times as long as necessary because they are scheduled for a whole hour.

Eliminate the wastage starting today. The next stage is to add to your diary lists of other, personal activity which will enhance your use of the available time. Consider: what is the most important type of activity to add to your diary? No:- stop reading for a moment and really, consider. The single most important type of activity is those which will save you time: allocate time to save time, a stitch in time saves days. And most importantly of all, always allocate time to time management: at least five minutes each and every day. For each appointment left in the diary, consider what actions you might take to ensure that no time is wasted: plan to avoid work by being prepared.

Thus, if you are going to a meeting where you will be asked to comment on some report, allocate time to read it so avoiding delays in the meeting and increasing your chances of making the right decision the first time. Consider what actions need to be done before AND what actions must be done to follow-up. Even if the latter is unclear before the event, you must still allocate time to review the outcome and to plan the resulting action. Simply mark in your diary the block of time necessary to do this and, when the time comes, do it.

Scheduling Projects

The most daunting external appointments are deadlines: often, the handover of deliverables. Do you leave the work too late? Is there commonly a final panic towards the end? Are the last few hectic hours often marred by errors? If so, use Personal Time Management. The basic idea is that your management of personal deadlines should be achieved with exactly the same techniques you would use in a large project: •check the specification – are you sure that you agree on what is to be delivered •break the task down into small sections so that you can estimate the time needed for each, and monitor progress •schedule reviews of your progress (e.g. after each sub-task) so that you can respond quickly to difficulties Like most management ideas, this is common sense. Some people, however, refute it because in practise they find that it merely shows the lack of time for a project which must be done anyway.

This is simply daft! If simple project planning and time management show that the task can not be done, then it will not be done – but by knowing at the start, you have a chance to do something about it. An impossible deadline affects not only your success but also that of others. Suppose a product is scheduled for release too soon because you agree to deliver too early. Marketing and Sales will prepare customers to expect the product showing why they really need it – but it will not arrive.

The customers will be dissatisfied or even lost, the competition will have advanced warning, and all because you agreed to do the impossible. You can avoid this type of problem. By practising time management, you will always have a clear understanding of how you spend your time and what time is unallocated. If a new task is thrust upon you, you can estimate whether it is practical. The project planning tells you how much time is needed and the time management tells you how much time is available. There are four ways to deal with impossible deadlines:

•Get the deadline extended
•Scream for more resources
•Get the Deliverable redefined to something practical
•State the position clearly so that your boss (and his/her boss) have fair warning If this simple approach seems unrealistic, consider the alternative. If you have an imposed, but unobtainable, deadline and you accept it; then the outcome is your assured failure. Of course, there is a fifth option: move to a company with realistic schedules. One defence tactic is to present your superior with a current list of your obligations indicating what impact the new task will have on these, and ask him/her to assign the priorities: “I can’t do them all, which should I slip?”. Another tactic is to keep a data base of your time estimates and the actual time taken by each task.

This will quickly develop into a source of valuable data and increase the accuracy of your planning predictions. There is no reason why you should respond only to externally imposed deadlines. The slightly shoddy product which you hand-over after the last minute rush (and normally have returned for correction the following week) could easily have been polished if only an extra day had been available – so move your personal deadline forward and allow yourself the luxury of leisured review before the product is shipped.

Taking this a step further, the same sort of review might be applied to the product at each stage of its development so that errors and rework time are reduced. Thus by allocating time to quality review, you save time in rework; and this is all part of project planning supported and monitored by your time management. Finally, for each activity you should estimate how much time it is worth and allocate only that amount. This critical appraisal may even suggest a different approach or method so that the time matches the task’s importance. Beware of perfection, it takes too long – allocate time for “fitness for purpose”, then stop.

Monitoring Staff

Your Personal Time Management also affects other people, particularly your subordinates. Planning projects means not only allocating your time but also the distribution of tasks; and this should be done in the same planned, monitored and reviewed manner as your own scheduling. Any delegated task should be specified with an (agreed) end date. As a Manager, you are responsible for ensuring that the tasks allocated to your subordinates are completed successfully. Thus you should ensure that each task is concluded with a deliverable (for instance, a memo to confirm completion) – you make an entry in your diary to check that this has arrived. Thus, if you agree the task for Tuesday, Wednesday should have an entry in your diary to check the deliverable. This simple device allows you to monitor progress and to initiate action as necessary.

Long term Objectives

There are many long term objectives which the good Manager must achieve, particularly with regard to the development, support and motivation of his/her work-team. Long term objectives have the problem of being important but not urgent; they do not have deadlines, they are distant and remote. For this reason, it is all too easy to ignore them in favour of the urgent and immediate. Clearly a balance must be struck. The beauty of Time Management is that the balance can be decided objectively (without influence from immediate deadlines) and self-imposed through the use of the diary. Simply, a manager might decide that one hour a week should be devoted to personnel issues and would then allocate a regular block of time to that activity.

Of course if the factory is on fire, or World War III is declared, the manager may have to re-allocate this time in a particular week – but barring such crises, this time should then become sacrosanct and always applied to the same, designated purpose. Similarly, time may be allocated to staff development and training. So if one afternoon a month is deemed to be a suitable allocation, then simply designate the second Thursday (say) of each month and delegate the choice of speakers.

The actual time spent in managing this sort of long term objective is small, but without that deliberate planning it will not be achieved. Once you have implemented Personal Time Management, it is worth using some of that control to augment your own career. Some quiet weekend, you should sketch out your own long term objectives and plan a route to them. As you would any long term objective, allocate time to the necessary sub-tasks and monitor your progress. If you do not plan where you want to go, you are unlikely to get there.

Concluding Remarks.

Personal Time Management is a systematic application of common sense strategies. It requires little effort, yet it promotes efficient work practices by highlighting wastage and it leads to effective use of time by focusing it on your chosen activities. Personal Time Management does not solve your problems; it reveals them, and provides a structure to implement and monitor solutions. It enables you to take control of your own time – how you use it is then up to you.

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Time Management Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 2030

  • Pages: 8

Time Management

Introduction

It is rightly said “Time and Tide wait for none”. An individual should understand the value of time for him to succeed in all aspects of life. People who waste time are the ones who fail to create an identity of their own.

My Rational on my first action plan was:

I have poor attitudes towards managing time, such as managing time to study. Developing effective study habits is important as they will help me to use my study time more productively and will also help to handle stress. Therefore, learning some effective memory techniques, developing a good support network and working with other class members will enhance our study habits (Anthony, 2012). So it is important for me to make an action plan about time management. Benefits of time management could be; “Time Management makes an individual punctual and disciplined. One learns to work when it is actually required as a result of effective time management.

To make the judicious use of time, individuals should prepare a “TASK PLAN” or a “TO DO” List at the start of the day to jot down activities which need to be done in a particular day as per their importance and urgency against the specific time slots assigned to each activity. A Task Plan gives individuals a sense of direction at the workplace. An individual knows how his day looks like and eventually works accordingly leading to an increased output” (Management Study Guide [MSG]). If we do not have a proper time management skills, it will be more difficult to achieve the goals in your future.

This report includes a deep research about time management skills. This includes a brief description of what is time management, how it helps in an organisation and some benefits improving your time management skills. And lastly the action plan with the actual outcomes.

What is time management

Time management is the art of arranging, organizing, scheduling, and budgeting one’s time for the purpose of generating more effective work and productivity. There are an abundance of books, classes, workshops, day-planners, and seminars on time management, which teach individuals and corporations how to be more organized and more productive. Time management has become crucial in recent years thanks to the 24/7, busy world in which we live (Wisegeek, 2013).

Time management is important for everyone. While time management books and seminars often place their focus on business leaders and corporations, time management is also crucial for students, teachers, factory workers, professionals, and home makers. Time management is perhaps most essential for the person who owns his or her own business or who runs a business out of the home. Managing work and home responsibilities under the same roof takes a special type of time management (Wisegeek, 2013).

An important aspect of time management is planning ahead. Sometimes, successful time management involves putting in more time at the outset in order to reorganize one’s life. Though many time management books and teachings differ in their suggestions, most agree that the first step in efficient time management is to organize the workspace or home. Even if one’s schedule is well-ordered, but the office and filing system are a disaster, time will be wasted trying to work efficiently in a disorderly place (Wisegeek, 2013).

Lastly, good time management involves keeping a schedule of the tasks and activities that have been deemed important. Keeping a calendar or daily planner is helpful to stay on task, but self-discipline is also required. The most efficient to-do list in the world will not help someone who does not look at or follow his own daily planner (Wisegeek, 2013).

Time management helping in organisations.

Time Management refers to managing time effectively so that the right time is allocated to the right activity. Effective time management allows individuals to assign specific time slots to activities as per their importance. Time Management refers to making the best use of time as time is always limited. Time Management plays a very important role not only in organizations but also in our personal lives. (Management Study Guide)

Time Management includes:

1.Effective Planning
2.Setting goals and objectives
3.Setting deadlines
4.Delegation of responsibilities
5.Prioritizing activities as per their importance
6.Spending the right time on the right activity

Effective planning:

Plan your day well in advance. Prepare a To Do List or a “TASK PLAN”. Jot down the important activities that need to be done in a single day against the time that should be allocated to each activity. High Priority work should come on top followed by those which do not need much of your importance at the moment. Complete pending tasks one by one. Do not begin fresh work unless you have finished your previous task. Tick the ones you have already completed. Ensure you finish the tasks within the stipulated time frame (Management Study Guide).

Setting goals and objectives:

Working without goals and targets in an organization would be similar to a situation where the captain of the ship loses his way in the sea. Yes, you would be lost. Set targets for yourself and make sure they are realistic ones and achievable (Management Study Guide).

Setting deadlines

Set deadlines for yourself and strive hard to complete tasks ahead of the deadlines. Do not wait for your superiors to ask you every time. Learn to take ownership of work. One person who can best set the deadlines is you yourself. Ask yourself how much time needs to be devoted to a particular task and for how many days. Use a planner to mark the important dates against the set deadlines (Management Study Guide).

Delegation of responsibilities:

Learn to say “NO” at workplace. Don’t do everything on your own. There are other people as well. One should not accept something which he knows is difficult for him. The roles and responsibilities must be delegated as per interest and specialization of employees for them to finish tasks within deadlines. A person who does not have knowledge about something needs more time than someone who knows the work well (Management Study Guide).

Prioritizing Tasks

Prioritize the tasks as per their importance and urgency. Know the difference between important and urgent work. Identify which tasks should be done within a day, which all should be done within a month and so on. Tasks which are most important should be done earlier (Management Study Guide).

Spending the right time on right activity:

Develop the habit of doing the right thing at the right time. Work done at the wrong time is not of much use. Don’t waste a complete day on something which can be done in an hour or so. Also keep some time separate for your personal calls or checking updates on Facebook or Twitter. After all human being is not a machine (Management Study Guide).

Organized – Avoid keeping stacks of file and heaps of paper at your workstation. Throw what all you don’t need. Put important documents in folders. Keep the files in their respective drawers with labels on top of each file. It saves time which goes on unnecessary searching (Management Study Guide).

Don’t misuse time – Do not kill time by loitering or gossiping around. Concentrate on your work and finish assignments on time. Remember your organization is not paying you for playing games on computer or peeping into other’s cubicles. First complete your work and then do whatever you feel like doing. Don’t wait till the last moment (Management Study Guide).

Be Focussed – One needs to be focused for effective time management. Develop the habit of using planners, organizers, table top calendars for better time management. Set reminders on phones or your personal computers (Management Study Guide).

Benefits of time management.

It’s normal to hear time management discussed in business circles; yet, it is a topic that can be of great benefit to everybody. Time is a challenge for all of us, whether we’re business people, workers, students or stay at home moms or dads. There seems to be less time in today’s world, and that’s why it’s a lot more important to learn how to properly manage our time. In this article, we are going to be discussing a few key reasons why time management is so important (Marie, 2012).

A big benefit of time management is just how that it boosts your productivity. It is something that almost everybody hopes to be able to do. Seldom do you hear of individuals who feel that they’ve got adequate time to do the things they need and wish to do. In lots of instances, the problem is not not enough time but rather the fact that you do not have an efficient way of managing your time. Time management shows you how to set priorities, and to focus on how much time you’re wasting every day. The idea is not really to put yourself under more pressure to try and do more, but to utilize your time more wisely so you appear to have more of it (Marie, 2012).

One positive advantage of time management is decreased levels of stress. Not having enough time is one of the main reasons we experience stress. Think about how tense you feel if you are worrying about being late for a scheduled visit or if you’re stuck in traffic. These issues relate to time, and if you have this type of situation often you could probably benefit from some training in time management. Learning how to control schedule so that overwhelmed us and become an issue indicates that you are supervising your time efficiently. We often believe that the solution to our problems is doing things faster, but it could be even better and more relaxing if we learn how to manage our time better (Marie, 2012).

Time management doesn’t just include boosting your productivity and efficiency; you also want to feel more pleasure and a better quality of life. Time is an important component of life and so we feel better about our lives when we have the ability to control our time. Conversely, feeling that we’re running out of time can create an overall feeling that we aren’t good in some part of life. Those who are genuinely successful are aware that time management is a crucial skill they have to get good at. It could be the one determining factor that lets you live in the moment and appreciate your life instead of feeling that time is a merciless boss (Marie, 2012).

Time management is very significant in our present times, even more so than in previous decades. Existing technology allows us to do things faster than before and yet we feel forced to continually increase the pace. As an example, we continue to have difficulty keeping track of the large number of available information even with computers and other gadgets that are extremely powerful. Time management is the component that can give us a sense of control over time so we can quit rushing and loosen up (Marie, 2012).

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Time Management Essay

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 870

  • Pages: 3

Time Management

One of the most important aspects of completing an education course is the amount of time spent on your course study. The better you are at setting aside regular study time and keeping to a schedule, the more successful you’ll be in completing your course work with a satisfactory grade. Completion won’t happen if you are a procrastinator! So, take a few moments before starting your course to think about your schedule. Be realistic. If you find yourself falling behind, reevaluate your priorities and make adjustments where needed. Here are some additional things to think about:

Set aside dedicated study time (maybe in 1/2 hour chunks) and let nothing interrupt this time. Break assignments into small tasks that can be accomplished in given time periods. Determine what time of day is your best. Tackle the more difficult tasks during this time of day to take advantage of your greatest concentration and attention level. Establish one or more quiet, comfortable study areas where you have easy access to all necessary materials. Make your selection based on acceptable noise levels, light level, study-conducive furniture (chair and/or desk or study table), and minimal distractions.

Keep in mind the time it takes to travel between home, school, work, and your selected study spot. If your instructor has not provided course deadlines, set them yourself and stick with them. If you start falling behind, set aside more time to catch up. Don’t put off completing your coursework to the end of your enrollment period. Do not let a problem or lack of understanding hold you up – set it aside for a short time so you can come back to it with fresh eyes. If you still don’t get it – ask for help from your instructor or from other students in the class.

If this is the first distance course you’ve taken, you may soon see how easy it is to fall behind your intended schedule. By setting mid-course targets that are realistic and obtainable, you can complete the course successfully and count distance learning as another accomplishment! The institution will maintain an academic environment in which freedom to teach, conduct research, learn and administer the university is protected. Students will benefit from this environment by accepting responsibility for their role in the academic community.

The principles of the student code are designed to encourage communication, foster academic integrity and defend freedoms of inquiry, discussion and expression across the university community. Institution requires students to conduct themselves honestly and responsibly, and to respect the rights of others. Conduct that unreasonably interferes with the learning environment or violates the rights of others is prohibited. Students and student organizations are responsible for ensuring that they and their guests comply with the code while on property owned or controlled by the university or at activities authorized by the university.

The university may initiate disciplinary action and impose disciplinary sanctions against any student or student organization found responsible for committing, attempting to commit or intentionally assisting in the commission of any of the following prohibited forms of conduct: * cheating, plagiarism or other forms of academic dishonesty * forgery, falsification, alteration or misuse of documents, funds or property * damage or destruction of property * theft of property or services * harassment * endangerment, assault or infliction of physical harm * disruptive or obstructive actions

* misuse of firearms, explosives, weapons, dangerous devices or dangerous chemicals * failure to comply with university directives * misuse of alcohol or other intoxicants or drugs * violation of published university policies, regulations, rules or procedures * any other actions that result in unreasonable interference with the learning environment or the rights of others. This list is not intended to define prohibited conduct in exhaustive terms, but rather offers examples as guidelines for acceptable and unacceptable behavior. Honesty is a primary responsibility of you and every other UAF student.

The following are common guidelines regarding academic integrity: 1. Students will not collaborate on any quizzes, in-class exams, or take-home exams that contribute to their grade in a course, unless the course instructor grants permission. Only those materials permitted by the instructor may be used to assist in quizzes and examinations. 2. Students will not represent the work of others as their own. A student will attribute the source of information not original with himself or herself (direct quotes or paraphrases) in compositions, theses, and other reports.

No work submitted for one course may be submitted for credit in another course without the explicit approval of both instructors. Alleged violations of the Code of Conduct will be reviewed in accordance with procedures specified in regents’ policy, university regulations and UAF rules and procedures. For additional information and details about the Student Code of Conduct, contact the dean of student affairs, visit www. alaska. edu/bor/ or refer to the student handbook that is printed in the back of the class schedule for each semester. Students are encouraged to review the entire code.

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Time management Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 6004

  • Pages: 24

Time management

I would like to express my gratitude and sincere thanks to my Project Guide Prof. Shailshree Ail, SIES College of Commerce & Economics for extending valuable guidance and encourage me from time to time, without which it would not have been possible to undertake and complete this project.

I also wish to extend my thanks especially to our Principal Dr. Mrs. Sheela Nabar and also Coordinator of Banking & Insurance, Mrs. Aarti Kalyanraman for their kind co-ordination and support. Also I would like to thank all my friends, staff and teaching faculty of S. I. E.S. , my parents and staff of Crosswords who have directly or indirectly helped me during the course of my project.

Special thanks to the respondents of the survey and people who have helped me to attain the indepth knowledge about the concept of Time Management. ________________ EXECUTIVE SUMMARY People generally assume that Time Management means managing the time that people have but on the contrary it actually means managing ourselves. As one cannot mend time according its own ways instead one can mend its own ways. Time Management is a broader concept.

There are various categories of time such as Biological Time which means time utilized for the biological needs of any particular person. Then there is Fractal Time or widely known as The Theory of Relatively, which in general terms means fragmentation of time according to various situations one faces in life. Time has various dimensions and it is different for different people even though the measurement of time is same. Various studies by various scientists’ states that time always remain but it is the people who pass by it as time is considered to be unconquered, unvanquished and immortal.

So to manage such a big factor along with managing our own self is quite a big task. Time management is an ongoing process because every person from any corner of the world, having any amount of money or a pauper or any one for that matter manages itself and the time he has in some or the other way. So no one has created the only and perfect methodology for time management but still people has practiced time management in the past. The present study seeks to analyse the managing habits among the people of Mumbai as it is a big and busy city as it is commercial city and also financial capital of India.

People here are always on the run and need to manage their time well to achieve success in their work. The urban life in Mumbai is nothing but a fast life, this study tries to learn how well people in Mumbai manage their time, what are their time stealer, how to get rid of them, how the given grid has benefited them and also to know the miscellaneous benefits that one can get by managing its time. INDEX INTRODUCTION: “Yesterday is a cancelled cheque. Tomorrow is a promissory note. Today is ready cash, use it. ”

This is a perfect quote to begin an introduction of time. Time is now, time was yesterday and time is also tomorrow. It’s all in our hands as to how we make the best of it. Time is unique and unrenewable. It favors no one. No one is immune to the relentless, unforgiving passage of time. “Main Samay hu, Main Akshay, Ajay aur Anant hu. ” This is one filmy dialogue but when looked into closely we realize that it has a deep meaning. It means that time is Unvanquished, Unconquerable and Immortal. We say that we are running out of time.

So the question arises that does time pass by or do we pass through time? The solution to this question is TIME MANAGEMENT. If you ask any one what do they mean by time management very common response is managing time successfully. This is the simplest definition of Time Management. But the skills of managing time are not easy as its definition is. Planning can be done by anyone who has some knowledge of it but when it comes to executing it people fail miserably. Managing time successfully or in fact executing it effectively is what this project is all about. TIME:

Time has historically been closely related with space, the two together comprising space-time in Einstein’s special relativity and general relativity. According to these theories, the concept of time depends on the spatial reference frame of the observer, and the human perception as well as the measurement by instruments such as clocks is different for observers in relative motion. The past is the set of events that can send light signals to the observer; the future is the set of events to which the observer can send light signals. Time catches up with the present and overtakes it, so

Time is Unvanquished. No one can stop time or reverse it so Time is Unconquered. Time is constant, continuous and infinite process so Time is Immortal. TIME IN THE ORGANIZATION: Time in the organization is constant and irreversible. Nothing can be substituted for time. Worse, once wasted, it can never be regained. Leaders have numerous demands on their limited time. Time keeps getting away and they have trouble controlling it. No matter what their position, they cannot stop time, they cannot slow it down, nor can they speed it up. Thus, time needs to be effectively managed to be effective.

On the other hand, you can become such a time fanatic convert by building time management spreadsheets, creating priority folders and lists, color coding tasks, and separating paperwork into priority piles that you start to waste more time by managing it to deeply. TIME MANAGEMENT: Time management is the organization of tasks or events by first estimating how much time a task will take to be completed, when it must be completed, and then adjusting events that would interfere with its completion so that completion is reached in the appropriate amount of time. Calendars and day planners are common examples of time management tools.

TIME EQUITY: The one universal distribution of equity is time: Everybody on the planet has ownership of 24 hours per day. Everyone receive the same allotment, day in and day out. Each new day brings an automatic deposit of 24 hours into the “time account. ” It is referred to as Time Equity. Although each day brings a new deposit, each day the entire amount must be withdrawn, with no balance carried over to tomorrow. Use it or lose it. The challenge everyone face is how and where to invest the time equity. These decisions determine success, career path, productivity, and family status.

The truth is that where people are in life is a direct reflection of how well they have managed their time portfolio—how and where they “spent their time. ” One often hear people refer to personal activities in terms of time equity: “How did you spend your weekend? ” or “During our trip we spent a lot of time doing … ” Time equity is the essence of a full and complete life. People often take it for granted and succumb to its harsh, unforgiving consequences. One has to take responsibility for ourselves and consciously appreciate the positive impact time management can have on our lives.

Anyone who expects to achieve sales success should expect to make a serious commitment to working hard and efficiently. Throughout the five principles of time management that follow I share various techniques and suggestions to help streamline your activities. Time cannot think for you, but it can certainly work for you. Like any other investment, time produces returns if invested wisely and treated with respect. Sales professionals constantly explore investment opportunities for their time, maximizing their time. METHODS OF TIME MANAGEMENT: 1. PRINCIPLE METHOD

Principle #1: Maximize Your Time Spending your time wisely starts with paying attention to how you spend it. Only when you decide to take control of your time will you have the power to stop squandering it. The best starting point to a better use of time is to conduct your own time-efficiency study. Evaluate your current use of time by breaking down a typical day into hourly increments. Be objective. Include everything throughout your entire day, even the time you sleep. You may need to track a full week or two to get a clear picture of your time usage.

The next step is to review your time log and classify the activities as time-wasters, obligations, or priorities. Time-wasters are just that, activities that distract you and contribute nothing toward your goals. Eliminate them. The danger is that time-wasters are activities performed out of habit. Usually, they create a false sense of productivity but actually produce few or no results. The cure comes in the form of personal organization, the process of incorporating structure into your day. Obligations are the dutiful responsibilities of your job. They are necessary yet unimportant activities, usually performed throughout the day.

They contribute indirectly to your goals. They are the administrative aspects of your job such as call reports, expense reports, quarterly forecasts, and various other required duties. Despite the challenges of limited time coupled with increased responsibilities, you can be productive by evaluating your current usage of your 24 hours and maximizing time. Obligations cannot be overlooked but be cognizant of the negative impact they have on daily productivity. As you become better organized you can streamline your activities, minimizing the time spent fulfilling obligations.

You may be in a position to delegate some of your administrative duties to support people (internal customers) within your office. There are some sales entrepreneurs who have hired a part-time assistant. Maximize your time by doing what you do best, selling. Priorities are the activities that contribute significantly to your time. They are directly responsible for your results, moving you closer to your goals. Remember, companies today pay for results, not activities. They no longer pay for attendance, they expect results. As you evaluate your current use of time, the time-wasters will become clear, allowing you to rethink your activities.

Make the shift from a long day filled with unproductive busyness to a shorter day focusing on priorities. As a sales entrepreneur, challenge yourself to be more proactive by prioritizing your tasks. Take control of the activities that prey on your efficiency, compromising your time. Once you complete your time-efficiency study, you will be shocked to see the time wasted reacting to other people’s demands and requests. Most of us habitually spend our days reacting instead of being proactive, unaware of the costly consequence. I suggest that up to 75% of our day is reactive. A sobering thought. Principle #2: Know What Time It Is.

If you are like most salespeople, you have too much to do and not enough time to get it all done. To get ahead in today’s fast-paced world, you’ve got to be aware of what time it is. It does not mean talking about telling time, you learned those years ago. What is talked about here is: It’s not enough that you’re doing a particular job right, you’ve got to be sure that you’re doing the right activity at the right time. By the way, if you don’t have a good watch, get one. The best and simplest time management tool is on your wrist. Common sense tells us that we should spend the majority of our time working on high-priority A and B accounts.

Most of us don’t. We waste a lot of time in the adult day care centre reacting to the demands of C accounts or even performing C activities. The first step is to take control of your entire day by knowing what time it is. Principle #3: Manage Your Time Time management is a personal process. It takes a strong commitment to change long-established habits. According to the 80/20 rule, we get 80% of our results from 20% of the things we do. This statistic supports the observation that we spend a lot of time on time-wasters and obligations. Imagine the impact on our time efficiency if we increased the 20% to 30%!

What takes us from a time-starved day of routine, frustration, and stress to a productive day filled with accomplishments? Change. One definition of time management is doing fewer things in less time. Wouldn’t that be great? Research suggests that effective time management strategies can free up a minimum of two hours per day. For example, time management studies show that we spend up to 70 minutes a day just looking for stuff. How many times have you said, “Just a minute, I know it’s here somewhere. ” We misplace files, reports, memos, and letters, and the desks look like the movie Twister was filmed in the office.

Clutter can be a huge time-waster, not to mention the embarrassment of lost or unanswered requests. Your goal isn’t to have a nice neat desk, but to get organized so that you can convert wasted time into productive time. However, with a clean, orderly desk, you’ll improve your time working on priorities that will make you money. Your quality of work will also improve. The underlying objective of effective time management is to utilize all available resources to increase face-time; the time spent talking face-to-face with existing customers or potential customers. If you’re an inside salesperson, increase talk-time.

Take some time to determine how much time you actually spend with customers. Take a stop watch and clock total face-time in one entire week. On average, it’s only two to four hours. Shocking! This statistic serves as additional proof of the inordinate amount of time consumed by time-wasters and obligations. It is recognized that with leaner companies salespeople are often saddled with more of the administrative aspects of the job. Unfortunately they become high-priced administrators. How many times a day should you ask yourself if you are making the best use of your time. If you answered “several,” you’re right.

Only you can answer that question honestly. As the president of ME Inc. , don’t compromise your time by blindly filling your day with busyness. Restructure your day to eliminate the time-wasters and minimize the time spent fulfilling obligations. Sometimes working in the office on a project or on a presentation could very well be the best use of your time. It’s doubtful that you can ever eliminate time spent in the adult day care centre, but you certainly need to minimize it. Use janitorial time to fulfil your obligations. As part of your time-efficiency study, you should determine the time of day that you are most efficient and productive.

Know your peak time, the time of day you are at high energy. Not everyone has the same peak time. Some of us are morning people and others are afternoon or evening people. Pay attention to your moods and high-energy time of day to determine when you’re most productive. Morning people can accomplish more simply by getting up an hour earlier each day, and night owls can carve out time for administrative activities in the evenings. Once you have identified your peak time, do your worst jobs then. They won’t go away so you might as well get them done when you’re feeling energized.

Some authors suggest doing them first thing in the morning when you’re feeling fresh. This approach works well if you’re a morning person but could be disastrous if you’re an afternoon person. Imagine doing your worst job at your worst time of day. Two “worst” don’t make a right! In my case, prime time is during the late afternoon and early evening. Another suggestion in the interest of maximizing your time is to learn how to say no. Many of us are our own worst enemies. You’ll never have enough time to finish your own tasks if you’re always taking on more than time permits.

Do not be afraid to politely refuse a request or task if your plate is already full. This includes saying no to your sales manager. When given a task, simply ask your managers, “Would you like me to do this now or would you prefer I spend the time selling? ” Your manager may decide to delegate the task elsewhere. It’s great to want to help others, but not at the expense of ME Inc. Principle #4: Use the Right Tools A professional (sales entrepreneurs included) is anyone paid to perform a task or a job at an acceptable level of proficiency while utilizing the tools of the trade to enhance efficiency and effectiveness.

It is amazing to see how often salespeople conducting business with inappropriate tools. It’s as though they are exempt from the requirement to be a professional. Imagine your doctor or dentist using anything but the best instruments. Your customers expect no less of you. As a sales entrepreneur, you have an obligation to invest in the best. You may have heard it before, “A carpenter is only as good as his tools. ” The solution begins with a personal planner—a time management system that offers the convenience of portability while organizing your activities, mapping your week and, most importantly, planning your day.

A good planner includes twelve months at-a-glance, 365 individual day-pages, a daily to-do list section, and an appointments section. Some planners come with a rigid set of instructions, so pick a planner that offers simplicity and the flexibility to meet your personal preferences. A planner used effectively not only buys you time, it helps you stay in balance throughout your week, including weekends. Poor time management skills result in overspending your time, running out of day before you get everything done. It is supposed to be compared it to managing a checking account.

Imagine opening a checking account at your local bank then not using a check book to track the account activity. Surely you would find yourself out of balance at the end of the month, possibly overspending your available funds. Without the appropriate tool to track your time-related activities, you quickly find yourself out of balance, overdrawn on your time account. Principle #5: Be Proactive, not Reactive I would suggest that up to 75% of our day is spent reacting to the needs and requests of other people such as customers, managers, internal customers, family, and friends.

We are constantly bombarded with demands on our limited time, leaving us unable to accomplish our own goals and objectives. No wonder we feel the frustration of, “So much to do, so little time. ” We often succumb to the demands and requests of others because we think it is socially inappropriate to say no. We become victimized by others who may have a strong interest in controlling our activities or behaviour—such as a spouse or a manager. Unfortunately many people, including salespeople, are content to be regulated and manipulated rather than committing to SMART goals and living life guided by their agenda, not someone else’s.

No one ever accomplished a personal goal by being subservient to others. Successful sales entrepreneurs refuse to be swayed by the whims of others and are quietly effective at managing their own agendas. Employers and managers sometimes do more to demotivate rather than to motivate. Demotivation can take the form of intimidation or high-performance expectations constrained by rigid management policies and limited resources to perform the job. No wonder so many people want to take this job and shove it. A proactive strategy means developing the discipline to stay focused on your agenda, your goals, and your objectives.

Part of this discipline comes in the form of qualifying the severity of a problem prior to reacting to it. For example, next time a customer informs you of a problem or a concern, resist the temptation to immediately jump into react mode, drop what you are doing, and race over to console your customer. It may not be necessary. The next time you get an irate customer (or internal customer) demanding to see you right away, follow these two steps: 1. Acknowledge the problem. Allow the customer to vent by explaining the situation and then clarify your understanding of it by paraphrasing.

Be sure to take notes of your discussion for future reference. By acknowledging the concern and showing empathy, the customer will begin to feel better about it and may become somewhat flexible as to how and when you resolve the concern. A sympathetic attitude to a real or imaginary product or service failure cannot be overemphasized. A 10-minute phone call to determine the facts and the seriousness of the problem may be a valuable investment, possibly saving you hours of unnecessary running around. Work smart, not hard. 2. Suggest another time.

Tell the customer that your day is full with appointments and commitments and ask if first thing tomorrow morning would be okay to get together. Your business and time are just as important and legitimate as that of your customer. You are equals. In the majority of cases, your customer will appreciate your schedule and agree to meet with you the next day. Too often we assume that we must respond immediately, but by following these steps you will save yourself valuable time. Sometimes, however, the customer may be insistent that you respond immediately, in which case you must act accordingly.

As a student, there are some basic Principles of Time Management that you can apply. 1. Identify “Best Time” for Studying: Everyone has high and low periods of attention and concentration. Are you a “morning person” or a “night person”. Use your power times to study; use the down times for routines such as laundry and errands. 2. Study Difficult Subjects First: When you are fresh, you can process information more quickly and save time as a result. 3. Use Distributed Learning and Practice: Study in shorter time blocks with short breaks between.

This keeps you from getting fatigued and “wasting time. ” This type of studying is efficient because while you are taking a break, the brain is still processing the information. 4. Make Sure the Surroundings are Conducive to Studying: This will allow you to reduce distractions which can “waste time. ” If there are times in the residence halls or your apartment when you know there will be noise and commotion, use that time for mindless tasks. 5. Make Room for Entertainment and Relaxation: College is more than studying. You need to have a social life, yet, you need to have a balance in your life.

6. Make Sure you Have Time to Sleep and Eat Properly: Sleep is often an activity (or lack of activity) that students use as their time management “bank. ” When they need a few extra hours for studying or socializing, they withdraw a few hours of sleep. Doing this makes the time they spend studying less effective because they will need a couple hours of clock time to get an hour of productive time. This is not a good way to manage yourself in relation to time. 7. Try to Combine Activities: Use the “Twofer” concept. If you are spending time at the laundromat, bring your psychology notes to study.

If you are waiting in line for tickets to any concert, bring your biology flashcards to memorize. 2. FIRST THING FIRST (Method by Virginia Tech Division of student Affairs) 1. Each night write on a 3×5 card the 6 most important tasks you have to do tomorrow. 2. Number them in the order of importance. 3. First thing in the morning look at the task listed as most important and start working on it until it is finished. Then tackle item 2 the same way, item 3 and so forth until your work or school day are completed. 4. Don’t be worried if you only complete 2 or 3 items.

You’ve completed the most important tasks and any other method wouldn’t have given you more time to work on the rest of the list. 5. Each night write a new 3×5 card for the next day. 3. TIME GRID URGENT & IMPORTANT NOT URGENT & IMPORATNT Crises Pressing problems Dead-line driven projects, meetings, preparations Preparation Prevention Planning Relationship building True recreation empowerment URGENT & UNIMPORTANT interruptions, phone calls, mails, reports, meetings many proximate, pressing matters many popular activity NOT URGENT & UNIMPORTANT trivia, busy work some phone calls, time wasters, time stealers excessive television.

4. REMEMBERING, SETTING PRIORITIES AND MOTIVATION METHOD: Remembering Three keys to time management are: remembering, setting priorities, and motivation. It’s easy to fall into the trap of thinking “I won’t forget that. ” But the important thing is not just to remember it, but to remember it at the right time — a time when you can take the first step in doing it. Your thoughts are valuable. Write them down, whether they’re ideas on how to save the world or reminders to wash the frying pan. Then figure out some way for the messages to get to you at a time when you can do the things.

Use calendars and lists. I have lists of things that can be done at home, lists of things that can be done when the stores are open, lists of things to do before going to work in the morning, etc. By looking at the appropriate list, I can forget about everything else and concentrate on the work appropriate for that moment. Setting Priorities If you write a list of things to do this evening, it probably contains way more things than you can actually accomplish. That’s fine. The list is valuable. By looking over it, you can choose the most important things and do them first.

The rest can be transferred to other lists. Some people say they don’t need to spend time planning. That may be true. If you have a list of things to do that are all about equally important, and if you’re sure that the most important things are on the list, then you don’t need to spend any time comparing them. Just start doing one of them, it doesn’t matter which one. But for most people most of the time, some of the things are more important than others, so it’s worthwhile taking a few minutes to read over the list and choose the most important to do first.

It’s good to have a pen handy all the time to write down ideas. That way you can catch thoughts about important things that you might have forgotten to add to your lists. Motivation You’ve set goals, written lists, chosen priorities, and identified what’s important to do right now, but you don’t feel like doing it. Here are some ideas to help with motivation. In the book “Feeling Good,” David Burns points out that it’s not necessary to “feel like” doing something in order to do it. You can just start. Usually, once you’ve started, you begin feeling more motivated to continue doing it.

I started feeling more in control when I started giving myself permission to cross things off lists. Deciding not to do something and putting an “X” next to it gives a feeling of relief, almost as satisfying as checking it off as done. Sometimes I graph the total number of check marks per day. This feels good and gives me motivation to finish lots of things on my to-do lists. Plan rewards and celebrations for yourself, such as special snacks after getting certain things done. Just taking a few seconds to admire the finished work such as a tidy table or pile of clean laundry, is an excellent reward.

Smile and tell yourself what a good job you did. Even if you’re in a hurry, you can plan rewards that take a few seconds, like standing up and stretching, looking out the window for 10 seconds, or tossing a pen in the air and catching it. If you plan them as rewards, they feel like rewards, and give you time to congratulate yourself on getting something done. MYTHS OF TIME MANAGEMENT Myth #1: There’s too much to do; I can’t handle it all. This can’t be the real reason why I have a messy house. After all, other people manage.

It’s encouraging to hear that there are others who also have trouble with the “little” things in life. That means that it isn’t just that there are too many things for one person to handle: rather, it’s possible, theoretically at least, for me to organize my time in a way that gets it all done. Myth #2: There’s plenty of time; I can do that later. This is the exact opposite of myth #1. Yet both myths contribute to procrastinating. Rather than switch from one myth to the other, I need a consistent, realistic view of how much my time is worth and how much of it there is.

Myth #3: I’m busier than usual right now, so it makes sense to shift some tasks off to another time. Occasionally it’s really true, of course. But usually, I’m about equally busy all the time, really. My time is worth the same all the time, with a few exceptions like if I’m trying to be on time for a job interview or something. It SEEMS that I’m unusually busy at any given moment, because at that moment, I’m AWARE of the things impinging one my time right then. A person can only be aware of so many things at once. The detail of the moment seems complex; the future seems simple, free and clear.

But really life is always that complex. I may think, “This is an unusually busy day because I have library books due. ” It seems reasonable; I know I only have books due on a small percentage of all days. But really, there are so many other aspects to life: dentist appointments, parties, holiday celebrations, bike repairs, etc that taking all into consideration, the other days are really just as busy. I also tend to think I’ll “have plenty of time” later the same day, too. And of course I don’t. Myth #4: Re-scheduling something to a later time is procrastinating.

No, re-scheduling is taking control and responding to new information about priorities and time available. It’s only procrastinating if you don’t schedule it at all, or if you re-schedule for the wrong reasons — which will become apparent when you find yourself re-scheduling the same thing more than about 3 times. In that case, stop and think about whether you really want to do the thing. If it’s important, go ahead and start. Myth #5: This little task is not important. Example: I cut open a package of food and leave the little bit of plastic I cut off on the kitchen counter.

Question: Shall I put the bit of plastic in the garbage right now? It seems that doing so is not important. The plastic isn’t doing any harm where it is. It won’t hurt me if I leave it there. I can always put it in the garbage later. But actually it is important to put it in the garbage. I ask myself, “Is it important not to have it sitting there on the counter all year? ” Yes. I don’t want it there that long. OK, then I have to put it in the garbage — now or some time in the next few days. Next question: Is my time more valuable now than it will be, say, tomorrow?

I seem in a hurry now, but I will tomorrow, too. (See myth #3. ) Really it’s best to put it in the garbage right now. It’s important enough to be worth the few seconds of my time. The myth really means, “It’s not important to do it RIGHT NOW. ” However, it is important. Either it’s important or it isn’t. When it’s done doesn’t affect that. It’s important to wash the dishes before eating on them again; therefore it’s important to wash the dishes. If it’s important, it’s probably worth doing now. BEATING PROCRASTINATION Manage Your Time. Get It All Done.

If you’ve found yourself putting off important tasks over and over again, you’re not alone. In fact, many people procrastinate to some degree – but some are so chronically affected by procrastination that it stops them achieving things they’re capable of and disrupts their careers. The key to controlling and ultimately combating this destructive habit is to recognize when you start procrastinating, understand why it happens (even to the best of us), and take active steps to better manage your time and outcomes. Why do we Procrastinate?

In a nutshell, you procrastinate when you put off things that you should be focusing on right now, usually in favour of doing something that is more enjoyable or that you’re more comfortable doing. Procrastinators work as many hours in the day as other people (and often work longer hours) but they invest their time in the wrong tasks. Sometimes this is simply because they don’t understand the difference between urgent tasks and important tasks, and jump straight into getting on with urgent tasks that aren’t actually important. They may feel that they’re doing the right thing by reacting fast.

Or they may not even think about their approach and simply be driven by the person whose demands are loudest. Either way, by doing this, they have little or no time left for the important tasks, despite the unpleasant outcomes this may bring about. Another common cause of procrastination is feeling overwhelmed by the task. You may not know where to begin. Or you may doubt that you have the skills or resources you think you need. So you seek comfort in doing tasks you know you’re capable of completing. Unfortunately, the big task isn’t going to go away – truly important tasks rarely do. Other causes of procrastin.

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Time Management Essay

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Time Management Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 16051

  • Pages: 64

Time Management

If you have problems on deadlines and commitments or sometimes you wish for a twenty-fifth hour in a day or for an eighth day in a week, then do not worry because you are not alone. However, you can still do something on that most valuable resource which Time Management Tips for a College StudentThis is something new information about time management for college student, keep reading until the last write. If you have problems on deadlines and commitments or sometimes you wish for a twenty-fifth hour in a day or for an eighth day in a week, then do not worry because you are not alone. However, you can still do something on that most valuable resource which is Time.

You can never regain time once you lost it. In order to develop and advance in your personal life, you should wise in using your time. By the time you get old you could always go back and reminisce about your beautiful memories and activities. Always bear in mind that a well-spent time is more valuable than gold. Time management is a very vital instrument that can help you in achieving success in school, job and other personal undertakings.

Normally, what comes to our mind when we speak about time management? Maybe, the executive who is so busy or owners of small business who are stressed out. Or a soccer mom who has a van filled with kids. It is somewhat possible that all of these will come to your mind. Nonetheless, have you taken into consideration that a college student will fall into this group? It is indeed true. A college student is not exempted from such situation.

Let us consider the lifestyle of a typical college student. A college student is still very young in mind and heart, enjoys a social life which is so challenging, still learning the ins and outs of business accomplishment. As a college student you are supposed to manage your schedule properly, attend classes, study the lessons, do your homework, and perhaps perform a part time job, an active participation in extra curricular activities. A college student will always find time to be with friends, and family.

With all these responsibilities, the college student will find it difficult to manage especially at a young age. Balancing the rigid schedule will be impossible for a college student to do it. Remember that if a college student will have inappropriate time management, then it will have lasting effects as shown by the failure of grades. Hence, the necessity of time management.

Actually, time can not be managed. You can not slow down the time nor to make it faster or produce it. Man exists in time and space. Time management is when you are able to manage your self by making use of the its basic principles. Self management will make time not as an opponent, but as a friend.

There are some benefits you could gain from time management. First, you will be able to have more accomplishments. Second, you will be able live an ordered life. Third, there will be more extra time. Fourth, you will be able to meet deadlines. Fifth, procrastination will be overcome. Sixth, the reduction of stress.

Although, time management is a common necessity, this is one of the features wherein we do not have a standard which will be applied for everybody. The time management for a student in college is very much different from the time management for a worker in the office, soccer mom, or an owner of a business.

The primary element for the success of a college career is surely a good quality of time management. It is very basic for you as a college student to be wise in making schedules and how to manage the time.

Say for example, you fail to meet deadlines and important appointments. There will lead to conflicts and complications to your social and academic endeavors. Of course, you will experience more frustrations, guilt, anxieties and other horrible feelings.

It is necessary for you to have a clearer idea on how you spend your time, before you manage your time. There are several time management tips for a college student.

· Follow strictly your daily plan, whatever your new schedule will turn into a habit.

· You should plan in order that your schedule will be organized.

· There should be proper listing of your short and long term goals.

· Take into account the best time for you to be more productive.

· You should study first the more difficult subjects.

· In order to maximize your effective performance, you should combine activities.

· Spare time must be used properly.

· Be true to yourself and allot some time to talk with yourself.

· Make it a habit to say no, when you are supposed to say NO to somebody.

· Avoid being a perfectionist

· You should know how to do away with distractions and interruptions

· There is always a time for everything.

· Avoid the habit o postponing things which can bed done now.

· In everything you do, you should be properly organized.

· Be calm always.

· Be a fast reader and selective.

· Develop the habit of questioning everything that is included in your list to do.

· Make use of a calendar for your schedule.
Time Management Tips for College Students
College years cannot be forgotten easily. Why? Because it is one of the hardest and the toughest stage in a person%u2019s life. It entails lots of preparations and adjustments. Time Management Tips for College StudentsThis is something new information about time management for college student, keep reading until the last write. College years cannot be forgotten easily. Why? Because it is one of the hardest and the toughest stage in a person’s life. It entails lots of preparations and adjustments.

College life is full of challenges. College students are faced of mountainous confrontations and obstacles that must be faced. These students must work hard to prove not only to themselves but to other people that they are worthy of getting into college and finishing successfully.

To do and accomplish all the challenges and dares that are facing the college students, proper time management is necessary. College student should know how to manage time properly and how to consume time for worthy things.

The ability to manage and schedule time wisely makes college life easier. Missing important deadlines and appointments may cause difficulty and complications to both the academic and social life of the student. These things can also result to guilt, anxiety, stress, frustrations and other negative feelings.

The following are some of the tips for college students on how to manage time their time successfully.

%u2022 Learn how to prioritize. Prioritization is one of the most important aspects of time management. Proper prioritization of engagements and responsibilities is very necessary. There are too many college students that are ignorant and do not know how to set prioritization. This can often lead to procrastinations. %u2022 Make use of ‘to do list’. This does not necessarily mean making a schedule. This is only listing the things that are important to be done. List things according to their importance.

%u2022 Stop being a perfectionist. Nothing is perfect. God created no perfect things and individuals. When you try to be perfect, you are only setting your self up for defeat. Many difficult and hard tasks lead to avoidance and procrastinations.

%u2022 Set goals. Setting goal is good in managing the time of college students. You should set goals that are not only attainable but should also be challenging.

%u2022 Try to combine several activities. Trying to combine many several activities in one sitting. Example of these are the following: when watching a sit-com, try to compute your bills in between commercials; when taking a shower, list in your mind the things that are needed to be done; while you are commuting on the way to school, listen to taped notes. These things can save you some of your time that could have been set aside for other things.

%u2022 Survey your personal time. Making personal time survey help in estimating how much time is consumed and spent in many typical activities. This is very important if you are wanting to manage your time properly. Do these by tracking the time you spent for a day or a week. This gives you an idea on how much time you are consuming in different activities and things. This will also allow you to realize and identify the time wasters.

%u2022 Make a daily schedule to be followed. There are many different styles of time schedules that you can use. Try to make use of the time schedule that can fit into your personality. The common styles of time scheduling are through engagement books, cards, a piece of poster board tacked to a wall and many other styles. Once you are know what style to use, construct it soon. Put in the time schedule all the things that are necessary, including your personal needs.

%u2022 Take some notes and review them before the end of the day. This will help identify the things that you have done properly and the things that you have failed to do. This can help you develop proper time management skills.

%u2022 You should learn how to say no. There is nothing wrong in saying no in some instances and cases. For example, somebody invited you to watch a movie at a time when you have got something to do. Leave out the movie and prioritize your task. You can do that later on.

Learning proper time management for college students is very important. Learning these things early on will prepare them for the life that lay ahead of them. These will be their tool in achieving the life they are dreaming of. Balance your Act: College Student Tips for Time Management

Being in college is a situation that warrants steady nerves and good time management skills. Indeed, college students are dangerously prone to stress and pressure. What with attending classes, studying, working a part-time job, doing extracurricular activ Balance your Act: College Student Tips for Time ManagementThis is something new information about time management for college student, keep reading until the last write. Being in college is a situation that warrants steady nerves and good time management skills. Indeed, college students are dangerously prone to stress and pressure. What with attending classes, studying, working a part-time job, doing extracurricular activities and finding time for social functions and interactions with family and friends, you might find it hard to balance your time properly.

You cannot afford to concentrate on just one particular activity and lose track with the others. You must distribute your time well and avoid tipping over the precarious balance of activities once you have established them.

It is easy to say that you need to balance your act and find time for every responsibility you have engaged in. Still you need a supreme hold over your time management in order that you can balance your college schedule properly.

Here are several college student tips for time management. These will help you stay balanced and stress-free as you go about your everyday obligations as a college student.

1. You have to set up your goals. In Steven Covey’s “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People”, he shared a very good story of big rocks in a jar wherein the moral is that you need to set out your topmost priorities in life, or your big rocks, first. This way, you will clearly define your ultimate goal and not have to neglect it once other smaller goals or priorities (small rocks, sand and water, in Covey’s story) pile up to occupy your time.

Once you have put in your ultimate goal, then you can set out to determine particular goals. For example, define your academic goals, extracurricular goals and social activity goals. By doing so, you can determine what you want to accomplish in a day, a week, a whole semester and even a whole school year.

Setting goals will help you become more inclined to follow through with them and check them off one by one as you accomplish each.

2. Set your priorities straight. Once you determined what your ultimate and particular goals are, then you will know what to accomplish. Getting your priorities straight means figuring out which tasks you must accomplish foremost in order to achieve your set goals. You can set up a list everyday on what are the activities that warrant your most attention.

3. Get organized. This is a time management discipline and the key to completing your tasks in a timely manner. Identify each goal you have and determine the schedule when they need to be accomplished. A weekly calendar is called for.

Here, you must list your class schedule, set a few hours of review, mark social events, club meetings, exercise time, and any other necessary activity essential to achieving your ultimate goal. . For each activity, make sure you have included the inclusive period for them and deadlines or due dates of accomplishment.

Look up faithfully in this calendar for you to develop a regular routine while managing to balance your time on numerous tasks.

4. Remember that procrastination is a deficiency. When you allow procrastination to seep into your being, it will cause you to fail miserably in balancing your time. Once you have set out to accomplish a task or plan on doing an activity, by all means, do so. Do not ever neglect a schedule or forget a due date.

Beware of the habit of putting off for tomorrow what you can do today. This kind of attitude will result to stress and excessive pressure on your part, which is not healthy.

5. Make use of each extra minute wisely. You can accomplish small tasks during some situations when you find yourself with nothing to do, like waiting for the bus or sitting idly in between classes. These circumstances are good opportunity to accomplish simple tasks that will constitute the completion of larger tasks.

6. Identify the time of day when you know you are most productive. By identifying the time when you have more energy to work, you will know when to start and finish challenging or demanding tasks.

Meanwhile, during the time when you have less energy to work, dedicate them to less challenging jobs. Implement this time management strategy and see how you will get more tasks accomplished in each day.

Develop a well-maintained time management plan involving these tips and you
will achieve better time management skills as you mature. You will also become a balanced all-around college student! College Students and Time Management You all know how difficult it is to balance your studies and other activities in school, especially in examination weeks. It seems like you should do everything all at once.

Students, especially college students, find it very hard to balance their hectic College Students and Time ManagementThis is something new information about time management for college student, keep reading until the last write. You all know how difficult it is to balance your studies and other activities in school, especially in examination weeks. It seems like you should do everything all at once. Students, especially college students, find it very hard to balance their hectic schedule.

If you are a college student, there are probably many things to do in school that you almost have no more time to study or miss spending time with your friends. This can be very frustrating and could lead you to get bored on your studies.

Knowing how to balance your time can and will work to your advantage. You can perform all your school activities and spend time with your friends when you know how to manage your schedule or time.

Having time management skills is very important for college students. With effective planning of your schedule, you will not get bored on your studies.

Exam weeks are probably the most hectic schedule you will ever have as a college student. You will be very busy on your studies and need lots of time with your books. However, there are also activities you need to do outside your school like, going to the laundry, or driving to town to buy groceries or eat.

If you listen to music while you are driving then you can study while driving by listening to audio study tapes or CD’s. You can record your entire professor’s lecture in a cassette and use them for study purposes.

This method is very efficient and very useful. Just name all tapes about the topic and date. This will be easier to understand than reading.

You can also try to attend seminars where speakers can teach and advise you on time management. Remember that scheduling and time management is important for you as a college student and as an individual.

Just imagine missing an important appointment and deadlines for projects, it can be very frustrating and can cost you your grades and social life. Imagine the frustration this will give you, that is why time management is very important.

Time management does not necessarily mean that you have to study more and socialize less. It will give you an idea on how to balance both and how to make use of your time that will fit your need.

Time management will also show you how to set your priorities straight. Some college students tend to forget about their important duties and priorities in school and ends up getting frustrated.

To start managing your time you first need to know how much time you spend on each specific activities you do.

First, you have to take note of all the activities you do for a week and list down how much time you spend on each typical activity. Doing this will help you prepare more efficiently on a specific subject or class of the day, and it will also help you identify which activity is a waste of time.

Set more time studying on subjects you know that you have difficulty on. If you think a particular subject is easy for you, try to take one hour of study time from that particular subject and add that extra hour on more difficult subjects.

Try to stick to your schedules as much as possible. College students are easily tempted by social activities like gathering of friends in a bar for a drink. Learn to say no to your friends. This is very important to avoid failing in classes. If you are invited on a school night to go out and have fun, tell your acquaintance that you are studying and could not afford to fail in the particular class.

Sometimes, it is very tempting that you should join your friends. You might think that you can pass up studying for today and you can always study the next day. Students make this common mistake college, if your schedule says that you should study, and then you have to study. Of course, you need to socialize, but do it in your free time.

Knowing proper management of your time as a college student can further help you in your future as a professional. With this knowledge, you can easily adjust to the world of offices and work. Always remember that there are times for studying and there are times for having fun. College Students, Strengthen your Time Management Skills Research! It is but natural for college students to find ways of strengthening their skills in time management.

It is an essential aspect for them to achieve a successful life. College students are aware of time management skills through research and practical mean College Students, Strengthen your Time Management Skills Research!This is something new information about time management for college student, keep reading until the last write. It is but natural for college students to find ways of strengthening their skills in time management. It is an essential aspect for them to achieve a successful life. College students are aware of time management skills through research and practical means.

Time management is an important skill for college students because they typically need to juggle many different activities in a rather unstructured environment.

Many college students struggle to maintain a productive and balanced time in order to accomplish all their goals and the tasks involved to achieve them. Most college students lives evolve in attending classes, working a part-time (some even full-time) job, allocating quality time for families and friends, and striving to find time for their own needs.

With proper time management skills and researching effective methods and system, these ongoing tasks will not become heavy burden for college students.

Once college students go to a class with a positive attitude and still manage to accomplish their other tasks with ease, their time are spent wisely and their whole disposition will turn out positively. If they lack time management skills, they will likely procrastinate, become too stressed out and pressured then end the day in a sour mood with nothing accomplished.

Now do you see the importance of knowing time management skills? If you have little or no experience in managing your time do a time management skills research. If you cannot do this, you can also talk with an accomplished professional who is experienced in time management.

In your part-time or full-time job, you are also likely to meet someone who can support you and share with you valuable time management system. You can even go outside your campus and research on how fellow college students in other universities and community colleges struggle with time management.

There are time management courses designed for college students that can provide a good foundation developing the time management skills, strategies, tools and methods. This will help strengthen college student’s resolve to create an effective time management system to aide them through achieving their life’s goals.

College students can also research on other time management skills resources online for further knowledge on how to create significant and efficient time management skills.

In the course of your time management skills research, you are likely to learn of making plans. Plans are the steps in setting up a time management system according to your college routine, whether academic or non-academic. Plans may, can, will, and has failed, though. Still, knowing ample time management strategies can teach you how to be flexible in putting up an action plan, scheduling and listing of priorities tasks.

Setting your priorities straight is also an important aspect that you need to learn and research about in time management. As a college student, you need to set priorities and work hard to achieve your goals. Doing this will further strengthen your skills and even your character and resolve.

College students are often struggling, simply because many of them procrastinate, or have difficulties in a course and refuse to ask for help. Do not fall victim to the habit of putting off for tomorrow what you can do today.

Alternatively, proper research of time management skills will also give you more ideas on how to manage your other affairs outside of college. These affairs include social entertainment activities with old and new friends.

Failure to balance out your college student activities and your social activities outside of college can distract your mind and lead you to over-choice and over-commitment. This will tip the precarious balance you are struggling to maintain.

You can strengthen your skills by looking at the situation and realizing that these distractions are mishaps waiting to happen. Do not be proud enough to reject help. Refusing assistance or refusing to admit that you need assistance will lead you to a road of disaster.

You will also find out in your research about time management skills for college students that procrastination is not an option if you are striving for success. Procrastination is a considerable waste of time and energy. It will only pile you up with additional tasks you already had on your plate.

Finally, through research and healthy practice of time management tips, you will learn that the key to strengthen your time management skills is to move obstacles out of your way. You have to run over the outward obstacles head on without having to suffer complications.

As a college student, you need to further your research and improve your time management skills. Learn it well by doing and you find out that experience is a good teacher. College Time Management- Access to a Good Career James is getting irritated with this usual reprimand of his father. Every morning when he wakes up late, instead of scolding him, the father always utters this friendly advice to his son. College Time Management- Access to a Good CareerThis is something new information about time management for college student, keep reading until the last write. “Son, remember that the journey to a thousand miles always begin with a first step.”

James is getting irritated with this usual reprimand of his father. Every morning when he wakes up late, instead of scolding him, the father always utters this friendly advice to his son.

Are you like James? Wake up to reality dear college students. College life is very different from spending your time in high school. It is the point when people are expecting much from you. You are bearing greater responsibility. It is a period of maturity, you are accountable in every decision you take.

What do you think is the greatest factor that hinders your everyday task as a college student? Is it peer pressure or the burden of school projects?

Most of the students are complaining in the duration of their college life. It seems too long for them. They have many things to do. Group discussion today, project tomorrow and examination the next day, all these sometime make you freak out. Have you ever had a time of reflecting within you? Did you ever ask yourself about the real reason behind the problems you encounter?

Well, you had better do so. Perhaps, this is the time for you to assess yourself and make a difference. The reason behind all the problems that you encounter during your college life falls on one key factor, time management. It is most important than what you think.

Managing your time properly is just associated with your dedication and commitment. If you do so, it will simply mean that you are starting to become more responsible individual.

Time management is a very essential practice for every college students. This will help you to lessen the pressure you feel. This will also prevent you from cramming. It will make things work lighter for you, little by little.

Here are some tips for you to manage your time accurately:

1. Be organized; make a timetable.

When you are just getting started, this is a bit time consuming. You need to provide yourself with a handy notebook where you can place the date, time and your scheduled activity for the day.

This will teach you to become organize. You can allot your time properly. If there are necessary adjustments that you will do, at least you can easily check it in your timetable.

2. Be goal driven- tack a goal for every activity.

There is always a time for enjoyment with your peers. However, in every activity that you do make sure that you are tracking a particular goal.

Every move that you take should be base on your personal objective. This will make you grow as a person.

3. Set your priorities.

Important activities should be settled first above other minor actions. If you have examination tomorrow and it was the birthday party of your friend, better go on with your exam first.

You can ask your friend to go out maybe on the weekends. If he is really a true friend for you, he will understand you.

Your priorities will also be reflected on your timetable. Your entire schedule that can be set aside should be place at the bottom. Usually, for a college student the common activities that you need to prioritize are those that concern your school.

Those are just simple tips for you. The kind of life that you will have in the future will depend upon you. If you continue to mismanage your time, expect that you will also have a lesser chance to succeed.

You must grab all the opportunities offered for you in your college life. Make use of every second that you have resourcefully. This will serve as your initial step in tracking a good future.

Time management is your doorway to success. This is your first pace towards the thousand miles. Do not be annoyed when your parents are scolding you when you are always late. They always know what the best is for you. This is for your own sake.

Keep in mind that whatever you are performing now will determine the kind of person that you will become in the future. Effective Time Management for College Students Freshmen Have you ever run out of time to do something that you really need to do? Effective Time Management for College Students FreshmenThis is something new information about time management for college student, keep reading until the last write. Have you ever run out of time to do something that you really need to do?

If you answered yes then maybe you did not manage your time very well. Time management is making the most of your schedules and makes sure your do it.

It is one of the most important skills to arm yourself with during college. You will be very busy on your studies and at the same time balance it by socializing with other students.

You have successfully passed the university exam, you are so happy that you will be able to meet new friends and perhaps have a girlfriend or boyfriend.

Keep in mind that just entering college is the easy part, the hard part would be finishing it in one piece. College can be fun and at the same time frustrating, especially when your professor is giving you a hard time. You probably thought of these things when you first visited your university campus:

%u2022 The campus is so big, I have to get ready for classes but I also want to go to parties.

%u2022 I am scared. Help me.

%u2022 Ok, so now I am in college. Now what?

%u2022 Where is the bathroom?

Making it through college is not about how smart you are. It is not about how much you scored on your college entrance exams and it is not all about studying. People need to socialize, its part of their nature. College provides that but college also requires you to study.

You see, you have to balance your time between studies and socializing. Some college students study their minds out but some of them do not make it through college because of stress. Some college students think of the university as one big party organization.

The students either does not know how important it is to socialize and some are just plain lazy to study or does not know how important education is.

You may be a genius but it is not the key to be successful in college. So what is the secret to get you through college? Time management is the key.

You have to balance everything in your college life. You have to do manage everything like, morning jogs, preparing for classes, studying, school organization activities, spending time with friends and sleeping.

Time management is not all about studying but also the awareness on relieving the stress of being in college.

Here are some ways on how you can effectively manage your so little time.

%u2022 Set goals. Know what you want to achieve and make it your priority. This can be anything, whether you want to achieve the goal in a day, a week, or a semester. Ask yourself what your academic goal is.

Making goals can make it easier for you to look straight ahead; instead of juggling subjects that you think is easy, this could be very stressful and often results in not achieving your goal.

If you have more than one goal, then it is a good idea to subdivide it into manageable pieces. List down what you want to achieve for one week and for another week.

%u2022 Prioritize. Once you are determined on the goals you want to achieve, you need to prioritize the activities required by the goal. This will help you determine what particular task needs to be accomplished first and what tasks can be set aside in the mean time. To achieve your priorities more efficiently, try to mark deadlines in your calendar.

%u2022 Time management planning is there for you to follow. Do not stray from it. The key to time management planning is following it. Some college students get easily tempted by acquaintances to go to a party while the student is studying or in the process of achieving his or her goals.

They often think that they can put off the schedule until tomorrow. This often results in too much things to do the next day resulting in stress and frustration.

%u2022 Make use of extra time. For example, instead of doing nothing in a class waiting for the professor, try to think of the last class assignment. If you are going to write an essay, use the time to think of a good topic for it.

This is a great way to manage your time into manageable pieces and great time saver. This also makes you more time to spend time with your friends. Just remember that the sooner you get a task done, the better instead of letting it wait.

You all probably thought that a day only lasts too short for you to finish all your work and wishes that there were more hours in a day, but it is literally impossible. Therefore, the best thing to do is utilize with what little time you have.

Make a time management schedule to set priorities straight and avoid being stressed out of trying to accomplish everything at once. Identifying your Big Rocks and Managing College Student Activities We all know how crazy college activities could get at a certain point in time. What with classes, conferences, and researches, there is no wonder that some are hopelessly stressed out and confused and gets their priorities all mixed up.

There are also tho Identifying your Big Rocks and Managing College Student ActivitiesThis is something new information about time management for college student, keep reading until the last write. We all know how crazy college activities could get at a certain point in time. What with classes, conferences, and researches, there is no wonder that some are hopelessly stressed out and confused and gets their priorities all mixed up. There are also those who balance a part-time job while attending college.

Still, others have to balance out their studies with extra-curricular and civic activities. Of course, you also need to spend time with old and new friends and attend social activities with them.

All these things are actually part of the activities a college students need to contend with. Organizing your time in order to successfully accomplish your college degree and still do all the other responsibilities is a feat you need to master.

First, you need to know how valuable each time of the day is and how to use it well according to your activities in college. There is a well-told story in Steven Covey’s “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People” which has a profound tale of how to use your time well.

The story tells of a guy or a professor of some sort who stood in front of a class holding a big jar, which he placed with big rocks. After filling it up with big rocks, he asked the class if it is full and most said yes.

Then, he got smaller rocks and put them in the big jar too, along with the big ones. The smaller rocks, of course fit in the jar. After which, he again asked if the jar is already full. Still, most in the class said yes. Quite suspiciously, others said it seems full and others expressed their affirmation guardedly.

After their reply, the professor produced a bag of sand and poured it into the jar, too. The sand, of course filled out all the tinier spaces between the big and small rocks. After emptying the bag of sand unto the jar, he again asks if it is already full. The class, already quite dubious, said sure it is full.

Whether the man is not satisfied, or is going on proving his point, he got out a glass of water, which really did seeped up into the sand and ranks and finally filled up the jar.

After this, he asks, what the moral of the story is. The class, thinking that they have spotted the trick, replied quite smartly that the moral of the story is that “you can always squeeze a bit more in.”

But, the man quickly pointed out that the real moral of the story is that “you need to get your big rocks in first, or all that other smaller ‘stuff’ gets in way too soon and takes up all the space.” Indeed, it is quite true and really, a profound enlightenment concerning college student’s activity time management.

First, you need to identify your ‘big rocks’ – the things that matter to you the most. Of course, you could always squeeze in other minor activities along with your ‘big rock’ activities.

However, if you fail to point out your top priorities and always accomplish them first, then you will never have the chance to finish them out. This is because those other stuff you are doing will take up most of your time and drown your efforts for your top priority activities.

According to Covey, these are the Quadrant Two activities. Covey further reiterates that if you fail to spend time putting the most important goal in your life as the first thing in your college student activity schedule, then you will never get the chance to let your ‘big rock’ activity evolve and grow.

This kind of time management is also a means of self-management. In fact, these two concepts are the same things. College students must set priorities for themselves from number 1 or the most important thing they want out of life, up to the least important but significant little stuff they need to do that will support in their achievement of their most important goal.

Once you have listed down your ‘big rock’ goal or activity, then you must manage your college student activities – studies, researches, extra – curricular college activities, civic duties and socials, without ever straying far from your ultimate goal. Make sure that you do not end up doing everything but finish up with nothing.

Spend the time to reflect on your reasons for being in college and your reasons for involving yourself in other college student activities. Doing this cogitation helps you draw up the list of priorities you need to accomplish.

Always remember Covey and his big rocks, though. In listing down your priorities in life, always put in number one, your big rock activities. Effective Time Management for College Students using Calendar System Eric is having a hard time coping up with his schedules. Whenever the final examination is nearing, he always crams up to study his lessons.

Moreover, the submission and the quality of his school projects are also affected. In other words, his schedule is Effective Time Management for College Students using Calendar SystemThis is something new information about time management for college student, keep reading until the last write. Eric is having a hard time coping up with his schedules. Whenever the final examination is nearing, he always crams up to study his lessons. Moreover, the submission and the quality of his school projects are also affected. In other words, his schedule is a big mess for him.

If you are a college student with similar problems like Eric, there is a common problem that both of you are sharing with-it is about time management. Being a student is synonymous to busy schedules. Your subject professors assigning mountain of homework, you are member of the dance troupe, and all other things that come with being a student.

You have so much to do but so little time to do it. It is a common problem for college students. Finding time to perform all possible activities that you will encounter during your college life is difficult. Instead of enjoying it, you will end messed up .

How do you find time for all of this schoolwork? The best advice to avoid getting bogged down is to keep track of your time. Keep a record of your days and maintain your daily progress on the way to your objectives.

Remember that time management is vital; it will help you to determine your success in your college life. If you still uncertain on how you will organize your schedule, maybe you should have a time calendar as a gift for yourself.

Time Calendar System

It is similar to the calendar that you use in your home. However, it is customized to help you track down different activities. It includes the date and time of your activities.

You can also take down notes. For instance, you have cancelled your appointment with someone because of some reasons. College schedules are taking a long-term perspective on time.

There are different scales of time calendar that you can use. It can be a yearly, monthly, and weekly calendar.

Year Scale Time Calendar

It is not easy to monitor today’s activity and remember what needs to be done in six months. Plan ahead with a yearly calendar, divided into months. You can keep track of your short term and long-term goals.

For instance, your project submission is due for the next two months, then
you can plan three months in planning how your project will be done.

You can also add all long-term deadlines on this calendar.

Monthly Scale Time Calendar

It is divided into the number of days in a month. You can include all paper deadlines, examination dates, and appointments that will be happening in that particular month so that you can plan.

Add self-imposed deadlines on personal appointments with your friends so that your college schedule with not be ruined.

Weekly Scale Time Calendar

Most students prefer a weekly scale of measurement because it is easy to update. Your weekly calendar includes your day-to-day appointments and deadlines. Have a group study on Thursday afternoon. You can record it here.

Daily to-do List

It will keep you moving on the way to your objectives on a daily basis. You can spare some 10 minutes every night and make a to-do list for the next day.

Have a glance over your calendar for the next couple of weeks to remember activities that need to be planned. Treat your daily to-do list as your friend. Never leave home without it.

%u2022 Always update your to-do list. Rank each item by importance. Get rid of unessential activities and include all the important ones.

%u2022 Schedule time to work on classes and research each day. It will help you to organize your class works and your research studies. Organized school works keeps you away from cramming and jamming up your schedules.

%u2022 Be flexible. Expect that in every activity, there is a possibility of interruptions that can result in the cancellation of that particular activity.

Planning your school schedule using the time calendar system will eventually enhance your time management skills.

So get started and have your time calendar with you all the time. As mentioned earlier, treat it as you friend and never leave your house without it. The Few Things that Students Should Know About Time Management Students in different schools are faced with challenges. They are faced with challenges that test their potential and capabilities to the maximum. The Few Things that Students Should Know About Time Management Students in different schools are faced with challenges. They are faced with challenges that test their potential and capabilities to the maximum.

In order for the students to face all these challenges, they must acquire the skills needed that will make things easier for them. These will ensure that they do not succumb to defeat once the going gets tough. One of the most important skills they should learn is time management.

Proper time management is the ability to manage time successfully. It includes prioritization, scheduling and setting of goals, organization and utilization of things available, avoidance, decision making, knowledge and many others. Time management is quite hard to do because it entails proper preparations and adjustment.

Effective and proper time management of students offers and provides benefits. The following are some of the benefits they can get from time management.

%u2022 Students practicing effective and proper time management can get more of quality time. There are things that students set aside as unimportant in order to make the most of their time. But they do not know that these are vital things. Take eating, for example.

Eating is a significant part of everyone. People need to eat properly and on time to maintain their strength. It is part of the total time spending. With effective and proper time management, you can learn how to organize your time effectively so that you get to enjoy your meals in their proper time.

%u2022 Not setting tasks for later. The undone things that you think you should be doing or should have done gives you burden because of the subconscious guilt. Incorporating proper and effective time management teaches you overcome procrastination and it also teaches you how to prioritize things.

You will feel more confident when you know that there are no unfinished task burdening you while you are doing other things. You can work better and achieve more once your conscience is clear of worries.

%u2022 Students with effective and proper time management have less frustrations. Effective planning and organization techniques are aspects of time management. This will ensure that you will not face anymore frustrating situations. Overcoming frustration makes it easier to release the full power of creativity and productivity of a person.

%u2022 Time management increases your energy level. Many of your undone things circulates in your mind. The tendency is for you to think about them when you could have been doing your other tasks. Proper and effective time management teaches you how to be organized and how to unclutter your mind from the energy drains of unhandled things or the so- called ‘unfinished businesses’. With this, you can have and experience a higher energy level that you have never experienced.

%u2022 With effective and proper time management, you can get a sense of achievement and piece of mind. If you are not sure if where you are going, you will feel anxiety and dissatisfactions. One aspect of effective and proper time management is setting goals smartly. This technique teaches and helps you realize where you are going and to see the optimal path that you want. And these gives you piece of mind and sense of achievement.

Before you can feel the benefits of effective and proper time management, you should practice effective and proper time management first. The following are some of the things that should be done in time management.

1. Set your goals. You should determine exactly the things that you really want to accomplish. Set goals that achievable and realistic.

2. Know when you are most productive. Knowing the time you are most productive attacks you to do more things and exert more effort.

3. Avoid procrastination. Make use of your time wisely and effectively. Remember the saying ‘time is gold’.

4. Know how to organize. Knowledge on proper organization help you achieve and attain the goals you have set in a timely manner.

5. Know how to prioritize. Prioritization of things is very important. It is the key to effective time management.

Students’ dedication in practicing time management is also important. Without dedication, all their time management skills will result to nothing. It is as if they never had them in the first place. Non-traditional Students and Traditional Time Management Tips Until circa 1960, if you visit major universities in the country, you will see students who are male, young, white, and full-time and come from a middle-class family. These students are what universities and colleges identify as traditional students.

Non-traditional Students and Traditional Time Management TipsThis is something new information about time management for college student, keep reading until the last write. Until circa 1960, if you visit major universities in the country, you will see students who are male, young, white, and full-time and come from a middle-class family. These students are what universities and colleges identify as traditional students.

During that time there was not much notion of students who work in part-time jobs to support their college education. College students with learning disabilities were also virtually invisible, even non-existent, then.

As our society continuously evolves, the predominance of traditional students in University student bodies experiences some changes. Somehow, due to the accommodation of more immigrants who have adopted our country as their own, the student body summaries for college institutions saw a distinct shift from having a population of traditional students into non-traditional ones.

Over the last several decades, student population now consists of those who are older, women, Asian/Hispanic, and are part-time. Meanwhile, traditional students as described slowly decrease in population. These are based factually from annual summary reports of the Chronicle of Higher Education on students at two-year and four-year colleges.

Non-traditional students are mostly women enlightened with their gender having equal opportunities in society today. They are not anymore teenagers fresh from high school. Some are already housewives who come back in school for a college education degree.

There are all kinds of reasons for adults to come back to school. They may have taken up a college education to guarantee promotion in their jobs. Various assistance programs to grant others with the opportunity to gain a college education within a given time limit.

The college institution faculty now confronts quite an interesting mixture of students, more diverse in age, gender, ethnicity and academic exclusivity in their lives. The notion of “traditional” students becomes quite uncommon and unusual. Ideas and tips for effective time management of these non-traditional students are emphasized.

It is a great challenge for Universities and Colleges to accommodate these non-traditional students. These students apparently have other responsibilities, aside from fulfilling their projects and attending study lectures.

Breaking down their time for responsibilities to their family, their part-time or full-time jobs, their academic and non-academic activities, could daunt those who are not very much motivated. It is quite a good point that these non-traditional college students are highly motivated.

Still, it is up to the Universities and college institutions to assist them in coming up with proper time management methods and strategies so that they will not neglect their college education.

Universities and college institutions must let these non-traditional students feel that they are not alone in their endeavors. It is important to let them know that their goals are obtainable, and that they can make significant changes in their lives if they really go the extra mile for it.

Aside from assisting them in achieving confidence, determination, and encouragement to persevere, they must also know of properly setting up a time management program for themselves.

There is an extensive list of ideas and time management tips for college students, in general. However, non-traditional students are the ones who need most of these ideas. Here are several of them:

1. Do not fall over the Parkinson’s Law trap. Plan the length of time needed to successfully accomplish or complete a certain task. If it can be finished ahead of time, then it is much better.

2. The Pareto Principle or the 80/20 rule of getting 80% of the results from 20% of the work” is a good method to apply in accomplishing a certain task and getting the most out of the time.

3. No one is perfect so do not strive achieve perfection. It can be a waste of time to go back again and again just to perfect something. A job or task must be considered “finished” and it is time to move on to something else.

4. Do important task during the time of day when personal productivity is high.

5. Spend the night before getting ready for the next day.

6. Do not tolerate procrastination. Plan and divide time with efficiency without giving space for long terms of idleness or inactivity.

7. Do not skip classes just to do another activity or task..

8. For every hour of a lecture, schedule two hours to review it.

9. Identify a place which ambiance work well in inspiring work and creativity.

10. Tougher assignments or tasks need to be discussed first.

11. Do not or if not, stop being a blockhead Blockheads as other people are wont to do.

12. There is a need to stop an activity when you have reached the end of the scheduled time limit and move on to the next task at hand.

13. Check out the time available for a certain task or project. For large projects, break it up into smaller assignments to become more attainable and less daunting.

14. Give importance to major course classes.

15. Have a list of things to accomplish for a day, a week, a month, even a whole semester and check each one off once completed or achieved.

16. Set a schedule for exercise and relaxation. Remember, all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

17. Be an expert in carrying out small and simple tasks during intervals or lull in activities.

Non-traditional college students are flexible and experienced people. They can motivate themselves to excel, as long as they are guided by a good time management skill. Pointers for Self Discipline for Student Study and Time Management Pointers for Self Discipline for Student Study and Time Management”With my four years of existence in the company where I am working now, I commend all the successes that I achieved with all my college teachers.

Now, I have proven that they are right for always reminding me that self-discipline can bring me to pedestal. I have witness by myself, that there is really a big world out there, a big world beyond this school only if you have self-discipline and determination,” says the speaker.

People stood up and gave a warm round of applause after the speaker. It was a speech of gratitude given by a former student of the university during a commencement exercise.

After the program, everybody was inspired as they left the place. The parents are throwing the best smiles towards their children. After a long time of waiting, their children are able to finish college degree.

Nothing can be compared to the fulfillment that the parents feel after their children finish their study. The happiness inside their hearts is incomparable. This is what makes them whole as a parent.

Self-discipline for a student is indeed necessary. You should not always go with the flow of the water. One must able to resists with all the temptations surrounding them. This is most particularly for the college students who are greatly influence with peer pressure.

The word self-discipline is necessary for two important factors in a college life. First is self-discipline as equated with the study habit and self-discipline as to time management. Only if you are able to satisfy both, you will surely achieve a great success.

To have a thorough and a clear distinction for these two factors, check this out!

Studying for most college students is boring. Sometimes, it can even give them so much pressure. However, studying is not a matter of doing your homework neither it is about comprehending the things that you learn in your textbooks.

Studying is not also about counting the length of time that you spend in reading all your textbooks. It is about retention, the process of putting into your long-term memory all the learning that you have.

It is also a matter of putting into practice what you learn, and not by stocking it simply as a theory in your mind.

Self-discipline enters in studying when you are prioritizing things over. This is when you decide to go over with your lessons because you have an exam the next day or go with your friends for night out.

On the other hand, self-discipline is also a primary agent for time management. This will protect you from doing unnecessary things that can lead you to cramming. It deals on the manner on how you control yourself.

Time management is the proper allocation of your time for your daily activities. You should avoid taking things for granted. Do all the tasks that you are suppose to do today and do not leave it for tomorrow.

Usually, the main reason for cramming is when you tend to skip your scheduled activity for the day. If it will continue to happen for about two consecutive days, it will add up to your previous schedules. This will now come to a point that you are putting pressure to yourself to finish all of that.

Time management is your personal problem, if you just know how to do the right thing you will not worry. Put in mind that your everyday life is not a gamble, there should be an allocation of time in each of your activity.

It is not also a matter of trial and error that when you fail, you can go back to the time that you wasted for it.

Self-discipline for student study and time management is primarily important for all the college students. This is particularly the period of preparing yourselves for your own career in the future. A time for you to be serious on what you are doing.

If there is a person who knows more about you, it is yourself alone. You cannot ask for somebody’s help while tracking your goal.

As much as possible, you try to practice self-discipline at all times, so that despite of the hardships you can still stand up with your own. The Accurate and Effective Way for Student Time Management

Are you a high school or a college student? Are you burnt out or stressed out? Do you often feel about being run down and tired? Is your life spinning out of a disturbed way? Do you have too many priorities or pressures? The Accurate and Effective Way for Student Time ManagementAre you a high school or a college student? Are you burnt out or stressed out? Do you often feel about being run down and tired? Is your life spinning out of a disturbed way? Do you have too many priorities or pressures?

Student days are considered to be one of the busiest moments in our lives. Recitations, assignments, projects, and exams those are the things that make students feel exhausted. Aside from that, most of the students do not have enough time for their family anymore.

All their socializations, extra curricular activities and community interactions influence their time management. It seems that they always seem to be needed somewhere and some things are always needed to be done. If these students do not have any idea about budgeting their time and keeping a schedule, most probably their goals will not be accomplished in the precise time it is needed.

Communication and social skills also suffer a great deal. Once this happen, we might as well be wasting, not only time but also money. College tuitions do not come cheap. We must make sure that once we commit ourselves to college and other responsibilities along with it, we had better be prepared to carry out the demands, otherwise money, time and opportunity for a good future is lost.

As college students, we must not wander far from our ultimate goals. If we are not achieving what we set out to do in the first place, then it may lead to a disappointing failure.

College does not only require us to get up in the morning and meet class schedules. It also requires us to meet the set tuition payments and level up with the expectations your professors/instructors set for you.

Many college students still struggle in classes because they still have not
the courage to maintain a time management scheme that will allow them flexibility. There are in fact, general time management measures, which will give you a chance to level off your abilities, and help you gauge how far you think you should go.

Of course, the common student have full-time courses as part of their effort to achieve a long-term goal as quickly as possible. However, this is an ideal setting if you have the time and resources.

Before enrolling yourself for a course, check what schedule requires your presence. Considerations must be done in case you are working either a part-time or a full-time job. Depending on what type of job you are handling, you can employ different time management methods in order to accommodate your studies.

If you have a part-time job, you can lay out a plan to fit your schedule. Most University and community colleges already offer calendars, planners and clocks as tools to have you set up a schedule.

You can also negotiate with the administrators to consider your schedule. Applying for classes that work around your job commitment is also a good move. Meanwhile, those with full-time jobs can still think about college by wisely taking up online courses.

The good news is that not everyone is struggling with time challenges. Highly productive people effectively and efficiently handle all the things they set out to do.

They have ample know how on tackling big projects and how to accomplish them without feeling overwhelmed. They seek for a sense of fulfillment and balance in their life, and are setting and achieving their most important goals.

Always we must know that being a student in college is a venture that requires indomitable will of the mind and body. Time management skills may
be present, but if there is no proper method or strategy used, that corresponds to one’s specific situation, then it is useless. 7 Important Time Management Activities for High School Students Creating a time management is kind of like just the same as setting a budget. Just as the aim of a budget is to place an organization on your money, your aim in time management is to recover the management of your time. 7 Important Time Management Activities for High School StudentsThis is something new information about time management for college student, keep reading until the last write. Creating a time management is kind of like just the same as setting a budget. Just as the aim of a budget is to place an organization on your money, your aim in time management is to recover the management of your time.

To most people, time is money. Businesses have known this for so long. The more time you spend on a certain task, the more money will be spent or charged depending on the business.

Businesses do not like the idea to compensate employees who waste their time in unimportant matters. They give importance to people that can present the job done in an appropriate time and manner.

In schools, you are requested to do more tasks, frequently by different teachers or supervisors who do not care about the other tasks that you are doing. It only depends to you on how you will manage all your works in order for you to finish them on the time provided to you.

Perhaps, you would also want to some time to enjoy your being youth and lead a fulfilling and complete life.

Here are some tips in which you can use in order for you to beat all of your deadlines and have a systematized and well managed time table.

1. For the next week, have a printed record of all your activities. Put in your record the time you will appropriate for each activity, what are the types of activity that you should do and how long you usually take to get
them done. Arrange all these data in any manner you desire, but ensure you put all of your available time to be budgeted. You should also make sure to put in your record the time when you are not busy or doing anything.

2. Study how you will organize your time. Then, try to think of the following:

%u2022 What have you observed it?
%u2022 Have you completed all the task given to you before or on the deadlines. For instance, have you already finished your homework? %u2022 Were you able to attend other things that you like aside from your obligations at school? %u2022 Were you able to do all your duties at home?

%u2022 Do you still have time for your friends?
%u2022 What are the things that you like to do but have no time at all to do it?

Once, you have answered the above questions, try to think of the ways on how you can make your time management more effective.

3. Try to look for more information on the internet. There are many search engines that can help you improve your time organization.

4. Select or plan your own table to utilize to put a schedule for yourself for the whole week. Be sure that you spare some time for leisure and work. Be sensible in your anticipations. Try your schedule for one whole week, have a precise documentation of each activity.

5. Let your classmates know about your timetable. If they too have a timetable, evaluate the differences of your table if possible. Try to know the good sides of each table and know how the schedules work.

6. Change is the only thing in a person’s life that is permanent. What you used to do during your spare time may not be the same thing that you will do in six months or a year from now. If you have a winter game that you are joining in, you know that when the winter ends, your schedule will
definitely change.

If you are engaged in a school activity or any theatrical presentation, it is expected that you will be busier before the performance date than you are at the start of the rehearsals.

Take a look at the big picture before doing anything else. What do you think will your schedule for the following year look like? Choose the dates on that schedule and conjure a calendar that you can follow.

7. Make a timetable for the next five weeks. Make sure to put any alterations you expect due to your leisure activities and other events that have seasons and peak times. Utilize the schedule and be ready to do remarks on it when the five weeks is over.

How was it? Do not be negative in going back and ensure that the resources are scheduled or look beyond for other resources.

For high school students, it is always expected that they will have a busy time for studies and for playtime. However, no matter how hectic the schedule may be, it is still important that one have an appropriate time management in order to have a direction. Important Things to Remember with Time Management for College Students To all college students, one of the main differences of high school students from them is the eagerness to successfully handle their own time. If you start educating yourself with time management, you have a great advantage over other college students. Important Things to Remember with Time Management for College StudentsThis is something new information about time management for college student, keep reading until the last write. To all college students, one of the main differences of high school students from them is the eagerness to successfully handle their own time. If you start educating yourself with time management, you have a great advantage over other college students.

Parents are not always there to discipline you about being on time and the responsibilities of keeping a schedule. They are not at all times available
to scold when you are about to go to school late.

Remember, college students are not locked up in a room (detention, remember?) when they are late in class. Actually, there are professors who do not even notice if you are present on their class or not.

There are many social events that are happening in college that students do to fill up their calendar making them sometimes forget their academic responsibilities. This is a period in our lives that we can live as adults but sometimes forget to remember that adults have responsibilities to think about.

Obviously, your fresh liberty can be very costly, with failing marks and running expensive college costs keeping you from achieving your ambitions.

Time management for college students is what you need. It is one of the most important moves in a successful preparation to lead a better existence after college. It is necessary to organize one’s time properly and the only plan is not to be an incompetent and a perplexed person while in college.

Time management is not only necessary just to create a good name at a future job, but it is as well a requirement for a disciplined and orderly future.

The answer to successful time management is by being able to become your self’s supervisor. Instead of being dependent on your professors and parents, you have to become independent from now on.

One of the main obstructions to time management is deciding to delay or postpone important things for trivial matters. But, the simplest means to prevent delay is to being able to determine what you want and what you want to accomplish each day.

%u2022 Keep your lasting objectives within your reach.

Make a plan to reach your objectives. You know where you are. You think of
the possible ways that you can use to take you to your destination.

%u2022 List all the things that you know

Use a timetable to record your class schedules, social activities, and pastimes. When a future event is postponed or is reset for the next month, put it in a blank space in your timetable.

%u2022 Decide the things you want to do tomorrow before the day ends.

You can use a to-do record for your everyday activities. Set the planned activities into their proper time and consider the rest of record.

%u2022 Make your plan work

Sometimes, it is simpler to finish a work and directly deal with what we believe is a disruption. Still, there are times disruption progresses into rich clients. Follow your plan. If some things require your consideration, put it into your timetable or if you think it is an emergency and needs urgent attention, ensure you reschedule your present task.

%u2022 Do the things that seems to be difficult for you

Once the difficult task is done, the rest of your task will seem easier for you. But, if the difficult task is the one that stops you from starting, then begin with something simpler to encourage yourself that you can do it afterwards.

%u2022 Break things down to the unreasonable

Separating big homework into tiny parts will make it simpler to include them into your timetable. Also, you can pick your achievements as you complete each stage. It is more pleasing to think about what you have finished successfully than it is to worry over the things left for you to finish.

%u2022 Rules were made to be changed

Give yourself time to become flexible. Allow yourself to deal with disruptions in your timetable. Also, designate time to do the task, make some time to enjoy yourself as well. Plan for leisure activities and think of them as essential ingredients of your day it can provide you with something to work on and study seriously and with priorities.

%u2022 Keep in mind, tomorrow is always there to welcome you

Like other skills and abilities, it takes time to know how to correctly handle your time. Even the most proficient in time management has days when they do not properly meet their scheduled plans.

If you have failed once, it is not a reason for you to give up on time management. What you can do is to collect the pieces and begin a new schedule the following day.

Check your timetable at the end of the week to know the things that work for you and did not work.

Just make sure to follow your timetable always to have a great time management in each day of your college life. Time management is synonymous with what college is all about When you get to this stage in life, you will realize that additional tasks, schedules and responsibilities are laid out for you. If you do not know how to handle these things, you will find yourself stressed and burdened even before you finish your first.

Time management is synonymous with what college is all aboutThis is something new information about time management for college student, keep reading until the last write. When you get to this stage in life, you will realize that additional tasks, schedules and responsibilities are laid out for you. If you do not know how to handle these things, you will find yourself stressed and burdened even before you finish your first year.

That is why it is important that you set up proper time management to help
you keep all your sanity intact.

Here are some college time management tips you will find more than helpful.

1. Know what you want to accomplish.

Set some goals for yourself. This can be based on a daily, weekly, semester or an even longer span of time. Have a definite goal for your academics and extra-curricular activities.

It is important that these two should be thought of separately because you will want to know what should come first and what will come last in your schedule. Try to accomplish the most important things first before you decide if you can set aside time for other things that are of less importance.

2. Be systematic. Being systematic and well-organized can help you achieve the goals you have set in an orderly manner. Consider the tasks that are taking more of your time that need not be. That is why you have set goals in the first place; to be able to accomplish the necessary things.

Have a proper schedule set up detailing not only your class schedules, but also activities, events and other things that are important in achieving your goals.

In the schedule, never forget to note deadlines so you would not have any problem keeping up with them. By putting them on top of everything else, you do not have to go through cramming and rushing off to finish them in limited time.

Stand by the timely schedule you have created so you can build up a regular routine you can follow in the process of learning time management.

3. First things first.

Learn to prioritize your tasks. Know which ones you have to finish ahead of time and which ones can be put on hold. Do not drift from one task to another. You will just end up starting on many things but not really finishing any of them. You will achieve more when you stay focus on a particular task before starting on another.

Numbering your tasks according to their importance can be helpful. It does not make sense prioritizing a task that you like better when the one you dislike is due in a few days time. Like it or not, the project needed to be done. And you only have yourself to do that.

4. Put spare times into use.

What are spare time? It is when you find yourself just sitting, walking or wandering with nothing to do. While waiting for your friends on the cafeteria, instead of just looking around every now and then, take out your notes and browse through them to prepare yourself for the exam next week.

Another example of spare time is when you are waiting for your professor to come into a class. You can make a draft for your project during those times. You never know. By the time your class started, you may have finished a layout of your project. Thus minimizing the time you need to set aside for it.

5. Do not be a victim of procrastination.

It can be noted that procrastination is the archenemy of time management skills. Procrastination is simply putting up for tomorrow what might have been accomplished today.

If you plan on finishing the task set for today, stick to that time schedule. By doing so, you will avoid the stress of having to ram it into another day that may be full already. It is not easy racing against time because time always has a way of getting ahead of you.

By setting goals and making yourself determined to accomplish them, procrastination is diminished.

6. Make the most of your most productive time.

In a day, you probably have moment when you are more productive. Make the most of these times and schedule the most demanding tasks on that particular time. On the other hand, less demanding tasks should be set for times when you have less energy and enthusiasm.

By following the steps mentioned, you will achieve better time management skills and be a better college student. Make Time Management Effective Make Time Management Effective This is something new information about time management for college student, keep reading until the last write. Managing time for college students is such a tough thing to do. College life is full of challenges and burdens that should be dealt with properly and systematically. There are many things college students must accomplish for them to reach their dreams.

Every college student should balance all the aspects of his or her life. It is important to give attention to these aspects of living for if not, the equilibrium of living will change.

Every college student should balance his or her academic and social life. Proper time management is necessary in order to perform all the responsibilities and tasks that are in their shoulders.

Practicing proper time management is difficult and it entails a lot of adjustments and preparations. It is along process.

However, with advices and tips on how to make it effective, surely, it would be easy to realize. The following are some advices and tips on how to make time management effective and proper.

%u2022 One of the most important aspects of time management is goal setting.
Goal setting is one of the keys to success. In here, you should determine the things that you really want to accomplish.

These are the things that you want to accomplish for short period and long period of time like things you want to be done in a day, a week, a month or months, semester or even for years.

In setting goal, it should be remembered that set only those that are realistic and achievable. Do not set goals that are impossible to realize. This will only make you frustrated.

%u2022 Organization is equal to the importance of setting goal in making time management effective. When you are organized, it ensures and helps you achieve the goals you have set in a timely manner.

Through proper organization of tasks, you are informed constantly about the things, which need to be accomplished, and when they should be done. One way of organization is by making calendar. Make calendars that maybe of daily, weekly or monthly basis.

This calendar should include classes, study time, club meetings, social events, and many other things and activities that should be accomplished and should be done to make the calendar more effective, you should include assignment due dates so missing a deadline will be impossible.

You should always follow the calendar you have with you. This will help you develop a routine in regular basis and you are learning how to manage time properly.

%u2022 Prioritization is also an important thing in time management. It is important to prioritize the tasks and the things that you need to accomplish.

Prioritization entails figuring it out if what among the tasks are the most important and the least important and what tasks should be done first and what should be done later. It necessary to stay focused on the tasks and things that are most important.

It is also important to accomplish one fist before moving to the next ones. Doing things and tasks together at one point in time might be more of a burden for you. This kind of tasking will frustrate and make you feel tired and lazy.

%u2022 Avoid procrastination. The main downfall in trying to achieve effective time management is procrastination. Procrastination is putting off the things that you should be doing or accomplishing now.

The reasons for procrastination is the lack of clear goals, underestimating the difficulty of the tasks, underestimating the time required to complete the tasks, unclear standards for the task outcomes, feeling as the tasks are imposed on you from outside, and having indefinite tasks.

This should be avoided in order for you to mange time properly. You can avoid procrastination by setting predetermined goals and by prioritizing them.

%u2022 Utilization of spare minutes is a big thing in effective time management. Spare minutes should be utilized in things that are worthy and useful.

Do not waste even single minute. For example if you are waiting for your professor for not arriving at time, instead of waiting and doing nothing, consider reading assignments from other classes and begin thinking about the topic for other subjects.

When you accomplish small tasks with your spare time, you will notice that you have extra time to complete the large tasks when you actually start on them.

Following advices and tips on how to make time management effective and proper is quite tough, but dedication is present, nothing is impossible. Text module

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Time Management Essay

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Time Management Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 2760

  • Pages: 11

Time Management

Ten Strategies For Better Time Management The term Time Management is a misnomer. You cannot manage time; you manage the events in your life in relation to time. You may often wish for more time but you only get 24 hours, 1,440 minutes or 86,400 seconds each day. How you use that time depends on skills learned through selfanalysis, planning, evaluation, and self-control. Much like money, time is both valuable and limited: it must be protected, used wisely, and budgeted.

People who practice good time management techniques often find that they: • Are more productive, • Have more energy for things they need to accomplish, • Feel less stressed, • Are able to do the things they want, • Get more things done, • Relate more positively to others, and • Feel better about themselves (Dodd and Sundheim, 2005). Finding a time management strategy that works best for you depends on your personality, ability to selfmotivate and level of selfdiscipline. By incorporating some, or all of the ten strategies below, you can more effectively manage your time.

1. Know How You Spend Your Time Analyze where most of your time is devoted— job, family, personal, recreation, etc. Keeping a time log is a helpful way to determine how you are using your time. Start by recording what you are doing for 15-minute intervals for a week or two. Evaluate the results. Ask if you did everything that was needed; determine which tasks require the most time; determine the time of day when you are most productive; and analyze where most of your time is devoted – job, family, personal, recreation, etc.

Identifying TIME MANAGEMENT your most time-consuming tasks and determining whether you are investing your time in the most important activities can help you to determine a course of action. In addition, having a good sense of the amount of time required for routine tasks can help you be more realistic in planning and estimating how much time is available for other activities. PAGE 3 2. Set Priorities Managing your time effectively requires a distinction between what is important and what is urgent (MacKenzie, 1990). Experts agree that the most important tasks usually aren’t the most urgent tasks. However, we tend to let the urgent dominate our lives.

Covey, Merrill, and Merrill (1994) categorize our activities into four quadrants in their Time Management Matrix: urgent, not urgent, important and not important. While activities that are both urgent and important must be done, Covey et. al. suggests that we spend less time on activities that are not important (regardless of their urgency) in order to gain time to focus on activities that are not urgent but important. Focusing on these important activities allows you to gain greater control over your time and possibly reduce the number of important tasks that do become urgent.

One of the easiest ways to prioritize is to make a “to do” list. Whether you need a daily, weekly or monthly list depends on your lifestyle. Just be careful not to allow the list-making to get out of control and do not keep multiple lists at the same time. Rank the items on your “to do” list in order of priority (both important and urgent). You may choose to group items in categories such as high, medium and low, number them in order, or use a color coding system. Keep in mind that your goal is not to mark off the most items; rather you want to mark off the highest priority items (MacKenzie, 1990).

Having a prioritized “to do” list allows you to say “no” to activities that may be interesting or provide a sense of achievement but do not fit your basic priorities. 3. Use a Planning Tool your mind to focus on your priorities. Auditory learners may prefer to dictate their thoughts instead. The key is to find one planning tool that works for you and use that tool consistently. Some reminders when using a planning tool are: • Always record your information on the tool itself. Jotting notes elsewhere that have to be transferred later is inefficient. • Review your planning tool daily. • Carry your planning tool with you.

• Remember to keep a list of your priorities in your planning tool and refer to it often. • Synchronize electronic planners with your computer and recharge the batteries in your planner on a regular basis. • Keep a back-up system. Suggestions for Using a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) for Time Management Capabilities of PDAs vary by the model and some users include WiFi or cellular • technology on their handheld device. Some suggestions for using your PDA to its capacity are: • Assign a different color for each calendar item so that you can distinguish personal appointments from business meetings, for example.

• Use the task application feature to manage projects. Most PDAs allow the user to group tasks under separate headings, • prioritize tasks and assign deadlines. • Use the repeat function for recurring dates such as birthdays, anniversaries, and regularly scheduled meetings. Investigate additional software and hardware that is compatible with your PDA. You may be able to enter information more quickly using a portable, detachable keyboard rather than a stylus, for example. Or, you may want the ability to access the Internet for retrieving files or checking other calendars.

(Beckwith, 2006) Place a notebook the size of your PDA in your carrying case for writing down “to dos” if you have difficulty recording them with your PDA’s task application feature (Morgenstern, 2004). Time management experts recommend using a personal planning tool to improve your productivity. Examples of personal planning tools include electronic planners, pocket diaries, calendars, computer programs, wall charts, index cards and notebooks. Writing down your tasks, schedules, and memory joggers can free PAGE 4 Implement a system that allows you to handle information only once. 4.

Get Organized Most people find that disorganization results in poor time management. Professional organizers recommend that you first get rid of the clutter. A frequently used method is to set up three boxes (or corners of a room) labeled “Keep” – “Give Away” – “Toss. ” Separate the clutter by sorting items into these boxes. Immediately discard items in your “Toss” box. Your “Give Away” box may include items you want to sell, delegate, or discontinue so find a method to eliminate these items such as a yard sale, charitable donation, or gifts to friends or family members outside your home.

With the clutter gone, the next step is to implement a system that allows you to handle information (e. g. , tasks, papers, e-mail, etc. ) less, only once, when possible. Basically you have 5 options for handling information: 1. Throw it away, delete it, or otherwise get rid of it. 2. Delegate it: give it to someone else to do, file, or respond. 3. Act on it yourself. Then throw it away or file it. 4. File it temporarily until it needs action or until additional information is received. Follow-up: a “tickler” file can be useful for holding temporary information. 5.

File it permanently where you can easily find it later. (Dodd and Sundheim, 2005). 5. Schedule Your Time Appropriately Even the busiest people find time for what they want to do and feel is important. Scheduling is not just recording what you have to do (e. g. , meetings and appointments), it is also making a time commitment to the things you want to do. Good scheduling requires that you know yourself. Using your time log, you should have determined those times during the day when you are most productive and alert. Plan your most challenging tasks for when you have the most energy.

Block out time for your high priority activities first and protect that time from interruptions. If you know you will have waiting time or commuting time, schedule small tasks such as writing a letter, jotting down a shopping list, reading or listening to educational audiotapes to capitalize on the time loss (Lakein, 1973). Try to limit scheduled time to about 3/4ths of your day, leaving time for creative activities such as planning, dreaming, thinking, and reading. Block out time for your high priority activities first and protect that time from interruptions.

TIME MANAGEMENT PAGE 5 6. Delegate: Get Help from Others Delegation means assigning responsibility for a task to someone else, freeing up some of your time for tasks that require your expertise. Delegation begins by identifying tasks that others can do and then selecting the appropriate person(s) to do them. You need to select someone with the appropriate skills, experience, interest, and authority needed to accomplish the task. Be as specific as possible in defining the task and your expectations, but allow the person some freedom to personalize the task.

Occasionally check to determine how well the person is progressing and to provide any assistance, being careful not to take over the responsibility. Finally, don’t forget to reward the person for a job well done or make suggestions for improvements if needed. (Dodd and Sundheim, 2005) Another way to get help is to “buy” time by obtaining goods or service that save you a time investment. For example, paying someone to mow your lawn or clean your house, using a computerized system, or joining a carpool to transport your children to their extracurricular activities can allow you free time to devote to other activities.

Delegation begins by identifying tasks that others can do and selecting the appropriate person(s) to do them. 7. Stop Procrastinating You may be putting off tasks for a variety of reasons. Perhaps the task seems overwhelming or unpleasant. Try breaking down the task into smaller segments that require less time commitment and result in specific, realistic deadlines. If you’re having trouble getting started, you may need to complete a preparatory task such as collecting materials or organizing your notes. Also, try building in a reward system as you complete each small segment of the task.

Perhaps the task seems overwhelming or unpleasant. PAGE 6 8. Manage External Time Wasters Your time may be impacted by external factors imposed by other people and things. You can decrease or eliminate time spent in these activities by implementing some simple tips listed below. • Use voice mail and set aside time to return calls. • Avoid small talk. Stay focused on the reason for the call. • Stand up while you talk on the phone. You are more likely to keep the conversation brief. • Take any necessary action immediately following the call.

• Set aside times of the day for receiving calls and let others know when you are available. • Keep phone numbers readily available near the telephone. • Establish blocks of time when you are available for visits. • Tell the visitor politely that you cannot meet with them at this time and schedule the visit for a more convenient time. • Set a mutually agreeable time limit for the visit. • When someone comes to the door, stand up and have your meeting standing. • Know the purpose of the meeting in advance. • Arrive on time. • Start and end the meeting on time.

• Prepare an agenda and stick to it. Use a timed agenda, if necessary. • Don’t schedule meetings unless they are necessary and have a specific purpose or agenda. • Set aside a specific time to view and respond to your mail and e-mail, but don’t let it accumulate to the point that it becomes overwhelming to sort. • Turn off instant messaging features on e-mail. • Handle each item only once, if possible. Practice the options for dealing with clutter listed earlier. • Sort mail near a garbage can and delete junk e-mail immediately from your electronic mailbox.

• Answer written messages by responding on the margins or bottom of the page. • Establish a master calendar for each family member to post their time commitments. • Make each family member responsible for consulting the master calendar for potential conflicts. • Create a central area for posting communications such as appointment reminders, announcements, and messages. TIME MANAGEMENT PAGE 7 You lose time when switching from one task to another, resulting in a loss of productivity. 9. Avoid Multi-tasking.

Recent psychological studies have shown that multi-tasking does not actually save time. In fact, the opposite is often true. You lose time when switching from one task to another, resulting in a loss of productivity (Rubinsteim, Meyer, and Evans, 2001). Routine multi-tasking may lead to difficulty in concentrating and maintaining focus when needed. Reviewers: Sharon Gibson, Joan Mason & Rachel West, University of Georgia Bobbie Shaffett, Mississippi State University Dena Wise, University of Tennessee Joan Gibson, The Catholic University of America.

Sources: Beckwith, S. (2006, July). Unleash Your PDA’s Power. Black Enterprise, 36(12), 66. Covey, S. R. , Merrill, A. R. , & Merrill, R. R. (1994). First Things First: To Live, to Love, to Learn, to Leave a Legacy. New York: Simon & Schuster. Dodd, P. , & Sundheim, D. (2005). The 25 Best Time Management Tools and Techniques: How to Get More Done Without Driving Yourself Crazy. Ann Arbor, MI: Peak Performance Press, Inc. Lakein, A. (1973). How to Get Control of Your Time and Your Life. New York: New America Library. MacKenzie, A.(1990).

The Time Trap (3rd ed. ). New York: American Management Association. Morgenstern, J. (2004). Time Management from the Inside Out. New York: Henry Holt and Company. Rubinsteim, J. , Meyer, D. & Evans, J. (2001). Executive control of cognitive processes in task switching. Journal of Experimental Psychology – Human Perception and Performance, 27(4), 763-797. Designer: Ashley Bagwell The University of Georgia and Ft. Valley State University, the U. S. Department of Agriculture and counties of the state cooperating.

Cooperative Extension, the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, offers educational programs, assistance and materials to all people without regard to race, color, national origin, age, gender or disability. An Equal Opportunity Employer/Affirmative Action Organization Committed to a Diverse Work Force Publication # HACE-E-71 May, 2008 Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914. The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences and the U. S. Department of Agriculture cooperating.

CAES Dean J. Scott Angle, Director FACS Dean Laura D. Jolly, Associate Director Scheduling time to relax can help you rejuvenate both physically and mentally. 10. Stay Healthy The care and attention you give yourself is an important investment of time. Scheduling time to relax, or do nothing, can help you rejuvenate both physically and mentally, enabling you to accomplish tasks more quickly and easily. Learn to manage time according to your biological clock by scheduling priority tasks during your peak time of day, the time your energy level and concentration are at their best.

Poor time management can result in fatigue, moodiness, and more frequent illness. To reduce stress, you should reward yourself for a time management success. Take time to recognize that you have accomplished a major task or challenge before moving on to the next activity. Regardless of the time management strategies you use, you should take time to evaluate how they have worked for you. Ask yourself a few simple questions: Do you have a healthy balance between work and home life? Are you accomplishing the tasks that are most important in your life?

Are you investing enough time in your own personal wellbeing? If the answer is “no” to any of these questions, then reconsider your time management strategies and select ones that work better for you. Remember that successful time management today can result in greater personal happiness, greater accomplishments at home and at work, increased productivity, and a more satisfying future. For more information about time management and other related topics, contact your local county extension office at 1-800-ASKUGA1.

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Time management Essay

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  • University/College:
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Time management

Introduction

Time management has become a more and more critical element in all human activities. It is not only closed related with individual’s performance, but also businesses’. Frank J. Lucco (1994) pointed out that effective time management is the most important ingredient for success in the 1990s. In order to do something to make the most effective use of people’s time and work schedule, understanding some effective time management techniques has also become a necessary part in people’s life.

The essay is divided into two main parts: the first part attempts to do some brief research in some effective time management techniques; the second part aims to explain the relation between effective time management and the performance of individuals and businesses in a more detailed and critical way.

1 Effective time management techniques

Time management techniques play a very important part in people’s daily life. Many people have spent their time in a lot of activities but achieve little for the reason that they are not concentrating on the right things. Different people have different ways to control time. Through using effective time management methods, people would know which part of the things they do are important, and which can be just thrown away, by that people can use time in a most effective way, breaking down the barriers that waste, increasing the effectiveness.

Here are four main ways. 1.1 Set clear goals and make a plan People should first know what their short-term and long-term goals are and make a clear plan about what is important. Long-term goals are important because they enable people to prepare for their future. Short-term goals are necessary steps towards achieving those long-term goals. Then they can prepare a sequence of action steps to achieve them. Locke & Latham (1990) once said that targets will gain attention and effort through providing clear targets to people and then they can distribute their energy into different parts. And having a plan of action will enable people to correct their situation immediately and save lots of valuable time. 1.2 Prioritize tasks

Once a person’s goals have been set, tasks can be prioritized according to their accomplishments. Alan Lakein (1974), the author of How to Get Control of Your Time and Your Life, thinks that prioritizing tasks are according to ” A ” ” B ” and ” C ” . ” A ” items are the things that cannot wait. These tasks should be done first because they are the most important. ” B ” items are important, but not as so important as ” A ” items, and should be worked in as a break from ” A ” . ” C ” items are trivial items, which means that these things need not to be done right away. 1.3 Say no to procrastinating.

Procrastination is a major time waster in people’s daily life. Setting deadlines can reduce procrastination. If deadlines for tasks are set clearly, they will be accomplished. Without deadlines, tasks may take double the time. People should encourage him-or herself to do an unpleasant task for twenty minutes even it is a hated task. The task may not seem as bad as it was thought. People should learn to work on one thing at a time by blocking out work schedules. If a task can be completed in eight hours, deciding to spend one or two or three hours on an average day on one job and blocking out this time every day, cutting it into different pieces until the task is totally completed. 1.4 Block out time.

Lakein (1974) suggests that setting a period of undisturbed time (about thirty to sixty minutes) each day when there are no interruptions. During the daily undisturbed period, people can do such things which require concentration and quiet. Completing tasks which are very urgent or just make a plan for tomorrow or for next year. Many people have observed that if they set aside the same hour everyday they will have vacant time to accomplish the tasks which are very important.

2 Relationship between effective time management and the performance of individuals and businesses 2.1 Relationship between effective time management and the performance of individuals Time management has two important theories, one is self-regulation theory and the other is goal-setting theory. Some self-regulation theorists (e.g. Bandura, 1997 and Carver and Scheier, 1998) hold the opinion that people can regulate aspects of cognition, motivation and behavior toward the attainment of a target. It means that people can find an effective way by doing in accordance with the regulation.

According to Zimmerman and his colleagues (Zimmerman, 1995 and Zimmerman and Schunk, 2004), they think that self-regulating individuals are in position to set attainable goals, it means that individuals have a clear understanding about the potential they have, so they can set goals according to their own capability. And they are learning-oriented rather than achievement-oriented; and have an understanding that different learning tasks require different strategies and need to use the most appropriate strategies effectively. It means that in people’s inner heart, they know exactly what they must do.

The target setting theory, analyses that human action is directed by conscious goals and intentions (Locke & Latham, 1990). It is thought as an effective motivational method. As a result, individuals can find an accurate way to solve every problem. The performance of different people is also in accordance to their way to manage time. They need to set goals to decide how they should behave in the next few days. More indirectly, targets can encourage them to find effective ways to deal with complex things and finally get what they want.

Nearly 60 years ago Guilford (1950) found that creativity contains the activities as inventing, designing, contriving, composing, and planning. People who invent these types of behavior to a marked degree are recognized as being creative. Evidence also suggests that planning may be a crucial aspect of the creative process (Osburn & Mumford, 2006). As people are considered to be creative, they can then make a plan and so on. Creativity is also a part of individual’s performance.

Creativity is something that get rid of the time pressure, by innovations people can realize the maximum productivity. Amabile et al. (1996) found that the work groups who produced low-creativity projects had higher time pressure than those who participated in high-creativity projects. As time pressure seems to be harmful to creativity, it is probably to be true that if people has the feel to control over one’s time, they will correlate to creativity measures.

2.1 Relationship between effective time management and the performance of businesses A survey of the audience determined that there are many time management problems facing businesses. For example, businesses have too many telephone calls which would distract their attention from the work, or they have not enough time to finish a project, or are interrupted by many personal staff.

Time management is probably the most important element for the person who runs his own company. There is no doubt that businessmen should pay more attention too time management. Morgentem (2004) once said that managing work and home responsibilities under the same place takes a special type of time management. It means that businessmen should not only know how to deal with their own work in the company but also should know how to manage their time at home. By that, business people can know exactly when and where what they should do.

There are abundant books, journals, discussions, and seminars about the relation between business people and time management, these tell businesses how to behave more organized and more efficiently. Though the suggestions of time management differ from person to person, most people agree to the opinion that in effective time management, the first thing people should do is organizing the office or home. Although one’s plan is perfectly organized, if the office and the filing system are running out of control, time will be wasted trying to work efficiently in a disorderly place (Lakein, 1973).

Cleaning and reorganizing the home or office is the first step in time management, after finishing them, the next step is arranging all the activities that one will participate in a week. This step needs to list each specific activity which including the time it takes to get up, dress, shower, cook dinners, make phone calls, meet customers, pick up the children from school, take them to after-school activities, shopping etc. Besides, the time for entertainment or exercise also need to be written down. Such as going to cinema, surfing Internet, playing basketball, going to the gym or go camping, etc. 3 Conclusion.

To sum up, this essay do a research on some effective time management techniques such as set clear goals and make a plan and so on. By using the techniques above, people can not only get access to a more easily and effective life but also save a lot of time to do more meaningful things. The essay has also provided a brief analysis in the relationship between effective time management and the performance of individuals and businesses.

The first part is doing some research to the talk about the relationship between creativity and human’s performance. The second part analyses some ways to promote the productivity and efficiency in a company. From the aspect that people can gain the ability of being more creativity and companies can gain more productivity, the essay think that individuals and businesses should know more about time management.

References:

[01] A. Bandura. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50 (1991), pp. 248–287.

[02] B.J. Zimmerman. (1995). Self-regulation involves more than metacognition: A social cognitive perspective. Educational Psychologist, 30 (1995), pp. 217–221.

[03] B.J. Zimmerman, D.H. Schunk. (2004). Self-regulating intellectual processes and outcomes: A social cognitive perspective. D.Y. Dai, R.J. Sternberg (Eds.), Motivation, emotion, and cognition: Integrative perspectives on intellectual functioning and development, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ (2004), pp. 143–174.

[04] Buck, M. L., Lee, M. D., MacDermid, S., & Smith S. C. (2000). Reduced load work and the experience of time among professionals and managers: Implications for personal and organizational life. In C. Cooper & D. Rousseau (Eds.), Trends in Organizational Behavior (Vol. 7). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

[05] C.S. Carver, M.F. Scheier. (1998). On the self-regulation of behavior. Cambridge University Press, New York

[06] E.A. Locke, G.P. Latham (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Prentice-Hal, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1990).

[07] Frank J Lucco (1994). Effective Time Management. The Appraisal Institute. Vol. 62.4 p580.

[08] H.K. Osburn, M.D. Mumford, (2006). Creativity and planning: Training interventions to develop creative problem-solving skills. Creativity Research Journal, 18 (2) (2006), pp. 173–190.

[09] J,F, Adebisi. (2013). Time Management Practices and Its Effect on Business Performance. Canadian Social Science. Vol9, No1, 2013 pp165-168.

[10] Lyndon Jones and Penny Hood (2010). Effective Time Management for Improved Performance. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Vol. 42, No 7, 2010, pp386-388.

[11] Lakein, A. (1974). How to Get Control of Your Time and Your Life. NewYork: Wyden.

[12] Lakein, Alan (1973). How to Get Control of Your Time and Your Life. New York: P.H. Wyden.

[13] Morgenstern, Julie (2004). Time Management from the Inside Out: The Foolproof System for Taking Control of Your Schedule—and Your Life (2nd). New York: Henry Holt/Owl Books. pp. 285.

[14] T.M. Amabile. (1996). Creativity in context. Update to social psychology of creativity. Westview Press, Boulder, CO (1996).

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Time Management Essay

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Time Management

INTRODUCTION This chapter will begin with a de? nition of time management, and will then discuss common time management problems, and invite you to identify your own issues. It then moves on to examine possible solutions and the guiding principles of time management. To check your understanding there will be a number of scenarios and exercises to practise time management skills, followed by a personal contract aimed at improving your own approach to time management. WHAT IS TIME MANAGEMENT? Time management involves making the best use of time, and getting more done in the time available.

It means not wasting time on irrelevant things, instead focusing on important parts of the job. Ultimately this means working calmly and effectively, avoiding the panic and anxiety of the last-minute rush. In the western world, time is treated as a valuable resource which people spend. Most managers claim that they do not have enough time. Often this is blamed on the organisation and colleagues for making too many demands. However, we all have at least some control over how we spend our time. We can and do make choices. Recognising this is the ? rst step on the path to effective time management. DEFINITION OF TIME MANAGEMENT.

Time management means taking more control over how we spend our time and making sensible decisions about the way we use it. 29 A free sample chapter from Personal Effectiveness by Diana Winstanley. Published by the CIPD. Copyright © CIPD 2005 All rights reserved; no part of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publishers or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency.

If you would like to purchase this book please visit www. cipd. co. uk/bookstore. Personal Effectiveness If good time management is about taking control, it involves ? nding those areas where you do have control, and also ? nding those where you think you don’t, but really you do. For example you may have far too many things to do and this makes you feel helpless, but maybe you have the option of renegotiating some parts of your work, or even delegating some activities.

There may still be some areas where you don’t have control – for example if a key part of the job is to be available at a certain time to provide advice to others, you cannot just decide to be absent. Or you may have a coursework assignment to submit – some deadlines are not renegotiable. In these areas it is more sensible not to waste time railing against these commitments; instead concentrate on ? nding those areas you do have the power to change, and make the changes that will help you to become more effective. Exercises 2. 1 and 2. 2 should start to help you identify those problem areas and areas where you would like to make changes.

PREPARATION FOR CHANGE Before reading further in this chapter it is helpful for you to have an idea of how effective you are as a time manager. Re? ecting on your own time bandits and traps will make this chapter more useful and relevant to you. Begin by brainstorming three barriers that you think prevent you from being effective at work, or at study, as indicated in Exercise 2. 1. Now go on to Exercise 2. 2 and rate your effectiveness using the list provided.

This list has been developed by distilling some of the common problems that have been identi?ed by several hundred staff and students in workshops held over the last ? ve years at Imperial College. Further exercises and selfevaluation checks are provided on the website. The accuracy of this tool depends on you being honest with yourself, so make sure you rate yourself according to how you actually behave, not how you would like to be. Once you have done Exercise 2. 2 you can return to Exercise 2. 1 and see if the barriers you ? rst identi? ed relate to those issues you have rated 3 in Exercise 2. 2, and if necessary add to, or amend, your answers to Exercise 2. 1. EXERCISE 2.

1 BARRIERS TO BEING EFFECTIVE What are the three main barriers you have that prevent you being effective? 30 A free sample chapter from Personal Effectiveness by Diana Winstanley. Published by the CIPD. Copyright © CIPD 2005 All rights reserved; no part of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publishers or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency.

If you would like to purchase this book please visit www. cipd. co. uk/bookstore. Time management EXERCISE 2. 2 PROBLEMS DIAGNOSING YOUR TIME MANAGEMENT Note: assess your behaviour as it is not as you would like it to be Go through the list of time management problems below and rate each one with relation to its frequency as a problem for you and also its severity using the following ratings: 0 this problem does not relate to me 1 this problem partly relates to me, relates some of the time 2 this is a regular problem for me 3 this is a major problem for me, it severely hampers my effectiveness A.

Prioritisation and scheduling 1. I am not sure what tasks I have to do each day, I don’t make a to-do list. 2. When I have ? nished one job I just go on to the next without checking on my priorities. 3. I don’t work out which tasks have the biggest gain for me. 4. I have dif? culty in setting priorities. 5. I have dif? culty in keeping to priorities or a schedule I have set. 6. I am a perfectionist and even if I have several tasks to do I allow myself to spend ages on one task to get it right, which can cause problems in completing my work. 7.

I often do trivial tasks at my high-energy time of day. 8. I don’t stop to think when my best time of day is for working. B. Persistence, procrastination and focus 9. I ? it from task to task, starting a lot of things but not always ? nishing them. 10. I feel very intimidated by large important tasks, and don’t break them down into smaller ones. 11. I put off dif? cult tasks until the last possible moment. 12. I procrastinate, prevaricate and can’t decide what to do, nor make decisions. 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3.

0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 31 A free sample chapter from Personal Effectiveness by Diana Winstanley. Published by the CIPD. Copyright © CIPD 2005 All rights reserved; no part of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publishers or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. If you would like to purchase this book please visit www.cipd. co. uk/bookstore.

Personal Effectiveness 13. I put thing off until the last minute and then I have to work in a rush and panic. 14. I allow myself to be interrupted from my work, for example by the phone, talking to others, distractions, new e-mails coming in. 15. I spend ages on the telephone, sur? ng the net, or answering e-mails. 16. Once I get started, I cannot stop a task, even if it is taking far too much time and there are other pressing things to do. 17. I don’t have any protected time in the day when I can get on with my priorities.

C. Role de? nition 18. I am not sure what my key objectives are. 19. I am unclear of my role de? nitions and lines of responsibility. 20. I’m not sure how long certain tasks take so ? nd it hard to allocate the appropriate time to them. 21. I try and do everything myself, and do not consider whether it would be better to delegate tasks, or ask for more help and support. D. Work environment and organisation 22. My workspace is a mess, I can never ? nd anything at work, and papers pile up around me without being ? led. 23.

I don’t know what to do with paper – I just leave it hanging around. 24. I don’t have anywhere where I can work uninterrupted. 25. My work environment is noisy and distracting, and I don’t ? nd ways to deal with this. 26. If I ? nd myself with free time in the day, for example when commuting, waiting for an appointment, I don’t have things with me to do. 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 32 A free sample chapter from Personal Effectiveness by Diana Winstanley. Published by the CIPD.

Copyright © CIPD 2005 All rights reserved; no part of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publishers or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. If you would like to purchase this book please visit www. cipd. co. uk/bookstore. Time management E. Study skills 27. I take ages to read anything, and ? nd it hard to remember what I have read. 28. I’m not sure how to go about academic or work related reading.

F. Assertiveness 29. I ? nd it very hard to say ‘no’ to other people. 30. I feel guilty if I am getting on with my own agenda and not focusing on helping others. 31. I spend most of my time doing things for other people, and hardly any time getting on with my own agenda. G. Anxiety, stress and emotion 32. I worry a lot and regularly suffer from work related anxiety and stress. 33. I don’t feel very con? dent so I often worry that I’m not doing well or going about my work in the right way. 34. I never have fun at work, I don’t enjoy my work. 35. I get very bored at work and this slows me down or allows me to get sidetracked.

36. I ? nd it hard to concentrate. H. Life balance 37. I don’t have time for exercise, health, leisure, family, I just work all the time. 38. I get very tired and exhausted at work. Scoring 0–38 Averaging 0s and 1s You are an excellent time manager 39–76 Averaging 1s and 2s You have some areas to work on but overall you are an effective time manager 77–114 Averaging 2s and 3s You have a big problem with time management and need to take action now to get yourself more in control of your time (but don’t worry – that is what this chapter aims to do) 33 A free sample chapter from Personal Effectiveness by Diana Winstanley.

Published by the CIPD. Copyright © CIPD 2005 All rights reserved; no part of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publishers or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. If you would like to purchase this book please visit www. cipd. co. uk/bookstore. 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3.

0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 Personal Effectiveness Below are some common examples of time management problems. EXAMPLE 2. 1 PROBLEMS EXAMPLES OF TIME MANAGEMENT Work -related ‘I work on a project to implement IT in my organisation, but I report to two bosses, the head of the IT Department, and the Project Leader – their demands of me are diverse and sometimes con? icting and very confusing, as a result I get in a mess. ’ ‘I work in an open-plan of? ce. I constantly get distracted by people talking on the phone, chatting across desks, stopping to talk to me.

I just cannot concentrate on my work, and I end up frittering my time on super? cial tasks whilst at work, and then working well into the night at home to catch up with the tougher parts of my work. ’ ‘I am a design engineer and each part of the work I do seems to take at least three times longer than we estimate it will take, meaning that I spend a lot of time explaining why the work is late and reorganising schedules and activities. This impacts negatively on people further down the development process.

’ ‘I set myself priorities but because I also work as a support service for other people in the organisation, I get inundated by e-mails and requests from others. I spend all my time meeting other people’s demands and my priorities go out of the window! ’ ‘Last year I spent ages developing a balanced scorecard system for the organisation to performance manage the managerial team, then a new director was appointed and he pulled the plug on months of work and asked me to set up a totally different scheme. It seems like much of my work is a waste of time.

Study -related ‘I am engaged in a part-time professional development programme ‘Into Leadership’ where I am attending day release modules, writing coursework assignments both individually and with a group, and am trying to juggle this in between a busy work schedule in my role in the Laboratories of a Government Department. I feel so panicked with all I have to do I end up feeling paralysed. ‘I don’t seem to be able to get going early enough on my distance learning course assignments and so I often end up staying up into the early hours to get it in the following morning.

The work is rushed and mediocre as a result, and I am then tired for days after. ’ ‘I have young children and I ? nd it impossible to get on with my studying at home. As a result I feel incompetent when it comes to discussing case studies in course discussion because I haven’t the faintest idea what they are about as I haven’t read them in advance. WHERE DOES ALL MY TIME GO? – THE TIME BANDITS AND TRAPS A time bandit is a work practice, attitude or behaviour that leads to ineffective working practices or your time getting stolen or expropriated away from your core priorities and frittered on less important activities.

34 A free sample chapter from Personal Effectiveness by Diana Winstanley. Published by the CIPD. Copyright © CIPD 2005 All rights reserved; no part of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publishers or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. If you would like to purchase this book please visit www. cipd. co.uk/bookstore.

Time management Epicurus and the pleasure principle Think about your own time management bandits and traps, do you see any patterns? One common pattern is to put the fun, exciting, interesting, easy things ? rst, and put off doing the boring, dull, dif? cult tasks until later. It is a kind of pleasure principle – going for the short-term gains, surrendering to wants and desires as they arise – immediately. Epicurus, the philosopher who is attributed with setting up the foundations for a pleasure principle, believed in following desires.

However, he is often mistakenly thought to have been a slave to avarice and pleasure, indulging himself in whatever desire arose at a given moment. This is not actually true. Epicurus followed a simple life, one of healthy food, friendship and good company, freedom and thought, not an undisciplined response to every whim and fancy. In relation to your own work or study, following the Epicurian principle will lead you to doing things you enjoy instead of focusing on your priorities. It is a mistake to think that taking the easy route will improve things in the long run.

In reality, giving in to the pleasure principle in the short term results in a mess later on, because over time what happens is the accumulation of a whole mountain of tasks that have been ignored. This can lead to misery, anxiety and depression. A lot of thought and planning went into Epicurus’s way of life, and creating time for a balanced, enjoyable life takes planning and selfdiscipline. The last-minute rush and adrenaline junky Some people like to live fast and furiously, and so working in a calm systematic way can seem very boring.

Waiting for a burst of energy, or the adrenaline rush that comes with the fear of a deadline looming can become a way of life, but does usually mean that when the job actually gets done, it is done in a haphazard panicky way, leaving the person exhausted after late-night working and long hours in order to ? nish it on time. In the long run health can be affected, as the ? ght or ? ight impulse that triggers adrenaline is intended for moments of danger, not a lifetime of stress. Hamlet: the procrastinator ‘To be or not to be . . . ’ – ‘should I start this paper or go and deal with those statistics, I don’t know! ’ It isn’t noble to play Hamlet unless you are Lawrence Olivier!

If it can’t be faced now, it might be worse later! What is more, as well as getting nothing done, the agony is repeated over and over again, and usually by tomorrow there is no change except the increased anxiety of another day gone by without completing the task. There are different reasons for procrastination and prevarication: not having the energy (which is represented by the adrenaline junky above), not having a starting point or the right information (but will you have the information tomorrow?), or being indecisive over what exactly to get on and do.

All that happens is that work piles up. It’s all too much However, for some people, being busy is a way of life. They may ask themselves: – Where does all my time go? – Why are there not enough hours in the day? Typically these people then fool themselves with the thought ‘Well, this is just a busy period, once I’ve got this assignment or deadline over then life will be easier and I can relax’. This is ? ne if true, but often one deadline out of the way can just open someone up to a new 35 A free sample chapter from Personal Effectiveness by Diana Winstanley.

Published by the CIPD. Copyright © CIPD 2005 All rights reserved; no part of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publishers or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. If you would like to purchase this book please visit www. cipd. co. uk/bookstore.

Personal Effectiveness deadline, as they rush from one hectic task to the next. Sometimes this is self-generated: they can’t help but take on more and more and more. Another way they fool themselves is to say ‘I’m a no-limit person. I can keep on taking on more and more and more’. No one is superman or superwoman, there are only 1,440 minutes in a day, 1,000 when we deduct sleeping, washing, dressing, eating, etc, etc, etc. In our lives we probably spend six months waiting for red traf? c lights to change, two years looking for things, 24 years asleep . . ..

There is only so much time left, and time is not in? nitely elastic, we do have limits. After all, no one ever said on their deathbed: I wish I’d spent more time at the of? ce! The headless chicken: action without thought There may be other reasons for taking on too much work, being too busy or feeling driven. Some people may be working hard but without having clear priorities, and without planning. Spending much too much time on things that are not at all important. Giving the illusion of working hard but not working productively.

The butter? y: ? itting from task to task Helen arrives at work, puts her coat on the door peg, sits down and turns on the computer. She intends to spend the morning writing the proposal for the new performance appraisal system – a very important part of her job. But ? rst she listens to her telephone messages and realises Gerald wants her to produce some ? gures for a meeting the following week. She accesses her computer to pull out the ? gures, and notices she has 21 e-mails, and begins trawling through these.

The ? rst few she just looks at and leaves open to come back to later, the sixth one asks her to give some dates for a meeting and she opens her diary to look at dates, and sees that for one of the dates she has a presentation to give on that day. Oh she must remember to take the ? les home for preparing the presentation so she can do it at the weekend. She gets up and opens her ? ling cabinet to retrieve them . . … Oh dear, she is feeling rather giddy, .. . . she hasn’t got anything done and she has been at work an hour already . . .. Oh she feels so confused, she thinks . . . I’d better go and get a coffee .. ..

One result of not planning or sticking to priorities can be the ‘butter? y’. This is someone who ? its from task to task in a downward spiral of panic and anxiety, getting in a mess, never getting the boost and closure of completion. Many managers have to be butter? ies, for example Mintzberg (1973) and Kotter (1982) showed that managers spend nine minutes or less on 50 per cent of their activities, are subject to constant interruptions and that management is a very fragmented activity. Good time management brings order to this fragmentation, rather than exacerbates it.

Interruptions, interruptions There are two types of interruptions: interruptions from others that distract us from our work, and ‘self’ interruptions, ways in which we distract ourselves from our intended activities. What is your working environment like – quiet and easy to concentrate in, or noisy and busy? Some people work in open-plan of? ce environments where they cannot help but get drawn into conversations with others. Think how you manage your interruptions, what happens if you are concentrating on something really important and somebody starts casually chatting to you as they pass your desk or door?

36 A free sample chapter from Personal Effectiveness by Diana Winstanley. Published by the CIPD. Copyright © CIPD 2005 All rights reserved; no part of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publishers or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. If you would like to purchase this book please visit www. cipd. co.uk/bookstore.

Time management The proliferation of communication technologies has meant there are a myriad of ways in which we can be interrupted at any time of day. The ding of a new e-mail arriving in the computer, the ringing telephone, the mobile phone, just ensure you are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week. Take the telephone – this is designed for people to contact you when it is convenient for them, not necessarily for you. Some people spend a long time on the phone, not getting to the point, getting sidetracked into idle talk.

How long are your phone calls, could they be shorter? E-mail is also a tempter. In some roles people are receiving 50–100 e-mails a day and if every time one arrives on the computer they stopped what they were doing to look at it, it would never be possible to concentrate. The escapologist: IT and other escapes However, it isn’t just the requirements of others that interrupt us – we also interrupt ourselves. For example, maybe by not being able to resist sur? ng the Net for another couple of hours, just having a look at a couple more search paths for a holiday or outing.

Some are self-interrupters, maybe ? nding it dif? cult to concentrate they just have to go off for another coffee or go and chat to someone else, because they can’t quite get down to it. This can be even worse at home – when you spot the washing or ironing or vacuuming out of the corner of your eye. It is amazing how you can suddenly feel the urge to do a bit of gardening or even jobs you normally hate like cleaning the cooker suddenly seem compelling when you are trying to get down to work on a challenging report. The doormat: yes, yes, yes.

One problem can be unassertiveness, or unwillingness to say ‘no’: This may be because of low internal self-esteem, wanting to ‘please others’ in order to feel good, or even being too scared to say no. Ironically always saying ‘yes’ may just mean a person is taken for granted, not necessarily respected and liked. In the end, they can cause more problems for other people, because they become ill or are too busy to do everything to which they have committed, which can be very irritating for others. Presenteeism Sam was always ? rst into the of? ce every day and last to leave in the evening.

Everyone commented on how committed he was, what a hardworking member of staff. One day Sarah wondered what Sam was actually working on all day at the computer screen, she wandered up to his desk and looked over his shoulder, and found he was playing solitaire! Being at a desk doesn’t mean the same as working – it is passing time instead of spending time. Sometimes the most effective people are those you don’t see, maybe they ? nd somewhere quiet to work where they don’t get interrupted.

Effective people don’t necessarily need to impress on others how hard they work – their output is more important than the appearance of work. Some of? ce environments, however, encourage presenteeism – focusing performance evaluation on time spent at the desk, clockwatching, rather than on the quality of work. Wasted spaces It has been calculated that people lose up to 20 per cent of their time waiting. All that time spent sitting on the train into work, or waiting for the printer to ? nish, or a lecture or meeting to start are wasted periods that could have been used to complete a small task, or even begin a bigger one.

Do you sit and stare realising you don’t have any work at hand for such 37 A free sample chapter from Personal Effectiveness by Diana Winstanley. Published by the CIPD. Copyright © CIPD 2005 All rights reserved; no part of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publishers or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency.

If you would like to purchase this book please visit www. cipd. co. uk/bookstore. Personal Effectiveness occasions, or does it even occur to you in the ? rst place to ? ll these spaces? Sometimes a commuter journey is the ideal space in which to plan the day, write out a schedule, or maybe even concentrate on reading an article or report. Finishing a small task, such as ? lling in a form, or even beginning a larger task can be slotted into these moments. Perfectionist The perfectionist pays attention to detail, agonises over every decision, every word in a report.

They must get it right. But what is the point if it is too late, or they have ignored several other things – is it all really necessary? Not all tasks have to be done to the same high standard: writing a routine e-mail for example – does it really matter if the grammar is correct? Paper mountains Some people allow a mountain of paper to pile up on their desk, around their ? oor – a trail of paper that doesn’t allow them to be able to ? nd anything they need.

They can waste lots of time trying to ?nd things, and the paper mountain doesn’t make for good of? ce sculpture, it festers and exudes stress and incompetence. I’m in a meeting! Consider the costs of 10 people in a one-hour meeting at ? 50 per hour each plus all the overheads and opportunity costs, the time spent travelling, preparation – is it worth it? Worse still are those meetings where people are unprepared, there is no agenda; the chair allows the discussion on trivial items to go on for ages without coming to any decisions. Heather was

chairing a students union General Purposes Committee meeting. The meeting discussed for an hour the subject of what colour the new minibus should be – the Labour Society rep suggested red, the Conservative Group rep blue, the Liberal democrat member orange, and the chap from the Greens said they shouldn’t have a minibus at all! Eventually the meeting ran out of time and the main item on the agenda – what to do about the student debt situation never got discussed! Poorly run meetings are not only a waste of time, but also very demoralising. D-I-Y enthusiast.

The D-I-Y enthusiast thinks they can do everything themselves, never giving a thought to delegation or sharing the work with others. Moreover, when they get into trouble, they don’t go and ask for help, they soldier on miserably, not getting anywhere except lost and desperate. If you have too much to do, or are stuck, do you look to see how the work can be allocated differently, do you call in for help or the support of others? Why oh why do D-I-Y? Refusing to ask for help may be due to lack of assertiveness, but it may also be arrogance – the belief that no one can do it as well, so it is better done singlehanded.

Other people will never learn the skills if they are not given a chance to start. Delegation is not just a downward action, it can also move upwards, for example where something really isn’t a person’s job maybe they need to refer it back. THE CONSEQUENCES Poor time management is one of the greatest sources of managerial stress. It leads to feelings of incompetence and anxiety. The debilitating symptoms and consequences of stress 38 A free sample chapter from Personal Effectiveness by Diana Winstanley. Published by the CIPD.

Copyright © CIPD 2005 All rights reserved; no part of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publishers or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. If you would like to purchase this book please visit www. cipd. co. uk/bookstore. Time management are discussed more fully in Chapter 9. It also leads to crisis management – where someone responds to whoever is pushing hardest or shouting the loudest.

The working environment is likely to be cluttered, with piles of papers on the desk which heaves with awful tasks represented by bits of paper and post-its that decompose or fall off onto the ? oor. It doesn’t just inconvenience the person creating this muddle – it inconveniences others who have to wait for work that is late, or shoddy work that has been done in a rushed way, or invitations that haven’t been responded to. Poor time managers may also feel indispensable; so they can’t take a holiday or a break, because no one can manage without them. Given the choice it is unlikely you would decide to work in this way.

But you are always given the choice, and the trick is to take back control and make choices that will make you better time managers. But why don’t you do that already? It is because poor time management is a habit. ARISTOTLE AND THE HABIT OF THE GOOD LIFE It is quite likely that in identifying your own time bandits, you already had an idea what they were. You may even have a good idea of what you should be doing differently. This chapter is not about knowing what to do, it is about putting thought into action, and this requires behavioural change which is a bit trickier to effect. Aristotle talked about the habit of the good life.

The good life is not an abstract idea, it is a habit that is nurtured and acted upon over a period of time. Time management is a habit. It is likely you are accustomed to your habits, may even be comfortable with the way you do things, and they won’t be easy to change, because that requires effort and persistence. Therefore it won’t be enough if this chapter merely identi? es for you what you should be doing differently. You have to break a habit, create a habit, and persevere to maintain it. Below are some good habits, but for them to work and guarantee you more time, you will need to put them into practice.

When we start something new, it is easier to take one step at a time, building up competence and new habits gradually. The personal contract at the end of this chapter will enable you to plan your behaviour change. Glance at this contract now, and you will see it requires you to identify three changes you intend to make, and to put the ? rst step into practice in the following week. As you read through the good habits think which one would be most relevant for you to start with, which will give you the biggest gain, and which relates most closely to the problems you identi?

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Time Management Essay

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 2129

  • Pages: 9

Time Management

This report has been prepared with the purpose of analysing and evaluating my current time usage, in order to assess my time management skills. Time Management involves setting priorities and undertaking goal management in order to as efficient and productive as possible. The aim of this report is to evaluate my current time management skills and isolate areas in which I need to improve and also to establish what theories and methods I must utilize in order to ensure that my time is well managed.

The objective of this report is to properly analyse my findings in order to make accurate conclusions and in turn determine recommendations as to how I can adopt better time management skills in order to achieve my goals and objectives. Prior to preparing this report, I was required to identify my life goals and objectives on a short and long term basis in different areas of my life. These being; study, family, personal, work, social, community service, home duties and sleep. I was then required to prioritise my goals and objectives, estimate how I was spending my time and record a detailed time log over a one week period.

The most accurate method when recording time usage data was immediate documentation. I also used my current organisational tools as a resource to remind me how I had recently spent my time and what I could expect from the coming week making estimations. After comparing my estimated and actual time usage figures (Refer to Appendix 5), it became apparent that there was little difference between the two sets of figures. Although my results indicated that my estimates were fairly accurate, they show that I am consistently spending my time in ways that are perhaps not ideal.

In order to narrow the gap between my actual time usage and ideal time usage I will need to spend more time studying, and less time socialising and performing home duties. In particular, study is a high priority for me and I must therefore make sure I undertake goal management and establish it as one of my priorities. One way I can close the gap, is by utilizing my current commuting time to perform my weekly readings for university. I can also use the principles behind the Hayne’s theory on prime time and ? The Pickle Jar Theory’ in order to ensure I am using my time productively.

Only then will I be able to realistically work towards my long term goals and objectives. Introduction: This report has been prepared with the purpose of analyzing and evaluating my current time usage, in order to assess my time management skills. “Time Management includes tools or techniques for planning and scheduling time, usually with the aim to increase the effectiveness and/or efficiency of personal and corporate time use. ” (Wikipedia 2007, para. 1). Time Management involves setting priorities and undertaking goal management in order to as efficient and productive as possible.

Time Management is an essential ingredient to success, as it discourages time wasting activities and procrastination which hinders productivity. Understanding the importance of Time Management enables individuals to take active steps towards better managing their time and governing the eventual outcome. (Mind Tools 2007, para. 2). Aims and objectives The aim of this report is to evaluate my current time management skills and isolate areas in which I need to improve. The purpose of this report is also to establish what theories and methods I must utilize in order to ensure that my time is well managed.

As well as being an assessed task, this report is necessary in order to properly evaluate my current time usage. Once this evaluation has been made, decisions on strategies can be made in order to enable me to be more time efficient in the future. I am currently trying to divide my time between a number of different activities and areas of my life, however up until now I have never stopped to evaluate my efficiency. The objective of this report is to properly analyse my findings in order to make accurate conclusions.

From these conclusions I will be able to determine recommendations as to how I can adopt better time management skills in order to achieve my long term goals and objectives. Scope This Time Management report has been written in keeping with Mohan’s recommended structure of a formal report (Mohan et al 2004, p348). It encompasses a summary, introduction to time management, aims and objectives, the method of research, results, discussion and analysis, conclusion and recommendations. Although this report gives mention to a number of established time management theories, it does not go into any extensive detail.

These boundaries have been set out by the lecturer in charge of assessing this report in order to keep its contents relatively brief. Although this report is directed to Roslyn Hunter and Julie McLaren, I am the person who will be affected by its findings and who will have to take into consideration the proposed recommendations. Body of Report Method of Research Prior to preparing this report, I was required to identify my life goals and objectives on a short and long term basis. The time frames I worked with for the purpose of this exercise were ?

3 years’ (Refer to Appendix 2) and ? Semester 1′ (Refer to Appendix 3) respectively. These goals and objectives were established, based on different areas of my life. These being; study, family, personal, work, social, community service, home duties and sleep. I was then required to prioritise my goals and objectives according to what is most importance to me. After these were documented, I was then required to estimate how I was spending my time. Estimates were made as to the number of hours I spent in the different areas of my life (Refer to Appendix 1).

After these estimates were made, I was then required to record a detailed time log over a one week period (Refer to Appendix 4). During this time, I took my log wherever I went and recorded my time usage in half an hour intervals. This exercise enabled me to compare my actual time usage with my estimated time usage. The most accurate method when recording time usage data was immediate documentation. Ensuring that I had my time log on me at all times meant that I could fill in my time log frequently and consistently.

If I were to have relied on my memory, I am certain that this alternate method would have resulted in inaccurate data being recorded. When estimating my time usage I took into consideration my current study load, commitments, sleeping patterns and general level of up keep. I also used my current organisational tools as a resource to remind me how I had recently spent my time and what I could expect from the coming week. Being an avid user of ? to do lists’, diaries and planning calendars (Refer to Appendix 7), I had on hand a lot of resources to assist me in estimating my time usage.

This method led me to make relatively accurate estimates on my actual time usage. Results After comparing my estimated and actual time usage figures (Refer to Appendix 5), it became apparent that there was little difference between the two sets of figures. (Refer to Appendix 6). After estimating that I would spend 35 hours studying, my actual time spent was 34. 5 hours. I thought I would spend 7 hours with my family; however my actual time spent was 10. 5 hours due to a family birthday. The actual amount of time I spent on ?personal’ activities ended up falling 2 hours of short of my estimated figure. I actually spent 17 hours in this area as opposed to 19 hours.

As I assumed, I did not spend any time on ? work’ related activities. My actual number of hours spent socialising fell 3 hours short of my estimated figure. I actually spent 12 hours in this area as opposed to 15 hours. I estimated that I would spent 2 hours doing community service with the Red Cross, however I actually did not find the time during this 7 day period to perform community service.

The hours spent performing ? home duties’ equaled a total of 28. 5 hours, which exceeded the estimated figure of 25 hours. In addition the actual amount of time I spent sleeping was 65. 5 hours, which was only slightly greater than my estimated figure of 65 hours. Discussion and Analysis My ability to accurately estimate my time usage can be attributed to the fact that I consistently document my daily movements, which has been useful when making estimates in this activity.

Choosing not to undertake paid employment this semester has also meant that I am splitting my time across fewer areas, making it easier to predict how I will spend my time. Although my results indicated that my estimates were fairly accurate, they show that I am consistently spending my time in ways that are perhaps not ideal. My ideal amount of time (Refer to Appendix 6) spent studying is in fact 40 hours, whereas I am only currently achieving on average 35 hours. I estimated that I would spend 15 hours socialising based on my weekly patterns prior to the 7 day period I documented.

Spending only 12 hours on this activity meant that I was closer to achieving my ideal time allowance than usual. Although socialising is an enjoyable activity, it is affecting my ability to achieve my desired amount of study hours. Ideally, I would also like to cut down on my hours devoted to ? home duties’, which happened to exceed both my estimated and ideal time allowance. Realistically, while I am still living in the suburbs, it is unlikely that I will be able to spend 23 hours performing ? home duties’ as I incur a lot of commuting time living in Glen Waverley.

Conclusions Performing this time management exercise has identified that my ideal time usage and actual time usage are not on par. I appear to be familiar with my time usage as my estimated time allowances and actual time allowances were very similar however I am not spending my time in way that I ideal to achieving my goals and objectives. In order to narrow the gap between my actual time usage and ideal time usage I will need to spend more time studying, and less time socialising and performing home duties.

I have identified that study is of ?high priority’ when I chose to assign it an A (Refer to Appendix 3) and must therefore make sure I undertake goal management and establish it as one of my priorities. Once I narrow the gap and start achieving my short term objectives and goals, I can work towards my long term objectives and goals. Without achieving my ideal time allowance I am in no position to work Recommendations In order to close the gap between my actual time usage and ideal time usage I will need to consider ways in which I can prioritise and manage my goals.

Haynes suggests establishing when a person’s prime time for working is and then planning for the most important and demanding tasks to be done duringthis time (Haynes, M 2001). This theory promotes efficiency and could assist me in making my study time more productive. I could also consider utilizing my current commuting time to do my university readings. This would mean I have more time to study and in turn, fewer hours would be written off to home duties. The “Pickle Jar Theory” uses the analogy of an empty pickle jar to think about how we use the fixed amount of time available to us each day.

This theory could also be used when I plan my schedule and assist me to get important work done while still leaving time for socialising. (Mind Tools 2007, para. 2). I will continue to fully utilize my diary, to do lists and planning calendar (Refer to Appendix 7) as they have helped me successfully plan my time in the past. My next step now is put my recommendations into action in order to close the gap, improve my time management skills and achieve my short term goals and objectives. Only then will I be able to realistically work towards my long term goals and objectives.

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Time Management Essay

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Time Management Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1037

  • Pages: 4

Time Management

1. What are the major activities and tasks that take up most of your time (family, school, work, etc. )? Explain how much time you spend on each of these major activities. The three major activites that I go through on a day to day basis are work, family, and school. My work takes up a big majority of my day, I work from 0500-0600 after that I take time to talk to my wife from 0630-0800 then I into work and don’t get off until 6pm. After work I usually take about two to three hours to work on school. 2. Define Circadian Rhythm in your own words. When is your high-energy time?

What activities are you completing during this high-energy time? Is any study time during your high energy time? Circadian Rhythm is basicly a cycle that your mind or body is adjusted to within a certain time period. My high energry time would be right as I’m coming into work and I’m usually making sure everything is done from the previous day and getting up to speed on the current day. I would like to think that I have two high energy times because when I get off of work my energy level is boosted for some reason.

3. Your textbook emphasizes the importance of using “To Do Lists. ” Go to this website: www. mindtools.com. Find the section that deals with “To Do Lists. ” Why are To-Do Lists important for success in school and in a career? How do they keep one organized? A To-Do list is a very important tool to use for example; you take all the tasks you must do in a day and you set priorities on them starting from your top priorities on the top of your To-Do list.

This enables you not to forget about a certain task and it make your workload not seem so heavy. 4. Select one other tip in the mindtools. com site that would be helpful to you. Name and summarize this tip. Be sure to explain how this tip might apply to you personally.

Activity Logs are another good tool to use to manage your time. They enable you to see how much time you waste everyday due to little breaks or conversation with coulages. This helps me to see how much time I actually have everyday to use to my advantage to get stuff done and not waste time. 5. What do we mean by top-priority tasks? What criteria do you use to determine top priority tasks? Identify a top-priority task in your current work/school week. Explain why it is a top priority. A top priority task is a certain project or job that could possibly be big or take a lot of time that has a deadline.

For example at my job this week I need to reimage my whole companies computers. This command came down from higher up which means it needs to be done ASAP. 6. The six business practices in the management process are planning, organization, staffing, delegating, directing and motivating, and evaluating. How would poor time management negatively affect business? Assume you own the company. Poor time management could cause a company to lose lots of money, if jobs are not done in a descent time frame you might lose a customer or be paying your employees to slack off instead of doing work.

7. You have heard the saying, “Time is money. ” Do you agree? Elaborate on this statement. If you owned a company, would this saying be important? How would you watch the “bottom line” when dealing with your time and your employees’ time? I totally agree that “Time is money”, everything in a business is about time frames and deadlines. Making deadline early or on time makes your company look professional in which case your company can grow from this. Missing deadlines can cause you lots of money and shows bad business.

I would just anazlye project and projected deadlines to make sure they are being finished in a timely manner. 8. A key factor in time management is having well organized goals with an Action Plan. Create an Action Plan for your educational goals and be sure to include short-term, mid-term, and long-term goals. Before you do this part of the assignment, make sure you have reviewed the Unit 2 Online Lecture (dealing with Action Plans). My Long term goals are to have a Bachelor’s Degree in Network Security and graduating with a 3. 5 GPA.

My mid-term goal would be to get as many certification while in school as possible and to work hard making good grades. My short term goals would be to continue on my path of completing assignments on time, and making my To-Do lists. 9. What causes you to waste time? Explain what you can do to reduce the amount of time in each these areas. A lot of my time wasted is due to me just being tired and lazy. My job has a heavy work load everyday and when I’m off I just like to relax. I am going to push myself to get through the weak spots and push my lazyness to the side. 10. Take a stand.

Write a contract with yourself about how to get organized, to meet deadlines, to conquer procrastination and to balance college and family. Be specific and detailed and explain how you’ll achieve each of the goals from your contract. I Jordan Galindo am going to maintan my discipline and not procrastinaation on my school work. I will start school work everyday from 6pm-9pm. I will continue to do this throughout my whole time in school. When I finish I will reward myself with a big shopping spree. If I don’t complte this I will take away my movies to take a disctration away from myself. Signed: Jordan Galindo 20110906.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1070

  • Pages: 4

Time management

In this paper we are going to discuss the effects of time management and how it can help you in your daily activities. Time management is very important in many aspects of our lives whether it’s doing schoolwork, getting ready for work, or getting the kids ready for their sporting events. As one can see time management has many different effects on our lives, both as adults and as an adolescent. Therefore, using time management in our daily lives helps us every day and one will see the effects that it has on us even if we don’t know how to manage our time efficiently and effortlessly.

Time management can be used in many different ways throughout the day. When managing our time during the day, often people will try to keep you from finishing your duties in a timely manner. However, discussing time management one will see how it will help them in many of their daily activities and the effects that it has. Time Management affects us in many ways throughout our daily lives. Sometimes time management can affect us by people stopping us on the way to work, while we are on a phone call, or even that last minute thing that has to be done before we can leave.

We have to manage our time daily, such as when we first wake up for the day, to start getting ready for work or even to get our day started. Managing our time effectively during the day is a soft skill that not many people have and are able to us effectively. It is often said that study has shown that self-management in the setting of adolescents with disabilities showed that there were many variations among these people(DiPipi-Hoy, Caroline; Jitendra, Asha K; Kern, Lee pgs. 145-159). However, time management and self-management affects those with disabilities and it also affects those that don’t have any disabilities.

Most of us have problems with time management, whereas with others it comes fairly easy because they have things written down on calendars, daily planners or even have reminders stored in their phones. In today’s society it is hard to manage our time wisely and efficiently because there are many daily activities that are going on throughout the day that affects them from managing their time appropriately. However, those with certain disabilities find it harder to manage their time better than others.

In 2004 there was a mandated Individuals with Disabilities Act, which required schools to include transition goals in what is called an Individualized Education Program by the age of 16(DiPipi-Hoy, Caroline; Jitendra, Asha K; Kern, Lee pgs145-159). Time management affects many different people in many different ways daily, because they are not able to break things down so that they can get the things done that they need to do and be able to do them in a timely manner. With today’s society it is harder to manage our time efficiently because throughout the day we have many things that go on.

Time Management can help us in many different ways throughout our daily activities. Time manage is a soft skill that we obtain throughout our lifetime, it helps us as individuals mange what and how we do things during the day. Although, while using it one can see that he or she doesn’t have enough time in one day to get everything done at one time. However, to manage our time as individuals, we would need to break up our daily activities into many smaller time frames throughout the day so that we are able to complete them in a timely manner.

What one will see is that time management is not only a soft skill it is also a hard skill that they learn over the duration of their lifetime. When one uses this skill, he or she will see that it often harder at times to make time during the day, to do everything they have to do, and that is why scheduling things around certain times of the day are needed and give it will give you a time frame to get it done. I chose this topic of time management to show the effects of time management and how it will help us in our daily lives.

I often find myself running low on time during the day, so what I do is I use a schedule book and reminders to remind myself what I have got to get done and give myself a allotted time to get it done and then I will move onto the next thing. I believe that not only myself but everyone else can build a time management schedule that will help them maintain daily activities throughout their day so that they are able to complete them in a timely manner. When using time management one need to have a set schedule of things that they have to do and give themselves enough time throughout the day.

While reading the effects of time management, we have seen what one can do to manage their time efficiently and how to complete their daily activities. Time management is a soft skill that is acquired throughout our lifetime and continues to grow as we grow. However, managing our time with everything that we do during the day maybe hard for us to do, it can be done without any hesitation at all. Time management means to me that one has the ability to manage their time through many things in their lives whether they have a disability or not.

In conclusion, time management is stated as follows: the analysis of how working hours are spent and the prioritization of tasks in order to maximize personal efficiency in the http://dictionary. reference. com/browse/time+management? s=t) References DiPipi-Hoy, C. , Jitendra, A. K. , & Kern, L. (2009). Effects of time management instruction on adolescents” ability to self-manage time in a vocational setting. The Journal of Special Education, 43(3), 145-159. doi:http://dx. doi. org/10. 1177/0022466908317791 http://dictionary. reference. com/browse/time+management? s=t.

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Time Management Essay

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Time Management Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 5395

  • Pages: 22

Time Management

This article aims at exploring different ways of effective and efficient management of time. Time is an asset which is of crucial importance for all, so its better utilization can play a significant role in our lives. In this article different characteristics of time are described, importance of time is discussed. Some light is put on proper planning for efficient management of time and different suggestions are also presented. Time is highly expensive and precious but most of us waste it unintentionally because of being unaware of its worth.

So there was a need to investigate different activities and issues that cause people to waste the time of others and of their own. For effective time management sound and wise planning is needed at first and then smooth and steady movement toward goal is possible. Different suggestions in this regard are given at the end to wisely manage and utilize the precious asset time. To understand this topic I have selected a sample of 50 teacher and 50 students.

Teachers because they bear the responsibility of being the builders of the nation, they deliver lectures to different groups of students and before this they have to prepare or revise these lectures also. Apart from this they have to give time to their family. So how do they manage all this has been pleasure some to know. I interrogated with some students who were doing jobs during their studies. My sample of population belongs to the teachers and students of National University of Modern Languages Multan campus and Bahauddin Zakaria University Multan.

INTRODUCTION. One must be aware of the fact that time is a highly precious and perishable asset. Its an economics resource. it can not be contracted or expanded. It is irrecoverable and irreplaceable. It flows from past to present (often regarded as experience) and from present to future (doing planning). This flow is one way and irreversible. So its wise management can prove to be the gateway to success in all spheres of life. LITERATURE REVIEW. The interest in time management is by no means new.

The problem of how to manage time was already discussed in the 1950s and 1960s, and several authors proposed methods on how to handle time issues on the job (e. g. Drucker, 1967; Lakein, 1973; Mackenzie, 1972; McCay, 1959). They suggested simple remedies such as writing work plans down on paper (so-called “to-do lists”) in order to increase job performance. At the same time, some authors (e. g. Drucker, 1967) recognized that planning tasks and activities does not always lead to the completion of planned work, especially when time pressure is high.

McCay (1959) developed a concept for a time-management training program, which is still being used. Critical elements are: giving insight into time-consuming activities, changing time expenditure, and increasing workday efficiency by teaching people how to make a daily planning, how to prioritize tasks, and how to handle unexpected tasks. Many books and articles were written to convey these and similar ideas to managers, promising them a greater effectiveness while using less time (e. g. Blanchard and Johnson, 1982).

Over the years the focus of time management publications and training courses has shifted from managers as the major target group to a broad audience of working people. The term “time management” is actually misleading. Strictly speaking, time cannot be managed, because it is an inaccessible factor. Only the way a person deals with time can be influenced. Time management can be viewed as a way of monitoring and controlling time (e. g. Eilam and Aharon, 2003). In this regard, it would be more appropriate to speak about self-management with regard to the performance of multiple tasks within a certain time period.

But in the literature, the term self-management has a different meaning. It refers to monitoring and regulating oneself, but without any specific reference to techniques for monitoring time use. Therefore, I will stick to the use of the term time management in the present paper. In spite of all popular attention to managing time, relatively little research has been conducted on the processes involved in using one’s time effectively (e. g. by using “prime time” to carry out important tasks) and completing work within deadlines. In 1987, a review was published that addressed the increasing popularity of time management (Richards, 1987).

It discussed the principles mentioned by authors like McCay (1959) and concluded that, for instance, setting life goals and keeping time logs were important techniques for effectively managing one’s time Definitions of time management There is no agreement on the definition of time management in past studies. Although many authors referred to Lakein (1973), who suggested that time management involves the process of determining needs, setting goals to achieve these needs, prioritizing and planning tasks required to achieve these goals, several other definitions were suggested. Thus, time management has been referred to as:

1-techniques for managing time (Jex and Elacqua, 1999; Davis, 2000; Macan, 1994, 1996; Macan et al. , 1990; Mudrack, 1997); 2- a technique for effective time use, especially having enough time to accomplish the many tasks required (Orpen, 1994; Slaven and Totterdella, 1993; Woolfolak and Woolfolk, 1986); 3-planning and allocating time (Burt and Kemp, 1994; Francis-Smythe and Robertson, 1999a); 4-the degree to which individuals perceive their use of time to be structured and purposive (Bond and Feather, 1988; Strongman and Burt, 2000; Sabelis, 2001; Vodanovich and Seib, 1997);

5-a way of getting insight into time use (Koolhaas et al. ,1992); 6-a technique to increase the time available to pursue activities (King et al. ,1986); 7-practices intended to maximize intellectual productivity (Britton and Tesser,1991); 8-an application of self-regulation processes in the temporal domain (Griffiths,2003); 9-coping behaviour in at-risk populations (King et al. , 1986); 10-self-regulation strategies aimed at discussing plans, and their efficiency (Eilam and Aharon,2003); 11-the use of procedures that are designed to help the individual to achieve his or her desired goals (Hall and Hursch, 1982);

12-ways to assess the relative importance of activities through the development of a prioritization plan(Kaufman-Scarborough and Lindquist, 1999); Besides time management, other terms, such as time structure (Bond and Feather, 1988), were used interchangeably with essentially the same meaning. Because a commonly accepted definition of the concept was lacking, i found it difficult to determine the exact content of time management in past research, to describe the current state of affairs, and to identify which parts are responsible for what results.

Based on the literature, definition of time management can be as “behaviours that aim at achieving an effective use of time while performing certain goal-directed activities”. This definition highlights that the use of time is not an aim in itself and cannot be pursued in isolation. The focus is on some goal-directed activity, such as performing a work task or an academic duty, which is carried out in a way that implies an effective use of time.

These behaviours comprise: • Time assessment behaviours, which aim at awareness of here and now or past, present, and future (Kaufman et al., 1991) and self-awareness of one’s time use (attitudes, cognitions, e. g. Wratcher and Jones, 1988), which help to accept tasks and responsibilities that fit within the limit of one’s capabilities. • Planning behaviours, such as setting goals, planning tasks, prioritizing, making to-do lists, grouping tasks (e. g. Britton and Tesser, 1991; Macan, 1994, 1996) which aim at an effective use of time. • Monitoring behaviours, which aim at observing one’s use of time while performing activities, generating a feedback loop that allows a limit to the influence of interruptions by others (e. g.Fox and Dwyer, 1996; Zijlstra et al. , 1999).

Measurement instruments used Past studies have mainly used self-report questionnaires. There were only a few diary studies and experiments. In total, ten different types of self-report questionnaires were used to measure time management behaviors, three types of which were used more often. These questionnaires are: 1. the time management behavior scale (TMBS, Macan et al. , 1990); 2. the time structure questionnaire (TSQ, Bond and Feather, 1988); and 3. the time management questionnaire (TMQ, Britton and Tesser, 1991). The TMBS was constructed by Macan et al.

(1990), and was based on a list of popularized concepts of time management behaviors examined by factor analysis. The subscales were: setting goals and priorities, mechanics of time management (e. g. making to-do lists), preference for organization (e. g. having a preference for an orderly way of working), and perceived control of time. Reliability levels were moderate and differed greatly among different studies (see, for instance, Davis, 2000). In her study in 1994, Macan argued that perceived control of time was actually an outcome variable of time management behaviours, and should not be considered part of the TMBS.

Adams and Jex (1997) tested the underlying factor structure of the TMBS using confirmatory factor analysis and found additional evidence for a three-factor solution, although they included only 28 of the 33 original items. Shahani et al. (1993) investigated the convergent validity of the TMBS by examining the relationships with three other scales (including the TSQ). They found that the TMBS factors were significantly correlated with the other scales and concluded that the TMBS had convergent validity.

They stated that the TMBS is the most elaborately validated scale to measure time management behaviours. The studies that included the TMBS did not present all information on the internal consistency of the scales (e. g. Adams and Jex, 1997). Those who did present coefficient alphas found that they ranged from 0. 50 to 0. 90 (Adams and Jex, 1999; Davis, 2000; Francis-Smythe and Robertson, 1999a; Macan et al. , 1990; Macan, 1994; Mudrack, 1997; Shahani et al. , 1993). The lowest coefficients alphas were found for the preference for organization-scale (0. 50, 0. 60, 0. 68, 0. 70, and 0. 83, respectively).

The TSQ was constructed by Bond and Feather (1988) and consists of items referring to the extent to which time is used in a structured and purposeful way. Factor analysis on the items of the TSQ revealed six factors, but only five could be named, i. e. sense of purpose, structured routine, present orientation, effective organization, and persistence. Bond and Feather (1988) claimed that the TSQ meets the usual psychometric criteria for further use as a research instrument, and concluded that the scale had face validity. Although the internal consistency of the total TSQ score in the three samples amounted to 0. 88, 0.

92, and 0. 91 respectively, the internal consistency for the subscales ranged from 0. 55 to 0. 75. A total of eight other studies included the TSQ and found internal consistencies ranging from 0 0. 66 to 0. 75. Mudrack (1997) compared the TMBS and the TSQ psychometrically and suggested to use shortened versions of both scales. His goal was to establish whether the factor structures of the TSQ en TMBS could be accurately replicated and whether a shorter scale would be acceptable. The coefficient alpha of both the TSQ and TMBS scales equalled or exceeded 0. 70, with small differences between the original and shortened form.

Based upon these findings, Mudrack (1997) recommended using a 20-item version (versus 26 original items) of the TSQ and a 26-item version (versus 46 original items) of the TMBS. The TMQ was constructed by Britton and Tesser (1991) and included items on attitudes towards time management (e. g. “do you feel you are in charge of your own time, by and large? ”) and planning the allocation of time. The scale consisted of three factors, namely short-range planning, long-range planning, and time attitudes, which together accounted for 36 percent of the variance. Williams et al.

(1995) included all three scales in a study but did not present internal consistency values or other psychometric information about the TMQ. Barling et al. (1996) used shortened forms of two scales, short-range and long-range planning, and conducted a confirmatory factor analysis. They found that a two-factor solution fitted their data reasonably well, producing coefficients alpha of 0. 85 and 0. 73, respectively. Trueman and Hartley (1996) used 14 items of the original 18-item TMQ and identified two subscales, namely daily planning and confidence in long-term planning, with coefficient alpha 0. 85 and 0. 71, respectively.

A common feature of the time management measures is that each includes items that refer to planning behaviour. The TMBS subscale “setting goals and priorities”, the TSQ factor “structured routine”, the TMQ subscales “short-range planning” and “long-range planning” all refer to planning tasks and activities. Other time management measures covered by this review also included planning behaviour items relating, for instance, to yearly and daily planning reports (Eilam and Aharon, 2003), using an activity log (Hall and Hursch, 1982), and setting goals, following priorities, scheduling, organizing and planning (Lang, 1992).

Time management theory Not only a definition, but also a theory on time management is lacking. The question “how does time management work and why? ” is still unanswered. Only Macan (1994) presented a model of time management that comprised antecedent, mediating, and outcome variables with respect to time management behaviours. Macan (1994) stated that time management training programs lead to three types of time management behaviours: (1) setting goals and priorities; (2) mechanics of time management; and (3) preference for organization.

She hypothesized that these behaviours would result in perceived control of time, or the feeling of having control over one’s time. Furthermore, perceived control of time was hypothesized to mediate between the time management behaviours and job-induced and somatic tension, job satisfaction, and job performance. Results showed that time management training was positively related to only one scale of the time management behaviours, goal setting and priorities. Setting goals and priorities and the mechanics of time management were positively related to perceived control of time, whereas preference for organization was not.

Job-induced and somatic tension was negatively related, and job satisfaction was positively related to time management behaviour and mediated by perceived control of time. Perceived control of time was not significantly related to job performance. These results imply that by implementing time management techniques, one is able to experience control over what can be done within workday time. This feeling in turn has a positive effect on job satisfaction, and job-induced and somatic tensions.

Three replication studies (Adams and Jex, 1999; Davis, 2000; Jex and Elacqua, 1999) provided only partial support to Macan’s (1994) model. Jex and Elacqua (1999) found that perceived control of time partially mediated the relations between goal setting and prioritising, and preference for organization on the one hand, and strain on the other hand. Adams and Jex (1999) found that perceived control of time mediated between setting goals and priorities, mechanics of time management, and preference for organization on the one hand, and health and job satisfaction on the other hand.

Setting goals and priorities and preference for organization were positively related to perceived control, whereas mechanics of time management were negatively related to perceived control of time. Davis (2000) found that perceived control of time only acted as a mediator in the relation between preference for organization and the outcome variables job related tension, somatic tension, and job satisfaction. Claessens et al. (2004) used a different time management scale to test the mediation model over time. A planning scale was used instead. This study also revealed partial mediation of control of time.

In conclusion, these studies found some support for Macan’s (1994) process model that hypothesised perceived control of time to fully mediate between time management behaviours and job- and person-related outcomes. As for the relationship between particular time management behaviours and outcomes, it was found that planning showed most significant results. Bond and Feather (1988) for instance, found that the TSQ factor “sense of purpose” accounted for most of the variance in the total TSQ score and was therefore identified as the most important factor of the TSQ.

Macan (1994) found that the subscale “goal setting and prioritising” was significantly related to outcomes such as perceived control of time and job satisfaction. Britton and Tesser (1991) found a positive relation between short-range planning and grade point average of students, whereas long-range planning was unrelated. They stated that short-range planning was a more effective time management technique than long-range planning because plans could be adjusted to fast changes or unpredictable situations, which allowed for flexibility.

Williams et al. (1995) investigated the relationship between the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and time management practices. They found that all TMQ-factors (Britton and Tesser, 1991), i. e. short-range planning, long-range planning, and time attitudes, were significantly related to the J-P (judgment-perception) index of the MBTI. A high score on this scale indicates “. . . having a preference for a planned, orderly, and controlled way of living” (Williams et al. , 1995, p. 37). In conclusion, some support for a dispositional foundation of time management behaviour was found because TSQ factors (Bond and Feather, 1988), TMQ factors Time management training programs.

The effect of time management training programs on time management and on outcomes such as job performance was investigated in eight studies. The results with respect to the effectiveness of time management training were mixed. Five studies (Green and Skinner, 2005; King et al. , 1986;

Macan, 1994; Slaven and Totterdell, 1993; Van Eerde, 2003) found support, as participants indicated that they did engage in time management behaviour more frequently after a time management training program; one study (Macan, 1996) did not. A positive relation between time management training and performance (e. g.time spent on working on high-priority tasks) was found in three studies (Hall and Hursch, 1982; King et al. , 1986; Orpen, 1994), whereas in two other studies (Macan, 1996; Slaven and Totterdell, 1993) this relation was not found.

In conclusion, past studies have demonstrated that time management training programs generally increased participants self-reported time management skills. Supervisor rating was positive in one study (Orpen, 1994), and some confirmation from supervisors or peers with the self-reports was obtained in three studies (Green and Skinner, 2005; Macan, 1994; Van Eerde, 2003).

Time management training was demonstrated to enhance the use of time management behaviours, but there are no conclusive results about tt he effect of these behaviours on outcome variables. Most of the past studies were field studies and used questionnaires. Planning was part of all three mostly used time management questionnaires (TMBS, TSQ, TMQ), suggesting that planning is an important time management component. A large number of past studies used student samples.

It can be questioned whether the results for students also hold for employees, because students deal with different kinds of tasks than employees, and it has not been demonstrated that the processes involved are comparable. One of the differences is that students are able to postpone activities by deciding not to study for an exam, while employees have less possibility to do so and may face more negative outcomes of not doing certain things in time. In conclusion, this review of time management literature demonstrates that there is still a lot of work to be done on the subject of time management.

Past studies have covered only parts of the conceptual spectrum and did not always demonstrate which considerations led to their point of view on time management behaviours and to the selection of outcome variables. METHODOLOGY. As its obvious from this literature review that a lot of research needs to done on Time Management yet. The subjects selected in this research are Lecturers / Professors, Students, Doctors and some others. Purpose of this diverse sample was that most of the previous research has been conducted mostly on students. Sample population of 50 is taken for each category. Response rate is given in table 1.

|CATEGORY |RESPONDENTS | |LECTURERS / PROFESSORS |40 | |STUDENTS |25 | |DOCTORS |30 | |OTHERS |20 | TABLE 1: [pic] Figure 1: Response Rate. Gender and total number of respondents is shown in table 2. |GENDER |RESPONDENT | |MALE |80 | |FEMALE |35 | |TOTAL |115 | TABLE 2: [pic] ———————————————————————————————————— Figure 2: Gender of respondents Totally 200 questionnaire were floated and 160 were returned. Out of which 60 were uncompleted on wrongly filled. 15 people were re approached and their questionnaires were refilled from them.

The questionnaire consisted of 31 questions in all, and likert and dichotomous scale were used for most of the questions. (See annexture I) With most of these people I conducted interview at length also. FINDINGS. According to the findings major time wasters are useless mobile talk, useless internet surfing, TV specially Indian TV channels, uninvited guests and gossips. [pic] ———————————————————————————————————— Figure 3: results about people who agree disagreed and neutral that mobile and useless internet surfing and sms chat are major time wasters.

Another major and perhaps the most important reason which causes people to waste their time un willingly is that ‘they can’t say “NO” to others’ and remain busy in doing the work which they in fact don’t like. Some other include traveling, traffic problems, etc also. Some people specially women spent most of their time at their work or at home in their personal grooming, not properly paying attention to the work they are supposed to do, and hence time is wasted. Most of the respondents which I interviewed agreed that ‘they like to train someone else for their repetitive tasks but in reality they are not able to do so.

’ Another reason for wasting time is that ‘people often don’t understand difference between Important Work and Urgent work. PRIME TIME. According to this survey prime time (hour in which one feels himself more productive) for most of the lecturers / professors and doctors is morning time. As nights were supposed most quiet and peaceful time for students to study, but unfortunately most of the student’s precious time is wasted in nights on useless mobile talk, sms chatting, viewing Indian TV channels and useless internet surfing. Hence neither they are more productive at nights nor unfortunately in mornings.

This is precisely the reason why most of my student respondents wrote that they feel themselves more productive ‘after having a sound sleep’. [pic]———————————————————————————————————— Figure 3. Prime time identification. DISCUSSION. Its our observation that in our society so much time is wasted in wedding ceremonies, specially on the occasion of Valima. Hosts serve food so much late and don’t understand that if they delay it for one hour and 200 people are invited, then in fact it is not only one hour rather 200 hours are wasted, because 200 people have to wait.

Consider the importance of one minute. In just one minute more than 250000 calls are made worldwide (now with the help of internet and mobile it far more than this), in one minute a man can walk approximately 500 feet long, can speak over 100 words. The heart of a healthy man beats 72 times, 18 times a human breaths and earth covers 950 miles around its orbit in just one minute. Famous writer Smile wrote that the people who are habitual in wasting time, over the time they become totally unfit for any kind of success. Napoleon always got ready 15 minutes in advance of the actual time. Once a secretary of U. S President.

Washington showed up late at work, the President scolded him and said ‘its better for you to change your watch or I am going to change you. ’ At some time the negligence of not understanding the critical importance of time, can bring havoc. At the occasion of ‘Jang e Uhad’ Hazarat Muhammad PBUH deputed some Companions at a hill and gave instruction not to leave that position until He says. What happened, they left that position before time and then resultantly The many Muslims got martyred, a lot other got injured. The Teeth Mubarak of the Holy Prophet got martyred also as well. What an irrecoverable loss it was !

. . . To some extent the similar thing happened in the war of Waterloo. When Napoleon asked one of his commanders to get the hold of some hill top, his commander didn’t understand the importance of the order and wasted time, resultantly their opponent allied forces took control of that hill and attacked from there, and the Napoleon was defeated. These are just a few examples for understanding the crucial importance of time. The wise management of time can prove to be fruitful both in this world and the world hereafter Try to be highly conscious of the things which cause you to waste your precious asset TIME.

First as it was manifest by our survey that most of the people take on too much work for themselves or get involved in some such activity that they even don’t like simply because they don’t have sufficient courage to say no to others. Saying no nicely and politely is not such a complex trick to learn. Simply tell the person your limitations or inability for not being able to do that particular task with adequate reasons. Second it was also discussed that people like to train someone else to perform some repetitive tasks for them but in reality they are not able to do so.

It is primarily because of their personality orientations, that they are very much concerned with the quality of work done. This “do it myself syndrome” can be avoided by • Identifying clearly the tasks to be delegated • Communicate these tasks eloquently. • Gradually increase the authority and responsibility. • Define the limits of responsibility. Thirdly most of the people surveyed were found doing no proper planning of their work. And moreover most didn’t recognize the difference between important work and urgent work. Rather they must understand that every important work is not necessarily an urgent work.

Hence people remain stuck in activities that do not deserve so much involvement. Other time wasters such as Indian drama channels, current affairs shows, sms chats, excessive mobile talk, useless internet surfing, traffic jam problems, un invited visitors, ineffective communications, etc can easily be controlled as • Strictly define a specific time for TV channels for recreations / information and then turn off the TV. • Same is the case with internet surfing. Define the specific time and try to get most out of that limited time. Evaluate yourself as you realize that there is no useful surfing then stop it.

• Discover and take short link roads instead of traveling on big main roads where often there is a chance of being stuck in a traffic jams. • Discourage un-invited visitors by, Closed doors techniques / policy (at office or hostels). By learning to say no nicely. Meeting the uninvited person in stand up position. Don’t ever sit down. Don’t meet the unknown. • Communicate eloquently. Try to be master in these four communication skills. Reading Writing Speaking Listening. Behavioral and human resource specialists emphasize that out of these four crucially important is listening. Most of are POOR LISTENERS.

So to become a good listener follow following Stop talking Put talker at ease Show that you want to listen Remove distractions Empathize with the talker. Be patient Hold your temper Avoid interruptions and don’t argue Ask some questions as encouragement Stop talking By being a good listener, you will be able to understand what other person wants from you. And hence by not asking him again and again you will be in a position to manage / utilize your time in an efficient manner. • Student should reject sms packages and use nominal call rate packages which charge on 30 second basis or so.

Talk concise and wise. As “brevity is the soul of wit. ” Broadly there is a set of particular behaviors that contribute in wasting time. Such as • Task / Achievement: personally doing (working) versus managing and delegating. • Leadership / dominance / decision: taking charge and doing work. • Impulsive / physically energetic: start work but with no planning. • Socially warm / Gregarious: being not task oriented and lacking courage to say NO politely. • Theoretical / detail: paralysis by analysis • Change new experience / feeling: bored with routine work, being unstable and not a team worker.

• Fellowship / defensive / aggressive: to please others, bureaucratic, arguing with others. SOME SUGGESTIONS. 1. When you feel bogged down and your time management techniques do not seem to be working do not despair at all. Have faith on God and Pray first of all. 2. Delegate as much as possible to others. 3. Do not get involved in volunteer type of work specially when you have your own big responsibilities. 4. Plan and allow very short time periods for crises and external interruptions. Avoid the situation of Paralysis by Analysis. 5.

Organize and persuade those around you of critical importance of time planning. 6. Control your environment. Don’t let it control you. 7. Maintain a pre planned schedule of your daily works (write your to do list. ) Use calendar, PDA, mobile reminders as much as possible. 8. Regularly after one or two months double your productivity goals. 9. Set and honor priorities. 10. Finish a task before you start another one. 11. Accept that you can not beat the clock. Work smarter not harder and longer. CONCLUSION Up and above all the things, the importance of wise management of time can not be denied at all.

The need of the hour is that teachers and parents must put an eye on the activities of their students and children. They ought to guide them how to utilize their time in a constructive manner. In my interactions, most of the people urged that teachers , parents and especially the youth of Pakistani nation should come forward and the develop a culture of time saving. Because ‘It is necessary to kill the time , not allow oneself to be killed by it’. REFERENCES. Adams, G. A. and Jex, S. M. (1997), “Confirmatory factor analysis of the time management behaviour scale”, Psychological Reports, Vol. 80, pp. 225-6. Adams, G.

A. and Jex, S. M. (1999), “Relationships between time management, control, work-family conflict, and strain”, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Vol. 1, pp. 72-7. Ancona, D. G. , Goodman, P. S. , Lawrence, B. S. and Tushman, M. L. (2001), “Time: a new research lens”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 26, pp. 645-63. Barling, J. , Kelloway, E. K. and Cheung, D. (1996), “Time management and achievement striving interact to predict car sale performance”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 81, pp. 821-6. Blanchard, K. H. and Johnson, S. (1982), The One Minute Manager, William Morrow & Co. , New York, NY.

Bond, M. and Feather, N. (1988), “Some correlates of structure and purpose in the use of time”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 55, pp. 321-9. Britton, B. K. and Tesser, A. (1991), “Effects of time-management practices on college grades”, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 83, pp. 405-10. Burt, C. D. B. and Kemp, S. (1994), “Construction of activity duration and time management potential”, Applied Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 8, pp. 155-68. Claessens, B. J. C. , van Eerde, W. , Rutte, C. G. and Roe, R. A. (2004), “Planning behavior and perceived control of time at work”, Journal of Organ

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Time management Essay

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Time management Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 547

  • Pages: 2

Time management

?Pacing in the classroom is the rate at which a teacher goes through a lesson in the classroom. One of the challenges that teachers are faced with deciding at what speed to present the material to the students. Teachers have to pace themselves so students can keep up with all the information and not feel that the lesson is moving too fast or feel like it is never ending. Teachers need to learn how to pace themselves so they do not spend too much time on one lesson and not enough for another. Pacing is important in the classroom because it creates a sense of urgency.

Having the feeling that the lesson is being timed will ensure that the teacher moves in a steadily and diligent pace that is not too fast. Fast paced environment will only leave students confused and they will not fully understand the material. Pacing also help make goals clear in a lesson. Explaining to the students what they will be learning or doing for the day will help keep them focused. Another reason why pacing is needed in the classroom is because it helps the teacher transition from one activity to the other. Teachers must think ahead and begin the setup of the next activity or lesson while finishing up the last.

An example of how to effectively transition from one lesson to the next would be for the teacher to start passing out materials of the new lesson while finishing up the last one. This transition is set up in a pace that there is no wasted time between one learning activity and the next. It is important for teachers to keep all of the resources and materials needed all in place in order to keep the flow going and avoid for the pace to be interrupted. Teachers must also pace themselves to be able to stop and check how well the students are responding to the lesson.

This may include open discussion, questioning or formative assessments. Taking time to check if the students are understanding the material will give the teacher an idea of whether to continue with the lesson or stop and adjust their teaching technique. Giving the students a couple of seconds to think about and understand the material is also an important part of pacing. In a classroom that contains English Language Learners teachers may need to make special accommodations and provide students with a pace that will coincide with their abilities.

Teachers of ELL students must teach at a slower pace than a classroom that does not have any English Language Learners (ELL). ELL Students need more time to ask questions throughout the lesson and also require more time to answer the questions being asked. Teachers must pace themselves to check the comprehension of the students more often than in a classroom with non-ELL. English Language Learners also need more time to complete activities and teachers must pace themselves accordingly to meet the needs of the ELL students. When the teacher provides students with a more gradual pace the student is able to achieve academic success.

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Time Management Essay

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Time Management Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 424

  • Pages: 2

Time Management

There are many different ways to manage your time with day to day tasks. You can use planners, wall calendars, or pretty much anything you can write in the things that will be happening that day. This is good so that you can find time to do your work. You can have it where you plan daily or you can have a long term planner. The main thing is to use something that you will actually look at and be comfortable with.

The first thing that you would need to do is get the planner that your comfortable with. Then as your handed the syllabus for your class you need to write in all the different things that you will have to turn in or study for. Mainly the homework, projects, test, etc… This will help you to a lot the amount of time needed to complete the tasks. Like you should allow at least 2 days to study for test. The other thing is that you need to make sure that you will have enough time to do something in case something happens that you have to change the time that you were suppose to do the task.

Next you will need to write down any of your personal events that are happening in your life , like birthdays, anniversaries. Things that you know that happen on a regular schedule so that you can make sure that it doesn’t conflict with the time that you need for doing your work. You may have to change times on things so that you can get them done and be able to do the family or friendly events.

The next thing that needs to be done is in your down time you need to think about exercising. Even if its just taking a walk, exercise is great for relieving stress and your brain will work better if your body is in shape to. I would probably use a daily planner so that it is a little more relaxed with my day. Im just looking at what needs to get done on that day and not stressing out on anything else that will be happening that week. For me to manage my time efficiently I need to be focused on the task at hand. I think that the most important thing is being comfortable with what you are using to manage your time.

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Time Management Essay

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Time Management Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1996

  • Pages: 8

Time Management

Study:

“Working to live: Why university students balance full-time study and employment” According to Valerie Holmes, within this group 83 per cent of students worked at some point during term-time of their degree programmed. In total 58 per cent of those students who worked did so to either cover or contribute to basic costs of living. While the majority of students felt they could balance work and study, half of all students questioned felt that working could have a negative impact on their degree classification. Valerie Holmes, (2008) “Working to live: Why university students balance full-time study and employment”, Education + Training, Vol. 50 Iss: 4, pp.305 – 314

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1728331 |

The work–study relationship: experiences of full‐time university students undertaking part‐time employment Journal of Education and Work
Volume 23, Issue 5, 2010
Ralph Halla*
Pages 439-449
Publishing models and article dates explained
Received: 21 Apr 2010
Accepted: 14 Jul 2010
Version of record first published: 29 Nov 2010

Abstract

Work and study commitments of full‐time undergraduate students at the University of New South Wales were investigated in four surveys conducted in 1994, 1999, 2006 and 2009. Respondents to the surveys reported the amount of time they spent during term time in paid employment, studying outside of formal class hours and in leisure activities (1999 and 2006 only). Fifty full‐time students in 2006 and 37 in 2009 who were identified through the survey as working in excess of 10 hours per week were interviewed about their work and study relationships. Findings are consistent with UK studies showing an increase in part‐time work by full‐time students. In addition, a steady decrease was found in hours of study outside normal class time and in time spent in leisure activities.

Reasons for working offered by interviewees were predominantly financial although many reported that gaining work experience, even in areas not related to their studies, was an important consideration. While some of the students interviewed felt that the government should provide more support for full‐time students, the majority thought that the university should cater more for the needs of working students by providing more online facilities for assignment submission and communication and more flexible timetables and submission requirements. In the absence of any likely moves by governments to provide financial support to students, universities need to recognize the increasing demands placed on full‐time students by part‐time work and to implement procedures to assist working students. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cjew20

Literature:

More students balance school with jobs
By Jacob Serebrin | January 25th, 2012 |

More than half of full-time university students in Quebec work while attending school and more than 40 per cent of all undergraduates work more than 20 hours weekly says a new study by the Fédération étudiante universitaire du Québec, a provincial lobby group that wants lower tuition. On top of that, more than twice as many full-time students aged 20 to 24 in the province work part-time jobs than students did in the 1970s. The workloads are hurting their educations: 43 per cent of full-time undergraduates say that their jobs have negatively affected their studies and 30 per cent say their jobs mean they’ll take longer to finish. It’s worst for PhD students—six in 10 say work forced them to prolong their studies. It’s not just students in Quebec who are putting in long hours between classes. According to the 2011 Canadian University Survey Consortium study 56 per cent of undergraduates in Canada work. The average number of hours is 18 per week.

Nearly a fifth (18 per cent) work more than 30 hours weekly. One third of working students report “a negative impact on their academic performance.” The latest research also builds on a November 2010 report put out by FÉUQ that said employment income accounts for more than 50 per cent of the average full-time student’s income in Quebec. Predictably, FÉUQ is using the results of both studies to argue against a tuition increase that will take effect this fall. The hike will see tuition for in-province student’s rise by $325 a year to $3,793 in 2016. It’s easy to dismiss FÉUQ’s concerns–the province has the lowest fees in the country.

But the fact that so many students are working so much suggests many are already at the breaking point. It also rebuts the claim by Quebec politicians that the increase would return tuition to 1968-9 levels, adjusted for inflation, which is what finance minister Raymond Backhand told the National Assembly. The claim that today’s students are paying less than past students has also been a favorite of the Conference of Rectors and Principals of Quebec Universities, which represents administrators. Perhaps tuition was indeed more expensive in the 1968-9s. But in the 1970s, students could afford to work less in coffee shops and clothing stores—and more on their studies—than students of today.

More students balance school with jobs

Vol. 1, Issue 1 – spring 2005
The Effects of College Student Employment on Academic Achievement By: Lauren E Watanabe
Mentor: Jana Jasinski
Review of Literature

“As money and resources become more scarce for college students, jobs become more of a necessity rather than an after school activity. Any changes to students’ routines will lead to changes in academics, whether they are positive or negative. ” Employment among college students has been increasing rapidly. Its effect on the academic performance of students has been questioned by many researchers (Green, 1987). Some of the issues raised in the literature concern matters such as the number of hours worked, whether or not the students’ jobs pertain to their majors, and the students’ workloads. As more students are employed, they face having to balance their academic requirements, extracurricular activities, and employment responsibilities to maintain their lifestyles (Furr & Elling, 2000).

The literature reviewed below examines how employment has affected academic achievement. Much of the research indicating that employment negatively affects students’ academic achievement stated that an increase in the amount of hours worked was the most influential factor. In one study, more hours worked decreased the likelihood of being an ‘A’ student (Pritchard, 1996). According to Furr and Elling (2000), 29% of the students working 30-39 hours per week and 39% of those students working full time indicated that work had a negative and frequent impact on their academic progress. Those who take on part-time jobs are less engaged in school before they enter the labor force, and part-time employment, ‘especially for more than 20 hours weekly, further exacerbates this problem’ (Steinberg et al., 1993, p. 175). Furr and Elling (2000) also found that upperclassmen worked more hours than freshmen, indicating that the older students would be more likely to suffer in their academics. Therefore, working full time has an even greater impact on academics because, often times, working 40 or more hours further decreases a student’s college grade point average (GPA) and is negatively related to completion of a bachelor’s degree (Astin, 1993).

The act of balancing school work with the labor market may also lead students to put forth less effort into both because they are spreading themselves ‘too thin’ (Astin, 1993). According to these researchers, it is not the job itself that causes the problems, but the overload on the amount of time worked because ‘students who work more hours each week ‘ spend less time on homework, [and] pay attention in class less often” (Steinberg & Dornbusch, 1991, p. 307). Not all of the research has shown negative GPA effects from the amount of hours a student is employed. Some findings indicated that employment had either a positive effect or none at all. A number of researchers, for example, found that hard work built stronger academic character because it taught the students time management skills, gave them experience outside of the classroom, and provided them with more satisfaction in college (Pennington, Zvonkovic, & Wilson, 1989). Dallam and Hoyt (1981) suggested that a good balance between students’ credit hours and working hours forced students to be more organized and to have better time management.

They also found that students who worked between 1 and 15 hours per week showed a slightly higher GPA than those whose workloads were heavier and those who were not working at all (Dallam & Hoyt, 1981; Li-Chen & Wooster, 1979). Not only were higher GPAs found in students that maintained jobs, but Green (2001) also stated ‘that they had gained job skills, experience, knowledge of a variety of jobs, a sense of accomplishment, a feeling of responsibility, and money for personal and school expenses’ (p. 329). Other researchers, when comparing high and low academic performance and the amount of hours students worked, found that the amount of hours employed did not have an adverse effect on their academics (Pinto, Parente, & Palmer, 2001). Similarly, Watts’ (2002) analysis of 19 students at the University of Brighton found that 4 of 12 working undergraduates said that working did not affect their academics and 5 said that it actually had a positive impact.

Although some of the previously mentioned studies used samples of high school students rather than undergraduates, their results were consistent. The fact that some contained samples of less than 50 students, however, may have accounted for some of the differences between the positive and negative academic results. Not accounting for the amount of time actually put into the job, researchers have found that the type of employment a student holds has an impact on academics. Dead-end jobs such as a cashier or fast food worker tend to have a negative effect (Li-Chen & Wooster, 1979), whereas high-quality, part-time jobs that seemed to develop career-related skills may in effect contribute to increased levels of ‘career maturity,’ and these types of jobs are more likely to be flexible and work with students’ schedules (Healy, O’Shea, & Crook, 1985).

These types of jobs allow for hands-on experience that cannot be gained in the classroom alone. For example, of the 600 full-time students at Lamar University surveyed, 91 out of 215 students whose jobs related to their majors had a mean GPA of 2.98, while those whose jobs were career unrelated had a mean GPA of 2.66 (Li-Chen & Wooster, 1979). Also, student comments suggested that employment related to a potential career provided additional experience. For example, 10 out of 23 comments of a 120 nursing student survey at a university indicated that they were ‘gaining more practical experience . . .’ and that ‘as all [their] employment is in care areas, [they felt] it [had] extended [their] experience’ (Lee, 1999, p. 448). As money and resources become more scarce for college students, jobs become more of a necessity rather than an after school activity. Any changes to students’ routines will lead to changes in academics, whether they are positive or negative.

Though the research results were not always consistent, it was a common theme that the more hours worked led to decreased academic performance, but that working in general did not necessarily have a negative effect on grades. When it came to students’ jobs as they applied to their majors, the effects were positive in that they provided experience beyond the classroom (Lee, Mawdsley, & Rangeley, 1999). The following study will look at these variables as well as class standing, the amount of credit hours taken, and flexibility of the work schedule in order to determine the positive or negative relationship of working and academics. Other variables, such as demographic factors, will also be examined. http://www.urj.ucf.edu/vol1issue1/watanabe/literature.php

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