University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
The significance of context in information systems and organizational change
Since their arrival on the mobile and web computing scene, information systems have had a profound effect on economies, organizations and societies. Individuals have also enjoyed a great deal of the extended effect of the activities that are conducted within the social aggregates provided by information systems. This report seeks to evaluate the impact and the role of information systems on the quality process on different industries in order to make the implementation and application of quality assurance easy, simple, fast accurate and time saving.
The journal of strategic information systems seeks to explore the impact that information systems has had on the general process and profitability of a company. This journal has a scholarly audience for those who are in search of better understanding on how best information systems have improved their lives and the potential that they still hold for the future. Since it is documented as a scholarly article, it is expected that the article shall fulfill educational curiosities regarding how information systems have enabled simplicity and some level of perfection in the business world. It is also expected that the journal shall provide precise information with extensive research carried out to back the statements outlined in the article. According to the journal article, the gradual increase in dependence of information systems has shown a steady rise in the need for quality improvement within business enterprises. The article sites a survey carried out to show that IT improvement in terms of quality is the top problem facing IT executives in the current job market. It is because of the multidimensional edge that IT presents that the position of Chief Information Officers (CIO) has become a recent development in the corporate sector. The journal models the relationship between information systems quality and the organizational impact it has. The article hypothesizes that there is a greater organizational impact in situations where the systems quality, service quality and information quality are high.
According to the article, information system service quality is the most influential concept, followed by information quality and then system quality in the overall performance of the business. However, the article fails to mention other impacts that are attached to the success of the organization such as efficiency of the personnel and the updating of information system quality. On the other hand, the article’s mention of Ackoff (1967) is critical to the support of the information system theory. Ackoff pointed out five misconceptions regarding information systems by stating that the most critical information deficiency that managers suffer is from the high levels of irrelevant information. Furthermore the article points to Whitaker and Voas (2006) and Parnas (2003) who confirm that software is plagued with problems such as fragmented software modules that are hard to integrate and hard-to-use interfaces. However, at the time this information was presented this was a rampant problem that was facing the software industry and the IT world in general. However, recent researches have shown that in recent years, this has changed drastically and information systems are required to be top notch before they can be released into the market for use and even for testing. The article fails to mention that there have been increased measures and precaution taken to ensure that quality assurance is the core principle in the world of information systems. It also fails to mention that quality assurance is the only link to continued success in an organization when it comes to matters of information, technology and systems. It is only through the assurance of information systems that organizations can adapt systems that are guaranteed to produce tangible and beneficial results. The article also emphasizes on the use of information technology in the general performance of business and the overall perception of the outside world. It is lacking in the expertise to recognize the fact that quality assurance goes hand in hand with quality control which is mostly effected by use of personnel employed to overlook the process. Therefore, although the article has been pinned as a scholarly article in the journal, it requires much revision in order to remain relevant in the world we live in today.
Encyclopedia Britannica posted an article on information systems that proved to be worth reviewing. The article lays the importance of information systems in organizations. The article states that information systems enhance several capabilities of an organization which in turn provide support for business activities. For example, decision making, product development, customer and supplier relation and sometimes the general business model are the areas where information systems fit best. The article does not hold any opinion towards the importance of information system but it does point out the advantages and the potential that information systems hold in the organization. The article is right in pointing out that information systems advancements create new options in the way business is conducted which is generally true, but the article fails to mention that information systems require to be constantly updated. Besides updating, information systems require to be assured so that the results can be translated into the output of the company which shall be of the same quality. The language used in this article is informative and without any bias and it makes its credibility rise with each statement. For example, the article includes that information systems do not necessarily translate to increased profits. The success of a business depends in part the adoption of effective information systems, but it also in the skill to which the information systems are deployed and used alongside other factors such as customer relation and knowledge of the industry.
The article is witty and well updated with the latest advancements in quality assurance processes. For example, the article is clear in the definition and the implication of virtual organizations whose quality assurance has to be constantly updated because of the evolving and fast paced information system world. The article does not fail to mention the importance of human personnel in the workings of the company and the incorporation of information systems. Although the article is mainly focused on the information technology literate the simplicity of definition of terms means that the audiences of the article are both the literate and the illiterate to the IT world. It is through the incorporation of information systems to the World Wide Web that quality assurance can be improved drastically. Through quality assurance, individuals can participate in global forums and national events such as elections, referendums, and opinion polls. It is therefore, through the incorporation of information systems in such fronts that quality assurance becomes paramount. The article vividly describes and gives simple illustrations for the ways in which quality assurance in information systems can assist all members of the society.
According to the journal of the association for information, science and technology (2014), quality assurance is an administrative and procedural activity that is implemented in the quality system to ensure that both the goals and objectives of the product are fulfilled as intended. The journal hosted an article on the significance of context in information systems and organizational change. The article mainly speaks about the implementation of information systems which is relevant to the above outlined thesis. The article indicates that there are three distinct principles that are to be followed in the implementation of information systems throughout the organization. The first principle should incorporate innovation of the information system with regard to the socio-organizational change, the second principle involves the analysis of the local organizational, the national and the global context of the information system, while the third system uses the analysis of the decisions made towards the innovation process of the information system. The article is based on an assumption that ICT does not face any deterministic implications on the organizational results which makes it miss its mark in terms of convincing about the implementation of information systems. The failure in assumption is largely misplaced because ICT has a large role in the performance of the business which ultimately makes it a valuable variable to consider.
The article on the significance of context in information systems and organizational change also points out that the information systems research is mainly contextual because it is mostly based on an organizational setting instead of a laboratory setting. It is for this reason that information systems studies are subject to the environment in which they are applied, according to the article. The position of context of information environment used in the article is fairly placed given that different environments, markets or industries pose different challenges for the organization and the information system in use. Different fields of engagement require certain assurances in terms of the incorporation of information systems. For instance, quality assurance in information systems for the military is more precise that that which would be used in a local bookstore. One in a bookstore would be used to track borrowed books while one for the military would be used to track missiles and communicate code during wartime. On both counts, quality assurance would have to be stepped because it involves the use of human personnel to operate the information system. On the other hand, quality assurance should be strict so that human use of the information system can be smooth and accommodating and at the same time it should be time saving.
The article is well organized starting from the introduction, all through the body and into the conclusion. The points raised in the article such as the concept that information systems are mainly concerned with IT innovations is well founded. The article sites many references for backing the information presented going as far back as 1989 when the initial concepts for the internet were taking place. The audiences intended for the article are scholars who require in-depth information about information systems, their innovations and implementations. The article is highly resourceful and rich in detail for any scholarly work. The article states that in order to maintain a competitive edge in the respective field, companies have to invest in information systems like ERPs (Enterprise Resource Planning) software that serve different functions in the organization. These systems also provide real time data that is used to aid in fast decision making. Information systems such as ERPs help companies to manage their operations seamlessly across the globe. This information is particularly helpful especially in aiding the thesis statement that seeks to give credit to quality assurance for the easy integration, simplicity and quickness in the performance of business duties.
Quality in any field is determined by the users, clients or customers who use the product and not by the society in general. The quality, as is often confused is not related to the actual price of the product or the service. The two are separate variables though relating to the same product. Therefore, adjectives like ‘poor’ and ‘high’ should not be used in relation to quality. Even in IT and information systems there are standards by which products must conform and they are monitored by such standards as ISO, 9000 or an alternative as the CMMI model. This is the idea projected in the journal of information systems (2009) that was designed in the interest of quality intervention in the quality assessment arena. The article on the benefits of information systems to organizations indicate that companies benefit by cutting down on human labor that previously cost them billions in wages. Since the invention and the spread of information systems companies have opted to cut down on human labor down to the most important employees within the company. Although the article is fundamentally clear on the importance of cutting down human labor services, it fails to mention that quality assurance in the information systems that replace them are in constant need of updating for as long as the systems are in place. The article is geared to the well informed in the field of information systems and information technology as it mentions some of the most recent advancements such as cloud computing. The article merely seeks to hit the final nail on the information system concept coffin by including these latest features. Although other articles speak about virtual organizations and virtual communication systems, the journal of information systems seeks to give the latest advancements as well as options and possibilities in the industry.
The drastic, yet advanced calculations in the growth of the information technology world have led to the overreliance of computerization that might eventually become the downfall of human beings. Without human intervention to the computerized world, there is an ever conscious possibility of failing to meet set objectives in terms of assurance of quality. The article seeks to inform of the impending danger of the failure to adhere to quality assurance precautions which is commendable and very informative. The article is neither biased but rather it leaves the reader with an option to think outside the box, consider gathering more information or take the information provided at face value. The tile of the article suggests that there shall be many sides to the information system story which is clearly shown and well detailed. The main purpose of the article from a scholar’s point of view is to broaden the thinking of the reader and to create a set of questions as to what lies ahead with information systems. Both the application and implementation of information systems has been revolutionary and has defined the 21st century in a huge way. Therefore, quality assurance on information systems has become tougher and more brutal as days go by primarily because of the competition and the innovativeness associated with information technology. The article seeks to highlight the consequences of ignorance and also the failures that companies undergo as a result of ignoring quality assurance requirements for the betterment of their stature in the industry. It is only with quality assurance that new ideas and concepts can be fostered within the organization. Quality assurance ensures that there is always room for improvement on the information system so that companies can grow according to their mission statement. The article is witty and largely educative and at the same time cautious as was the intention. The article is one to look out for in the world of information systems.
The international journal of computers, communications and control had an article on management of information systems titled ‘managing the digital firm’ which was an eye opener for those interested. The article was written by rather two professionals in the information systems arena who have extensive background knowledge in information systems. From the title of the article, it is expected that the information provided shall be highly educative and without any blunder. It is also expected that because of the doctoral status of the authors, the information provided can hardly be refuted. The article kicks off by stating that knowledge of information systems is essential in the creation of successful and competitive corporations that add value to their products and services. The article further cements this statement by stating that it is inconceivable for a company to operate without the extensive incorporation of IT. This statement is rightly so because from a global point of view, all relationships between customers, suppliers and employees are mainly maintained digitally.
The tone used in the article is educational which suggests that it is meant for scholars, educators and to a large extent, managers who are often faced with major information systems challenges. In order to do so, the authors of the article have incorporated a sociotechnical style of presentation through the combination of computer science, management science as well as operations research and blended them with behavioral elements that are drawn from sociology, psychology and sociology. The article contains in large part presentation of facts from a management of information systems (MIS) point of view. The article explains in detail the concepts of digital firms and how quality assurance should be incorporated in the information systems adopted by organizations. The article also advices on keeping information systems updated in order to ensure that the quality assurance process remains easy, simple, fast, and accurate and not time consuming. The article is a masterpiece if not the blueprint of the future of information systems and businesses in all industries. The article explains in great detail that information systems are relevant in all industries and all markets however miniscule they might seem. The article is very resourceful and without any identifiable flaws. However, its lack of emphasis on quality assurance is a minor setback, but the essence of the article is captured in the rest of the details discussed.
Avgerou, Chrisanthi. “The significance of context in information systems and organizational change.” Information Systems Journal 11.1 (2001): 43-63. Print.
Benbasat, Izak, and Ron Weber. “Research Commentary: Rethinking â€œDiversityâ€ in Information Systems Research.” information systems research 7.4 (1996): 389-399. Print.
Haigh, Thomas. “The history of information technology.” Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 45.1 (2011): 431-487. Print.
Hayman, J. L.. “Educational Management Information Systems For The Seventies.” Educational Administration Quarterly 10.1 (1974): 60-71. Print.
“Information Systems Failures.” European Journal of Information Systems 2.3 (1993): 157-158. Print.
“Information Systems Research: Policy on Special Issues.” information systems research 16.1 (2005): 6-8. Print.
“Information systems and interorganizational networks.” European Journal of Information Systems 5.2 (1996): 73-74. Print.
“Journal of Strategic Information Systems.” The Journal of Strategic Information Systems 17.4 (2008): 287. Print.
“Journal of Strategic Information Systems.” The Journal of Strategic Information Systems 17.4 (2008): 287. Print.
“Journal of Strategic Information Systems Best Paper 2008.” The Journal of Strategic Information Systems 18.4 (2009): I. Print.
Karim, Akram Jalal. “The Significance Of Management Information Systems For Enhancing Strategic And Tactical Planning.” JISTEM Journal of Information Systems and Technology Management 8.2 (2011): 459-470. Print.
Kini, Ranjan B.. “Strategic Information Systems.” Information Systems Management 10.4 (1993): 42-45. Print.
“Management Information Systems (MIS).” Inc.com. N.p., 23 Apr. 2010. Web. 15 May 2014. <http://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/management-information-systems-mis.html>.
O’, Tiomothy J.. “Executive Information Systems.” Journal of Information Systems Management 6.2 (1989): 34-41. Print.
Osinulu, L. F. Amusa. “Information Technology, Quality Assurance, and Academic Library Management.” Library Philosophy and Practice 1 Feb. 2010: 13-29. Print.
Parker, Donn B.. “Ethics for Information Systems Personnel.” Journal of Information Systems Management 5.3 (1988): 44-48. Print.
Ritch, Stephen, and Robert J. Munro. “Management Information Systems, Planning, And Public Community Colleges.” Community Junior College Research Quarterly of Research and Practice 6.2 (1982): 179-186. Print.
Sprowls, Clay. “Strategic information systems: A European perspective.” The Journal of Strategic Information Systems 3.4 (1994): 345-346. Print.
Stowell, Frank. “Do We Mean Information Systems or Systems of Information?.” International Journal of Information Technologies and Systems Approach 1.1 (2008): 25-36. Print.
Teittinen, Henri, Jukka Pellinen, and Marko JÃ¤rvenpÃ¤Ã¤. “ERP in action â€” Challenges and benefits for management control in SME context.” International Journal of Accounting Information Systems 14.4 (2013): 278-296. Print.
Warren, Matthew. “Ethics in Information Systems.” Australasian Journal of Information Systems 13.2 (2006): 23-29. Print.
Winter, M.c., D.h. Brown, and P.b. Checkland. “A role for soft systems methodology in information systems development.” European Journal of Information Systems 4.3 (1995): 130-142. Print.
Xu, Li D.. “Systems characteristics in information systems design.” Systems Research 9.1 (1992): 67-78. Print.
Zwass, Vladimir. “Information systems in the economy and society.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 9 Apr. 2012. Web. 23 May 2014. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/287895/information-system/218077/Information-systems-in-the-economy-and-society>.