The Industrial Revolution Essay

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The Industrial Revolution Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 318

  • Pages: 1

The Industrial Revolution

Railroads should be considered one of the most revolutionary economic developments of the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Railroads needed to carry as much product as possible to make a profit. This lead to the construction of “feeder lines” that connected smaller cities to the main “trunk lines” that serviced the big cities. The growth of the railroads also increased steel production, coal mining, and technological breakthroughs like the air brake and Pullman sleeping car (Hawksworth, 2001). Unionization was one of the major social developments of the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Unions were the workers response to big corporations. Early labor leaders pushed for an eight hour work day, an end to child labor, equal pay, and safer working conditions. Unfortunately these labor unions were not very successful.

Our text tells us that “Ultimately, it was the power of big business that prevented the workers from achieving their goals.” (Bowles, 2011). The government played both positive and negative roles in the social and economic developments of the last quarter of the nineteenth century. On the positive side it provided security from Native Americans as settlers moved west, it gave land grants to the railroads, it gave land to the settlers with the Homestead Act, and it aided higher education by establishing land grant colleges. On the negative side it did not impose any rules on big business regarding child labor, minimum wage, maximum hours, or working conditions.

References

Bowles, M. (2011). American history 1865–present: End of isolation. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Hawksworth, R. (Producer). (2001). The American industrial revolution [Video]. United States: Media Rich LLC. Retrieved from http://digital.films.com/OnDemandEmbed.aspx?Token=47596&aid=18596&Plt=FOD&loid=0&w=640&h=480&ref=

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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 910

  • Pages: 4

The Industrial Revolution

From the beginning of the Industrial Revolution to the present day, the structure and culture of the American workplace have been affected by many forces, among them capitalism, technology, globalization, and issues of equality. Describe these forces in detail and analyze their impact on the structure and culture workplace. Capitalism Capitalism is an economic system that is based on the private ownership of capital or the means of production and the creation of goods and services for profit. Some of the elements central to capitalism include capital accumulation, competitive markets and a price system.

Capitalism has been dominant in the Western world since the end of Mercantilism. It was fostered by the Reformation, which sanctioned hard work and frugality, and by the rise of the industry during the Industrial Revolution, especially the English textile industry. Unlike earlier systems, capitalism used the excess of production over consumption to enlarge productive capacity rather than investing it in economically unproductive enterprises such as palaces or cathedrals. It is now widely recognized that a new global economy is emerging.

It is characterized by the transnational flow of capital, goods, services and labor; by greater national specialization and increased competition across borders; and by the use of new technologies that radically disrupt traditional ways of doing business. In seeking competitive advantage, the United States has targeted a niche for itself at the top of the world economy: It has opted to use the highest technology, to have the most capital- and knowledge-intensive industries, and to produce the highest quality and highest value-added goods and services.

Surfing the crest of this giant wave is not easy: To maintain its prosperity, the U. S. economy must be in a state of constant change, driven by a process of “creative destruction. ” Inefficient products, companies and entire industries continually need to be replaced. Capitalism is the social system which now exists in all countries of the world. Under this system, the means for producing and distributing goods (the land, factories, technology, transport system etc. ) are owned by a small minority of people. we refer to this group of people as the capitalist class.

The majority of people must sell their ability to work in return for a wage or salary. the working class are paid to produce goods and services which are then sold for a profit. The profit is gained by the capitalist class because they can make more money selling what we have produced. In this sense, the working class are exploited by the capitalist class. The capitalist live off the profits they obtain from exploiting the working class whilst reinvesting some of their profits for the further accumulation of wealth.

This is what we mean when we say there are two classes in society. It is a claim based upon simple facts about the society we live in today. This class division is the essential feature of capitalism. It may be popular to talk about various other “classes” exiting such as the “middle class”, but it is the two classes defined her that are the key to understanding capitalism. Profits In capitalism, the motive for producing goods and services is to sell them and make a profit. this is not done to necessarily satisfy the needs of the people.

The products of capitalist production have to find a buyer, of course, but this is only incidental to the main aim of making a profit, of ending up with more money than was originally invested. This is not a theory that we have thought up but a fact you can easily confirm for yourself by reading financial reports from the press and other source. Production is started is started not by what consumers are prepared to pay for to satisfy their needs but by what the capitalists calculate can be sold at a profit. Those goods may satisfy human needs but those needs will not be met if people don’t have the money to purchase them.

The profit motive is not just the result of greed on behalf of individual capitalists. Many times they do not have a choice about it. The need to make a profit is imposed on capitalist as a condition for not losing their investments and their position as capitalist. Competition with other capitalists forces them to reinvest as much of their profits as they can afford to keep their means and methods of production up to date. As you will see, we hold that it is the class division and profit motive of capitalism that is at the root of most of the world’s problems today, from starvation to war, to alienation and crim.

Every aspect of our lives is subordinated to the worst excesses of the drive to make profit. In capitalist society, our real needs will only ever come a poor second to the requirements of profit. Technology Technology is defined as the making, modification, usage and knowledge of tools, machines, crafts, techniques, systems, methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solutions to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied input/output relation or perform a specific function.

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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 796

  • Pages: 3

The Industrial Revolution

This paper will describe The Industrial Revolution. I will discuss at least two (2) developments of industrialization that positively affected American lives or the United States and two (2) developments of industrialization that negatively affected American lives or the United States in general. Furthermore, I will give an analysis of whether or not industrialization was generally beneficial or detrimental to the lives of Americans and the history of the United States. All findings will be supported by facts and references.

The Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution I think was an unique time to be alive, some people would argue the World would not be where we are today without this time period. The biggest advances in manufacturing, mining, technology, transportation and agriculture led to changes in the way the world produced its goods. The Industrial Revolution begun in the United Kingdom then eventually spreading to the United States and ultimately the entire world.

Positive Developments in Industrialization There were many developments in the industrialization era, some good some not so good. I would like to start with the development of the industrial systems. Industrial systems can be categorized as arrangements or processes (Davidson, D & McGraw-Hill 2011) such as “extraction, production, transportation, distribution or finance- organized to make the whole industrial order function smoothly. ”(Davidson, D & McGraw-Hill p. 511). With these fundamentals in place a new age of industry took place.

An efficient transportation system was needed in order to tie the United States into an emerging international economy. (Davidson, D & McGraw-Hill). Railroads and steam-powered ships were the way of life by the 1870s, railroads zigzagged across the United States and steam powered ships sailed the open seas with passengers and freight. Once these two transportation systems fused, the time of “transatlantic travel was cut in half, to about 10 days. ”( Davidson, D & McGraw-Hill p. 513).

Communication was also a ast commodity and much needed by the industry. In the early years newspapers could take several days to weeks before reaching their destination. The first message ever sent over an electrical wire between cities was in 1844 by Samuel Morse. By 1861 this breakthrough led to effective communication carried through miles of telegraph lines across the country. (Davidson, D & McGraw-Hill). Ultimately Alexander Graham Bell, a Scottish immigrant, developed the telephone that would modernized offices and ease business transactions.

As you can see there were so many new technological advancements during the Industrial Revolution time period. Negative Developments in Industrialization With the great leaps in technology came a price. Socioeconomics and the cultural situation of the people started a downfall that is still felt today. (Davidson, D & McGraw-Hill 2011). Growths of cities were one of the major consequences of the Industrial Revolution, as people looked for work they were driven off the farms and into the cities.

As cities grew around factories population exploded, and the lack of planning meant there was no sewage, running water or sanitation system people lived in very “hellish” type conditions. (Davidson, D & McGraw-Hill p. 519) Also, with the new industrial age, a new quantitative and materialistic view of the world took place. (Harrison 2011 pg. 3). This caused the need for people to consume as much as they could. Did this affect the working life in factories? I believe it did, factory work was difficult and dangerous at that time typical shifts lasted 12 to 16 hours.

I believe this can still be seen today around the world, living on small wages can lead to small children having to work in factories for long days. However, some good did come out of that with the development of Child Labor Laws and Worker Unions. Outcome So what was the final outcome of the Industrial Revolution? Was it beneficial or detrimental to the lives of Americans and the United States? I would say, by the research I have conducted, the Industrial Revolution was overall a good revolution for America but a bad revolution for the planet.

The technological advances we made as a human race during that time has never been seen before, that helped shape the world as we know it. I think the real loser in this was our planet. With the expansion of factories and industry carbon dioxide increased in the atmosphere. (Foley, Jonathan 2011). Also, as we consume more and more our natural recourses are being depleted at an alarming rate. In addition, we can trace pollution of nuclear waste, pesticides and other chemicals as a result of the Industrial Revolution. (Foley, Jonathan).

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  • University/College:
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  • Words: 1056

  • Pages: 4

The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution of the late 19th century brought about a change in the American lifestyle that many were not expecting and were unprepared to deal with: women began to work outside the home. As author Kathy Peiss notes in her book “Cheap Amusement”, for many American women this was their first taste of freedom, especially for immigrants and second generation Americans in New York City. Many of these women came from countries where a woman was expected to work dawn to duck to help her family, but in traditional manners, helping on the family farm or in the family business.

With the wave of automation, young women could find respectable work outside of the family business and for the first time, were able to live on their own, not always under the prudish thumbs of their parents. Still, these women wanted to be respectable, so they had to create less traditional means of meeting men and having fun without creating questions of virtue. One of the first ways young women devised to have fun and meet men was to visit dance halls. This served two purposes: First, it emulated those of higher station. The upper class had always had coming out parties and huge balls.

The dance halls allowed young women from the working class to have their own sort of coming out parties and meet young men in their new home. Second, it gave them a way to meet men. Because this was no longer small town American, or other country, the days of courting and then marrying someone she had known her entire life were gone for most young women. The move to a more metropolitan environment necessitated finding a new way to meet men. The dance halls, though initially considered a bit risque, offered a well-lit, fun environment for women to meet men, replacing buggy rides and holding hands on the front porch.

Even with the long hours required by most employers, the young women found they often had at least one day of the weekend free and this led to the development of amusement parks in most major cities and many minor ones throughout the country. Gone were the days of picking berries or long walks in the countryside as a form of amusement. Instead, this new breed of American woman sought the same form of excitement in her leisure activities as she did in her decision to leave home and work in the city. Amusement parks provided a plethora of stimuli for all the senses

Young women in the cities also developed a thirst for movies as the first theaters began to dot the country and a few years later, with the proliferation of the automobile, as the drive-in movie theater began to thrive. In their early years, movies provided entertainment as a novelty and as a news source, an exposure to more of the world around them. For some of the young women, who had only heard stories of their parents’ homelands, it provided the first chance to glimpse the world around them. The turn of the century was also a difficult time for America’s men.

Like the young women seeking their futures in the city, many young men found that staying in the old hometown was not appealing. They too set out to cities to find new careers, leaving behind the farms of their fathers. Once in the city, they were faced with an entirely new set of issues. Since they had left home, most of them had no one to cook and clean for them. The traditional methods of courtship were gone and they had to find new ways to meet a nice girl to bring home to mom and dad and take care of them in the city.

Eventually, men would come to find the dance halls, amusement parks and movie theaters that were attracting the young women, but first they had to come to expect a different type of woman than the one who married dear old Dad. These young women, especially by the 1920s, were more aware of themselves as sexual creatures than at any time in recent American history. They expressed their freedom and sexuality on the dance floor, their desire for excitement in the amusement parks, and their willingness to ignore old taboos by going to darkened theaters with men. Society as a whole was changed as women joined the workforce.

A once rural nation, supported largely by family farms, became an industrial giant and cities became true population centers rather than simply ports of trade. Because young people from across the country were drawn to the cities, the nation’s heritage became more mixed and much more of a melting pot than it had been previously. Prior to the industrialization, immigrants had tended to create communities, either within a city or within a region, and maintained their ethnic identity. With all manner of working class men and women flocking to the cities, those cultural distinctions began to fade.

In addition, as working class women forced society to become more comfortable with their choices in recreation and socialization, middle class women who were less effected by the liberation that came with working, found a desire to echo the freedoms of their poorer sisters. In essence, the working women changed society’s definition of “good girl” and helped lead America away from the prudishness of the 19th century. The change culminated with the decadence of the 1920s. Finally, the lifestyle choices of the working class women of the turn of the century led the country down a path away from the traditional church and home focus.

Because women were seeking alternate entertainment and no longer marrying immediately upon leaving school, society as a whole became less centered on the family and on the church. While many still practiced their faith, this was the death knell of days when a woman’s only entertainment came from her church or her children. The industrialization of the country ultimately led to the American woman developing her own identity and forcing American men to accept her as more of a partner and less of a servant in their relationships.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 2221

  • Pages: 9

The Industrial Revolution

Introduction

The Industrial Revolution came throughout the globe very slowly, but it has brought technology, economics, and even sociology into contemporary society.  The rapid change of events in the middle of 18th century transformed the human life forever; and undoubtedly, it was a turning point in the history.  These changes from the Industrial Revolution did not emerge by themselves; many people contributed to their emergence and thus changed the world.  This paper examines the most important events happened throughout Industrial Revolution.

Causes of Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution had numerous aspects, which made it to be seen as a turning point in history.  First aspect was Britain having natural advantages that other nations didn’t.  It was richly covered with natural resources such as ore, coal and iron and had simple access to watercourses.  It was situated at the intersection of international trade flows, and domestic trade was influenced by the absence of internal taxes.  Following the unification of England and Scotland in 1707, the major free-trade area in European continent, political freedom was guaranteed, and a comparatively open social structure made social mobility widespread, giving an increase to the accumulation of wealth (Stearns, 1998).

Another factor was the agricultural revolution, which began in the 1600s in Britain.  New methods of farming, such as new methods of crop rotation and the use of turnips to restore exhausted soil, helped to create larger crop output.  According to Asthton (1997), “In the eighteenth century most of the people of Britain earned their living by work on the land”(p.18).  But, due to such advances, many people were initially not needed to work the fields, therefore leaving many out of work.  A population “boom” emerged because of the agricultural revolution, people were healthier with no fear of famine, diseases such as the bubonic plague had faded away, and sanitation with improved medicate appeared.

Due to this, death rates decreased and birthrates increased.  Since many men and woman were forced out of farm labor, many had to seek jobs in larger cities.  Men, women, and even children had to work the mines, build factories, and run machines.  In a factory, many worked twelve to sixteen hour shifts in dangerous conditions where one could even lose a life from the machines being used.  Those who worked in the mine had to take in coal filled air day after day.  The thought of children working in such harsh conditions was not accepted by many and later very slowly led to Parliament’s passing of laws made to regulate child labor (Stearns, 1998).

Many people debated whether or not the Industrial Revolution was a blessing or a curse.  Soon enough, though, laws were passed to improve working conditions.  Unions won the right to fight for better wages and the demand rose so many more factories were erected, making more and more jobs.

Britain tried to enforce laws on exporting inventions so that they would be the only advanced society of the revolution, but the spread of the Industrial Revolution was unavoidable.  Like Britain, other countries had trouble in the beginning of their industrializations.  Again, men, women, and children worked in harsh conditions for long periods of time.  Also, more and more goods were produced at lower prices.  New methods were produced, such as the assembly line, which sped up production greatly (Ashton, 1997).

Effect on Society

Many businesses grew, and entrepreneurs began making monopolies and trusts.  According to Clarkson (1990), “The entrepreneur, acting either as an individual or jointly with others in an organized association, having set up his business or taken over an existing one, could confine his activities to determining major policy decisions involving, inter alia, the exploration of technical and/or organization innovations and the continuous adaptation of the firm so as most profitably to exploit his chosen market”(p.71). This was a start to how business works today.

As the industrial revolution progressed, cities changed more and more.  Sidewalks were made, sewer systems helped citizens keep healthier, and architects began making towering buildings.  Although these changes made the cities more appealing, the poor and unemployed still lived crowded.  Conditions did not greatly increase for the poor.  The lower working class began to protest for better conditions.  According to Stearns (1998), “Factory workers sometimes faced an increase in poverty, as wages were kept low and prices of some goods rose.  Other workers, as we have seen, won modest benefits from the industrial revolution, and certainly the tendency after the initial decades was for standards of living to improve”(p.57).

By the late 1800s most European countries gave people the right to form unions and bargain on their own behalf.  The fast growth of these labor unions gave workers many reforms.  Children under ten no longer could be employed, which hurt many families, but was a turning point to the end of child labor.  Other laws gave workers better conditions, wages and the standards of living rose.  As the industrial revolution grew, so did the western social structure.  The middle class had grown into a way of life (Stearns, 1998).

Good manners were important and it controlled social behavior.  Parents supervised their children so that they would not make a false impression on their parents.  As many middle class families had maids and cooks, the help at home also reflected their masters and were expected to be seen and not heard.  Although earlier it was accepted for the parents to prearrange marriages, it became more common for children to choose their own husband or wife.  Between the husband and wife, the division of labor changed.  At first husbands would be able to work so that their wives could stay home, while they would do charity work or do work for the church (Stearns, 1998).

These ideas rarely came into a lower class home.  As social order shifted, women began to protest restrictions on women. Women wanted more control over property and the right to vote.  Although women did not get these rights very quickly, they slowly did in country after country.  Education also became more popular, industrialized societies believed they needed an educated workforce.  As schooling became more and more popular, universities expanded, but at the time, only affordable by middle or upper class families.  Many things happened in this period of time that it is easily seen why it is thought to have been a turning point in history (Ashton, 1997).

Technological Innovations

Many people are to be accredited for all that came out of the Industrial Revolution. According to Hindle & Lubar (1986), “Before that period of change, craft technology was dominant, depending on hand tools, simple machines, individual skills, and small shop or home productions”(p.9).  Some of the first men to change the way it once was were Lord Charles Townshend and King George III who contributed to the agricultural revolution.  The agricultural revolution made farms workable with less people, causing the need for more jobs.  James Watt’s invention, the steam engine, needed coal to power it, so there was much employment in mining (Ashton, 1997).

Inventions like the spinning mule by Samuel Crompton and the flying shuttle by John Kay made a large industry for textiles.  Henry Bessemer developed a process to purify iron and make a stronger metal, iron.  Alfred Nobel invented dynamite which became widely used in warfare and construction.  Many also began to experiment with electricity.  For example, Michael Faraday made the dynamo.  Thomas Edison later made the light bulb which worked with electric generators made possible by Faraday’s dynamo.  Nikolaus Otto and Gottlied Daimler made the first internal combustion engine and the first automobile.   Samuel made the telegraph which could send messages over wires.  Alexander Grahm Bell made the telephone in 1876 (Clarkson, 1990).

Those like Louis Pasteur made advances in medicine.  Pasteur created a link between disease and germs, developed a vaccine for rabies, and developed pasteurization, a process which killed disease carrying microbes in milk.  William Morton introduced anesthetics which did wonders for the world of medicine.

Philosophy on economics and life was popular too.  Adam Smith was thought of as the prophet of laissez-faire economy.  He believed the hands off approach would bring success to industry.  This was popular to the leaders in industry. Jeremy Bentham spread ideas of utilitarianism which was the belief that the goal of society should be the greatest happiness for the greatest number of its citizens (Ashton, 1997).

Bentham and his followers, such as John Stuart Mill, believed government should intervene in industry because of the hard lives of the working class.  Socialists, such as Robert Owen, also did not like the idea of hard lives for workers, especially children.  Karl Marx made Communism where struggle between employers and employees were inevitable.

  Social Darwinism also arose where it was believed survival of the fittest lived in economics and society.  This later led to encouragement of racism.  Besides philosophy, science was very popular too.  John Dalton developed the modern day atomic theory.  Dmitri Mendeleyev drew up the periodic table.  Charles Lyell showed proof on the formation of the Earth.  Charles Darwin created his ideas on evolution and natural selection (Hindle and Lubar, 1986).

The Industrial Revolution was a giant turning point in history.  According to Rempel (2004), “The Industrial Revolution brought with it an increase in population and urbanization, as well as new social classes. The increase in population was nothing short of dramatic”.  And contributed to many new advancements in agriculture and natural advances like coal and iron ore.

Although there have been many improvements in technology and methods of making these advancements better, the ideas from that time paved a way for the present day methods and technology.  The start of such giant industries led to a base of how our industry and business work today.  Inventions such as the dynamo made it possible for electricity to power machines, make light, and make the use of telephones possible.  Things like communications and roads made the world smaller (Ashton, 1997).

The invention of the first automobile also made the world smaller and paved the way for cars into the future and today’s present.  Medical advances such as the use of anesthetics make painless operations possible.  Operations such as open-heart surgery could be impossible without anesthetics.  Interests in science help us better understand our world today.

For example, Darwin’s theory of evolution helps us see where humans come from and where they came to be.  Mendeleyev’s making of the periodic table was a great contribution to the world of chemistry today.  Karl Marx’s ideas on Communism still lives in today’s world – not necessarily a good thing but his ideas changed the way the world is today.  The Industrial Revolution made bases for many things that are seen in the world today (Ashton, 1997).

Conclusion

The Industrial Revolution is seen to be the greatest turning point and reshaped world history.  The Industrial Revolution began a base for many things that are seen today, such as, technology, economics, and even sociology.  Many people are highly accredited for the contributions made during that time and because of them we have the pleasures that we have today.  Almost everything we see was originated during the industrial revolution and it’s amazing that we’re still using them to this very day.

References

Ashton, T. S. (1997). The industrial revolution, 1760-1830. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Clarkson, L. (Ed.). (1990). The industrial revolution: a compendium. New Jersey: Humanities Press International, Inc.

Hindle, B., & Lubar, S. (1986). Engines of change the American industrial revolution 1790-1860.  Washignton, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Rempel, G. (2007). The industrial revolution.  Retrieved 2007, from http://mars.acnet.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/wc2/lectures/industrialrev.html

Stearns, P. (1998). The industrial revolution in world history. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 388

  • Pages: 2

The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution (1750-1914) has been one of the most dramatic and far reaching events the history of mankind. It brought about a significant change, replacing the worker based environment with one that was machine led, bringing with it the start of mass production. As Peter Sterns (1998) observed, “Few aspects of human life escaped serious transformation over the course of the industrial revolution. ” The revolution did slow down between 1815-1914. The probable cause of this was the lack of scientific research to back up developments, something that became more prevalent at a later date.

At the time of slow growth it was know that things did or did not work, but there was little scientific research from which to understand the reasoning behind the workings, thus development was slow. Like all things in life the Industrial Revolution brought with it both benefits and problems. Two of the most significant benefits were experienced in Travel and energy. With the advent of the revolution and the construction of railways and canals for transporting goods, constructors soon saw the advantages of producing passenger bearing ships and railways.

These opened up the world for citizens of all nations. However, possibly one of the greatest benefits of the revolution was the development and harnessing of energy for use in the home, workplace and all forms of transport. Some of the drawbacks and problems related to the Industrial Revolution are only being felt in modern times. For example, the overuse of fossil fuels. At the time of the revolution little thought was given to whether fossil fuels were a finite or infinite resource. It has proved to be the former and today we are facing a future of limited resources.

The other major problem is emissions and their affect on the environment. The advent of Global warming has been the price of the Revolution

References

Sterns, Peter N. (1998) The Industrial Revolution in World History, rev. ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998 Teich, Mikulas and Porter, Roy eds. (1996) The Industrial Revolution in National Context: Europe and the USA. Cambridge University Press. Wikipedia contributors. (Last Revised 11 July 2006) Industrial Revolution. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12 July 2006 from http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index. php? title=Industrial_Revolution&oldid=63218352

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

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  • Words: 736

  • Pages: 3

The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution has an enormous impact on Britain and the whole world. Roughly from the 1700s to 1900s, many old methods people used to do things were overthrown and new ideas and technology took place. People who used to work just to meet the basic needs of life became more commercial and began to work for a surplus. The massive changes greatly altered people’s ways of life and till today, the effects of the Industrial Revolution could still be seen. The Industrial Revolution occurred mainly because of some very important inventions. In the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, machines like the Spinning Jenny and Flying Shuttle were invented and enabled a single worker to produce multiple times of work. This gradually changed people from working independently in cottage industry to working together in a factory. Another great invention is the steam engine, invented by Thomas Savery and improved by James Watt.

It could be considered the most important invention of the Industrial Revolution and the driving force behind it. It replaced water power and animal power as the main source of power for industries. The steam engine generated power not only for machines but also transportation like locomotives and ships. The steam engine is also used in iron industry to provide air flow for blast furnaces and in coal industry to pump water out of flooded mines. Newly introduced working methods in agriculture industry are the Open field system, Norfolk Crop Rotation System and Enclosures. Developments in transportation include river navigations and canals connecting major cities. Railways were reinforced with wooden rail and iron plates, which allows steam driven locomotives travel for much longer distances. New engineered roads were built by the “Metealf, Telford and Macadam” company. All these mass changes in such a short period of time are why the Industrial Revolution is considered a revolution. But everything has its cost; the Industrial Revolution also has its drawbacks.

As the industries develop, more unskilled workers are needed in factories to operate machinery. To earn enough for living, many parents had their child work as child laborers. Children worked for 16 hours every day in very poor conditions and were paid with low wages. Their job is often very dangerous and did not have many safety rules and welfare. Horrible accidents would sometimes happen and injured workers were just simply sent home. If the children had any mistakes, the factory owners would even whip them as punishment. The Industrial Revolution helped the population of Britain to increase rapidly. The cities were even more crowded because of people moving in from the country side looking for jobs. With this much population, lots of cheap houses are needed.

To reach the demand, houses were built back-to-back using the cheapest building materials available. These houses were damp and wet and this condition is the worst for people who can only afford cellar dwellings. The houses were not built with bathrooms; it was really hard to wash so most people just didn’t. There were only 6 toilets shared between 360 people and the so-called toilets were actually just cesspits. The night-men would empty the full cesspits and dump the waste into local rivers where people are bathing at the lower stream. The unhygienic conditions often cause diseases like Cholera, Diphtheria and Scrofula. Drainage systems could solve these problems but it was very expensive and the landlords didn’t want to pay for it as it didn’t benefit them.

The drainage systems only existed amongst the richest areas where the rich merchants and businessmen lived. Only the rich had the privilege to enjoy this sort of sanitation. Fresh water in the poor areas could only be acquired by rainwater collected in buckets or water wells with pumps. But because the sewers had flat bottoms and of stone made drains, the well water could have been contaminated with drainage. The Industrial Revolution definitely has a good aspect as it boosted development in methods and technology. Yet the consequences of the Industrial Revolution are not entirely good, seeing the living conditions of the poor is terrible. Nonetheless, we can’t stop progress; without the Industrial Revolution, we might be still farming in the fields with rakes and mining with pickaxes.

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