University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
The Moral Property of Women: A History of Birth Control Politics in America
Birth control has been in use for several years since time immemorial. In modern day the evolution of medicine and technology has led to the creation of effective and efficient methods of birth control that are available to all age groups of people. The use of a type of birth control is dependent on an individual decision. It is therefore important for one to be knowledgeable about the birth control they decide to use in their lives. Generally birth control is a means by which men and women are able to prevent unplanned pregnancy. There are different methods of birth control that are available for choice by any individual once they make the decision.
These different methods of birth control include hormonal methods which entails the ingestion of a contraceptive pill that is done mostly common amongst women. The pill is ingested through the mouth to prevent pregnancy; statistics show its effectiveness rate to stand at 99 percent. This pill however does not prevent one from contracting sexually transmitted diseases like HIV. Another popular and common contraceptive that is opted for by men is the use of latex condom. This is considered as the best protection against any form of sexually transmitted diseases. Other examples of contraceptives that make a combination of estrogen and progestin hormone are the vaginal ring that is used by women and the patch too.
The pregnancy process of women is quite complicated biological process that involves a woman eggs being fertilized by a male sperm. This leads to the attachment of the fertilized egg in the inside womb of the women. While there is develops into an embryo and with time into a baby. The uses of birth control methods interfere with the hormone of woman and in the process interfere with the release of the woman’s egg from the ovaries. It therefore makes it impossible for fertilization to take place.
The hormonal contraceptives as birth control pills contain man made amount of estrogen and progestin that inhibit the release of hormones in a woman’s body hence preventing the occurrence of pregnancy. For the prevention of pregnancy it involves a number of factors which include the interference of hormones from evolution. The contraceptives also alter the cervical mucus such that it becomes resistance for sperm to fertilize the egg. The hormonal contraceptives also prevent pregnancy by altering the womb lining such that it is unlikely for the implantation of a fertilized egg on the wombs wall.
Another hormonal birth control is the extended cycle pill that makes a reduction of the menstrual periods from 13 annually to around 4. preventing implantation through creating a hostile environment in the uterus, this is because fertilization takes place in the uterus; affecting an implanted embryo in the case that fertilization has already taken place; affecting the process of fertilization, and just like the embryo, this is in cases where fertilization has already taken place; affecting the fertilized egg so as to prevent the formation of a zygote; affecting the process of fertilization, that is, preventing the egg from being fertilized by the sperm, for instance, preventing the sperm from penetrating the egg, affecting the sperm in such a way that it cannot fertilize the egg.
Abstinence is the most advocated method of birth control mostly to young people. It is effective as it prevents the occurrence of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. It is indeed the safest and convenient method of birth control that can be used by people as it does not have side effects but only requires one to exercise self-control and restraint. There are also other birth control methods that involve the use of mini pills. These pills contain a single hormone that is progestin and lack the hormone that is estrogen. This kind of birth control is recommended for women who are breastfeeding. This birth control pill works by thickening the walls of the cervix to prevent muscle entry. The pill is equated to an abortion pill in the sense that it can also prevent the attachment of the fertilized egg from attaching itself on the walls of the uterus, in other words, it disrupts the process of implantation.
If the pill is taken within seventy two hours of unprotected sex, it prevents fertilization of the egg by the sperm. This reduces the chances of fertilization by about eighty nine percent. The plan B morning pill, the intra uterine device and the Ella morning after pill. The intra uterine device is particularly the hormonal and copper intrauterine devices. This is mainly because the morning after pills affects the process of fertilization. This is in a way that they act as abortion inducing pills. In fact, according to the Hobby Lobby Group, an overdose of the morning pills can actually cause an abortion. Some women go to the extent of abusing these pills for the purposes of carrying out an abortion. Intra Uterine Devices, on the other hand prevent the attachment of the embryo on the walls of the uterus. With a successful lawsuit having being passed, it only meant that the employees could not receive a cover. However, it is important to note that the passing or rather the ruling by the Supreme Court that was in favor of the Hobby Lobby Group did not mean that these contraceptives would not be in the market. They would still be in the market, only that they would not be readily and easily available to employed women. This is because in the case that5 the ruling would favor the government; employed women would have their contraceptive needs catered for under their very own insurance covers. It is therefore very obvious that the Supreme Court Ruling would lead to limited access to contraceptives. This is because some of the methods of contraception that were to be under the insurance cover are very costly. Some employees cannot afford them from their net salary. This would have an impact on the society. First, it would lead to a massive growth of population. An increase in population would occur as a result of increased birth rates. Since contraceptives are not going to be that easy to access, some of the women will carry their pregnancies to term.
Another effect of the Supreme Court ruling would be the fact that other illegal methods would be used to terminate pregnancies. This is owed to the fact that since other methods of contraception would be relatively expensive; people would opt for cheaper ways of terminating pregnancies. Such methods are very harmful to the health of the women. The Hobby Lobby Ruling would therefore translate to limited access to measures of birth control. The Intra Uterine Device is considered as one of the most effective methods of birth control. However, this method is very expensive. The ruling of the Supreme Court would therefore mean that most women would not have access to such services, leaving them with much cheaper options that might not be very good for their health. Having analyzed the Hobby Lobby ruling, it is very clear that the Hobby Lobby contraceptives are those that would not in any way be those that induce abortion. Ad discussed above, the Hobby Lobby Contraceptives include all but morning pills and the intra uterine device. This is based on the fact that such pills induce abortion and this is one issue that the company is against due to their religious beliefs. This is even with the negative criticisms that come, against their stands on abortion, with some groups claiming that God does not regard the fetus as a soul.
In estimating the impact on plan costs, we assume that a high percentage of covered women already use contraception, so that the cost savings from additional averted pregnancies will be relatively small. The timing of these savings is also uncertain. They could occur years in the future, when a woman might no longer be covered by the plan.
We therefore conclude that adding contraception coverage will raise plan costs and therefore premiums by a small but significant amount.
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Rengel, Marian. Encyclopedia of Birth Control. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000.
Engelman, Peter. A History of the Birth Control Movement in America. ABC-CLIO, 2011.
Nofziger, Margaret. A Cooperative Method of Natural Birth Control. Book Publishing Company, 1992.