Teenage Pregnancy Essay

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Teenage Pregnancy Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 4949

  • Pages: 20

Teenage Pregnancy

This assignment will consist of 4000 words based around the health issue of teenage pregnancy. I will then discuss the view from a ‘Biopsychosocial’ perspective, which will include explanations as to why pregnancy occurs amongst teenagers. This assignment will include a portfolio of evidence which I collected from various sources about teenage pregnancies. About teenage pregnancy

According to, (UNICEF, 2008) Teenage pregnancy is defined as a teenage girl, typically within the ages of 13-19, becoming pregnant. Teenage pregnancy commonly refers to girls who have not yet reached legal adulthood. In the UK, sex is permissible for girls of sixteen years or over. Most teenagers do not plan on getting pregnant at an early age, however, some do. Nonetheless, getting pregnant at an early age can cause teenagers extra health risks because their bodies are not mature enough, some risks can be high blood pressure and premature babies, which leads to a low birth weight for the baby. More serious risks can lead to still births or death of the mother and baby (Medline Plus, 2013). Julia Bodeeb also expressed that teenage mothers face difficult changes in pregnancy; this is because teenagers do not in general seek medical help or care during the three trimesters of pregnancy which potentially could cause complications to the baby in later pregnancy (Bodeeb, 2011) Around 16 million girls give birth every year in the world. The majority of these pregnancies are from less developed countries. However, according to WHO (2012) around three million girls have unsafe abortions every year, this is because young girls are scared of telling people that they are pregnant in case they get judged for example friends not wanting to be around them, family telling them to leave home and partners leaving them.

Epidemiological data on Teenage Pregnancy

The media has a huge impact on publishing statistics about teenage pregnancy whilst doing either one or two things, negatively criticise it, or big it up. A report by Kmietowicz (2002), shows that the rates of teenage pregnancy are higher in the UK and USA .It has been suggested that their education poorly prepares teenage girls for life in a modern sexual society than any other country does. The United Kingdom is currently at the top of the European table with 30 births to every 1000 teenage girls, at the bottom of the table were Sweden who had less than 7 births per 1000 teenage girls. The figures in the article showed that 1.25 million teenagers in some of the world’s wealthiest countries will become pregnant and three quarters of a million teenage girls will become mothers. Also it states that research carried out by the University of Essex shows teenage girls who become pregnant are twice as likely to from poverty stricken families. One study suggests that the blame is due to which the change is socio-sexual transformation puts much more pressure on young girls to experiment with sex rather than the old fashioned traditional family values.

By comparison to other similar sized countries in the UK teenagers are more likely to pressurise their peers into experimenting with sex; by the use of conversation, the media and also buying products. This report also showed that it is education which is failing the teenagers and that they should have more knowledge about what happens if they do not take precautions with regards to safe sex (Kmietowicz, 2002) The most worrying report which has recently been subjected to the public by the media is that. It shows that these one million girls will either themselves suffer complications of pregnancy or that their unborn child may suffer from complications of pregnancy. These complications could be life threatening to both mother and bay and could have long lasting effects on both the health and well-being of the mother and baby. Many teenage girls become pregnant because they are denied access to contraception because they are either not available in that area or there are deep cultural problems surrounding contraception (Blair, 2012). It shows that girls under 15 are five times more likely to die during pregnancy than women in their 20’s.

Babies born to under 18’s are sixty per cent more likely to die as the girls bodies are too immature to deliver the baby. Despite these terrifying figures 20 percent of girls around the world are likely to have their babies before their 18th birthdays. Most aid organisations have avoided this issue due to sensitivity to the girls who have died or lost their babies and cultural issues however with the figures becoming so high they now have to promptly investigate in strategies’ to change this (Blair, 2012) Statistics revealed by the government and other sources such as the Department of Health, WHO, and national statistics show that even in 1998 the New Labour government produced strategies’ and plans, and put aside a staggering £340 million budget to reduce relative poverty and inequality which would then reduce the rate in teen pregnancy. Still, 15 years later, one of the highest growing concerns with the British government (Freedoms Consequences, 2009) is that of teenage pregnancy.

The government states that steady progress is being made but this only shows when statistics are used and interpreted in the right way. The table showing the rates of teenage pregnancy have reduced by 13.3 percent however looking closer they have only reduced by 5.3 percent. The highest rate of reduction in teenage pregnancy was between 1998 and 2009 which was before any real government funds became available. When the government increased funding the declination slowed which is shown in the ‘Freedom’s consequences report’. Also statistics show that in most European countries teenage pregnancy rates have steadily declined since the 1920’s however the UK’s has stayed very similar with not much fluctuation since 1969. Freedom’s Consequences (2009) show that between 1998 and 2006 the under 18’s contraception rate has fallen by 13.3 percent however this is 3 times higher than Germany. Annual statistics show that in the UK 41, 768 under 18 year olds became pregnant and 4,399 of those were under 16’s, a majority of these pregnancies resulted in illegal abortions however the statistics will always remain a suspicion rather than confirmed.

Around 20 percent of births to girls 18 and under were second births or sub sequential births to miscarriages and abortions. These figures are disturbing as further research into these figures have shown that a girl from a lower class background is ten times more likely to become pregnant than a girl in a higher class background and therefore social exclusion is one of the biggest concerns for the government to approach. Teenage parents are more likely to come from deprived backgrounds whilst teenagers from high class backgrounds are most likely to go onto university and get high paid jobs. Other figures have shown that teenagers are three times more likely to smoke throughout their pregnancy and 50 percent are less likely to breastfeed. The longer term outcomes are even more worrying, over 60 percent of these parents were or will become lone parents causing a staggering rise in the cost of state benefits. By the age of 30, 22 percent of these parents were also living in poverty, and are less likely to have qualifications and 70 percent of these will claim income support. Forty percent of mothers under the age of 20 are said to be living in parents, relatives and friends accommodation rather than their own, and 70 percent education deceased even if they were in the middle of gaining qualifications for example half way through a year.

A scary aspect of these figures is that teenagers are likely to move house, once even twice or three times during pregnancy which can cause health issues for the mother and baby due to stress and strain. All in all most teenage parents come from poorer backgrounds, are single, and end up living in secure accommodation in an area that’s frequent with pregnant girls. They then don’t receive good education and this decreases their chances of getting good jobs and providing better futures for themselves and their children. (Freedom’s Consequences, 2009) The graph showing the rates in teenage pregnancy show that the UK have the second highest rates within the UK with the United States which has a much higher population rate to start with being the first. It also shows in the UK have double the amounts of births to teenage girls than Germany, nearly 20 times more than Portugal and 25,000 more than the Netherlands (Why Church, 2013). Another graph illustrates that the north east have the highest amount of teenage pregnancies whilst 40% of these girls are having their babies, an enormous 60% of these girls are aborting their babies.

The East have the lowest amount of teenage pregnancies however only 2,500 out of 6000 girls are keeping their babies and the rest are terminating their pregnancies (The Poverty Site, 2011). The last graph is a bar chart which shows a study of 55 people and their sexual activity. Out of the group 27 under 16’s had not had sexual intercourse whilst 5 were having regular sexual intercourse. Only 4 over 16’s remained absent from intercourse whilst 19 over 16s were having regular intercourse (The Poverty Site, 2010). To compare the UK to another country of the similar size is going to provide a clear picture to what different countries do to solve their health issues. Therefore, United Kingdom vs. Germany! German schools also receive sex education classes which focus on birth control and abstinence (Prenatal Diagnostic and obstetrics, N.D) . 4% of teenagers in Germany actually plan their pregnancies whereas, 34% do not use contraception (Pro Familia, 2006).

Germany has also very strict values that if a teenage girl gets pregnant outside of marriage they have two options; keep it and possibly get disowned off family and friends or have an abortion. With a lot of girls opting for abortions the rates have increased to 60%, however, pregnant Catholic or Protestant teenagers normally go for an abortion. Whereas, Muslim teenagers generally carry the baby full term (Pro Familia, 2006). Bio-Psycho-Social influences

There are many different influences in a teenager’s life which makes them want to become pregnant at an early age. The Bio-psycho-social model was introduced by George Engel in the 1970’s as he believed that health was down to three main factors which are biological, social and psychological (Nursing Theories, 2012) There is one main biological factor that influences teenage pregnancy which is the menstrual cycle. The menstrual cycle usually happens around the ages of 8 to 13 (Clearblue, 2012). The menstrual cycle sends signals to your brain so it knows when to start producing hormones. At the start of a girl’s period her estrogen levels are its lowest but starts to increase throughout her period (Clearblue, 2012). Sociological factors seem to influence teenagers the most. This is because a lot of teenager have famous role models such as Jamie-Lynn Spears, also teenagers in today’s society can watch programmes on television which may influence pregnancy amongst teenagers such as MTV ’16 and pregnant’ and also the well-known film ‘Juno’ (Media Influences on Adolescent Pregnancy , 2011).

Programmes like this have been criticised as ‘glamorising pregnancy’ (Live Science, 2012). Some teenagers are constantly searching for attention and affection and look for love in the wrong areas such as male company, this then can allow teenagers to take it further and become pregnant (Divine Caroline, 2013). In today’s society it also seems that if a friend gets pregnant then you have to as well! There can be many reasons why a teenage girl might get pregnant but there is one main judgement about teenage pregnancies, which is that ‘all pregnant teenagers get pregnant for the benefits and housing’ (Maevarish, 2010) . Rosen (1996) thought that poverty was the reason why teenagers got pregnant at a young age, what this means is that teenage mothers get pregnant to abuse the welfare system because they do not want to be in poverty anymore and need a ‘way out’. In contrast to that Krauthammer (1993) stated that ‘welfare encourages illegitimacy and teenage pregnancy’.

In the UK, teenage pregnancy seems to be the highest in urban areas instead of the wealthiest areas likes Chelsea. Urban areas are classed as built up areas with a variety of services and a population of more than 1500 people (Urban Area, 2013). This is because children and teenagers cannot afford to fund for good education and also good health care, therefore, in wealthier towns they can afford to do all this so their child has a good start at life (Rogers & Evans, 2011). Psychological factors are also a huge influence on teenage pregnancy which includes abuse and teenagers being in care. These influences can have dramatic effects on a teenager when their growing up and still trying to find out what they want to become in life (Manlove & Welti, 2011) Abuse is the main psychological factor that happens to teenagers every day; abuse could be physical such as, rape or hitting (Patricelli, 2005). Teenagers could also be mentally abused by family, friends or strangers for example telling them their ‘stupid’ or not loved. This could then lead to the teenager retaliating and finding affection elsewhere (Cohen, 2011) . Nonetheless, Klein (1996) argues that a huge amount of teenage girls that became pregnant are and were victims of rape by an adult male. Klein stated; “… 62 percent of 535 teen mothers had been raped or molested before they became pregnant” Linda Villarosa, (1996) also agreed that adult men were the main reason why teenagers got pregnant.

Villarosa (1996) expressed those teenage pregnancies where down to sexual exploitation of teenage women, she also argued that as a society we do not try and find the real causes of teenage pregnancies. Another psychological influence is teenager’s being in care. This can influence teenager pregnancies because the teenagers may feel like they are not loved because they have been put into care (Teen Ink, N.D). When a child is put into care, they may feel like they are not wanted or loved, therefore, they may look for a male to get love from and to feel needed. This may later lead to teenage pregnancies. It is also known that if a teenager grew up in care or foster care the majority of children will go into care themselves, this means that it is a vicious cycle which may never end (Child Trends, 2011) Strategies

There are many strategies that are in place to help reduce teenage pregnancies, these include ‘Teenage pregnancy strategy: Beyond 2010’; ‘Getting maternity services right for pregnant teenagers and young fathers’ and so on (Department of Education, 2013) One strategy is the ‘Teenage pregnancy and sexual health marketing strategy’. This strategy was introduced in 2009 to help young people feel comfortable talking about sexual health such as asking for Chlamydia screening. This strategy found through evidence that having better communication, it will reduce sexual health problems like the Netherlands. In the Netherlands, they deal with the problem there and then instead of making it wait for a while.

Teenage pregnancy and sexual health marketing strategy also makes adverts so young people can watch in the comfort of their own homes, and if they need to find out more they can go to their nearest sexual health clinic or text the free messaging service (Department of Health, 2009) The sexual health charity, Brook, has launched a new scheme known as ‘Ask Brook’. This service is a free of charge and allows young people to text any queries that they have about sexual health or relationships. After texting this service, the young person will receive a response by an experienced sexual health worker within one working day. Brook (N.D) is a confidential service which will allow young people and teenagers to feel at ease with what they ask the service, however, they state that if they feel someone is in danger when they text the service they will have to break the confidentiality. This service is a good opportunity for teenagers and young people up to the age of 21 to ask for advice, even if they do not want to speak to a health profession face to face. It also allows people that come from deprived backgrounds and who cannot afford to have mobile phone credit to still text the service as it is free of charge. (Brook, N.D) Getting maternity services right for pregnant teenagers and young fathers was first introduced by the Department of Health in 2008. It was then revised in 2009 when the Department of Health received response from midwives and the Fatherhood Institute who wanted to see more engagement from young fathers in pregnancy.

This strategy states that one in fifteen births are to women under 20 years of age and that young people tend not to get good maternity services because they are not taken seriously by professionals. Inside the document it provides information and a guide for midwives, doctors and maternity support workers and it also allows these professions to read why the Government are focusing on young mothers and fathers (Department of Education, 2009). Teenage pregnancy strategy: beyond 2010 presents the development that has been made in reducing England’s teenage pregnancy rate between 1998 and 2008; it also shows a review of the evidence to evaluate what is being done is local areas and what is effective in reducing the numbers of teenage pregnancies in the UK. This document includes a lot of information such as, what has changed since 1998, and why teenage pregnancies matter and what services are better to deal with the issue (Department of Education, 2010) Supporting teenagers who are pregnant or parents – Sure Start plus National Evaluation was launched by the Government in 2001 as a pilot programme for the Teenage pregnancy strategy.

It was introduced to improve health and social effects for teenage parents and their children. The assessment expected to find out what could be learnt from Sure Start Plus programmes that could be distributed to other programmes and related partner services (Department of Education, 2005). Enabling young people to access contraceptive and sexual health information and advice is ‘the legal and policy framework for social workers, residential social a workers, foster carers and other social care practitioners’ (Department of Education, 2013). This initiative was revised in 2004 from the ‘Teenage Pregnancy Unit (TPU) and Quality Products’ it now gives sexual health workers the chance to provide advice and contraception to teenagers that needed it and understood the side effects of the contraception (Department of Education, 2004). Health inequalities

A health inequality is defined as ‘something that puts someone at a disadvantage’ (Marmot, 2005). All health inequalities can be reduced and all are avoidable (Whitehead, 1992). The Government launched and put commitment the NHS plan, which was introduced to tackle health inequalities and provide a better life for adults and young people. The NHS Plan has targets which were set by the Government such as ‘Supporting vulnerable individuals and families’ and also ‘Breaking the cycle of health inequalities‘, which is mainly about education and giving people a chance to prove themselves; it also try to reduce poverty in the United Kingdom which may reduce health inequalities (Nuffield Trust, N.D). Health inequalities consist in any health issue: According to NCB (2013) education is a likely influence in teenage pregnancy as sex education is at a low standard and does not show what happens once a girl has had the baby at a young age in detail, it just gives an overview on how you get pregnancy, precautions and what happens once you have given birth such as changing nappies and feeding them.

They do not find all the information about late nights, losing friends and the risks of death and illness during and after the pregnancy as this is something schools do not teach those (Independent, 2012). Young girls also find that they feel ‘at a loss’ which means that if they do not do well in school and leave with high grades they will not get a good job with a high income and therefore will remain in a low place in society. The only way to get out of this situation is to have a baby and get state benefits which they think is a large income with not many outgoings (Why It Matters, 2010). Therefore, education is an inequality because if a teenager does not receive a decent education and knowledge about key subjects such as sex education, also teenagers would not know what is happening with their body and the risks of having unprotected sex such as sexually transmitted infections (STI), and also pregnancy. However, if a teenage is found to be pregnant and have an STI, it could be very dangerous for the teenager and unborn baby (Baby Center, 2013). Ethnicity and religion are key health inequalities as some religions beliefs are not to use contraception therefore safe sex is not possible when being active with a partner.

This is depicted with Roman Catholicism, their belief and their teaching says that you should not use a barrier in preventing God’s gift of life (Chait, N.D). According to Nelson (1982) you should not have sex outside of marriage which will be a proven barrier and in marriage you should not use contraception as God has chosen you to carry ‘his’ child. In today’s society however teenagers do have sex outside of marriage and this has caused a problem in lack of contraception which results in many teenage pregnancies. Other religions that contribute with this teaching are; Islam as they encourage reproducing life strongly and even though it is not a religious law it is strongly believed you should, like Catholicism, not put a barrier in the way of what God has chosen for you (BBC, 2009). One more contribution to health inequalities linked into teenage pregnancy is location. If you are from a higher class area your medical care will be a lot better than in a lower class area, you will be able to see doctors and other health organisations who will be able to provide contraception more easier and quicker than a lower class area who do not have the doctors and organisations as readily available to provide contraception. Another factor in location is rural and urban societies.

According to Medline Plus (2013) a rural location has limited medical resources and may include travelling to outside of the area which some teenagers may not know are there, they may also worry that their confidentiality is limited as their parents or other people they know will use the same place, they may not have the money to travel to than urban societies that have many medical organisations such as The Brook which are private and confidential and promote this information to young people more easy to access such as in town centres which does not involve excusing yourself to adults and parents for going, and are easier to get to like walking or buses for you travel via as they will be closer and more frequent (Brook, N.D). Marmot (2008) stated that in reducing health inequalities you require to promote six different objectives which are;

‘1. Give every child the best start in life
2. Enable all children, young people and adults to maximise their capabilities and have control over their lives
3. Create fair employment and good work for all
4. Ensure healthy standard of living for all
5. Create and develop healthy and sustainable places and communities
6. Strengthen the role and impact of ill-health prevention.’ (Fair Society, Healthy Lives, 2008)

Conclusion
In conclusion, teenage pregnancy is common all over the world and is a world issue. However, from the information stated above, it can be avoided and reduced with better sex education classes and a lot more media advertisement this is because teenagers in today’s society seem to be interested in media and what is new in the news. The strategies I mentioned focus on all areas that can be targeted to reduce teenage pregnancy rates in the United Kingdom from free messaging services to giving advice to those who need it. The strategies also allow people from deprived backgrounds to get involved and question their sexual health and sexual activity. Therefore, the Government need to keep bringing out fresh new ideas which will capture the attention of teenagers in the 21st Century.

Bibliography

Baby Center, 2013. Sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy. [Online] Available at: http://www.babycenter.com/0_sexually-transmitted-infections-during-pregnancy_
1427372.bc [Accessed 15th April 2013].

BBC, 2009. Abortion. [Online]
Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/christianethics/abortion_1.shtml [Accessed 15th April 2013].
Blair, D., 2012. One million teenage girls ‘suffer death or injury from pregnancy’, England: Telegraph Media Group. Bodeeb, J., 2011. Effects of Teenage Pregnancy. [Online]
Available at: http://www.livestrong.com/article/86972-effects-teenage-pregnancy/ [Accessed 10th April 2013].
Brook, N.D. Ask Brook. [Online]
Available at: https://www.askbrook.org.uk/
[Accessed 15th April 2013].
Chait, J., N.D. Christian Sects that Believe in No Birth Control. [Online] Available at: http://pregnancy.lovetoknow.com/wiki/Christian_Sects_that_Believe_in_No_Birth_Control [Accessed 15th April 2013].

Cohen, T., 2011. How being a teenage mother is ‘contagious’ as siblings follow the examples of elders. s.l.:The Daily Mail. Department of Education, 2004. Enabling young people to access contraceptive and sexual health information and advice, s.l.: Guidance. Department of Education, 2005. Supporting teenagers who are pregnant or parents – Sure Start plus National Evaluation , s.l.: s.n. Department of Education, 2009. Getting Maternity Services right for pregnant teenagers and young fathers – 2nd edition, 2009, s.l.: Guidance. Department of Education, 2009. Teenage Pregnancy and, s.l.: s.n. Department of Education, 2010. Teenage Pregnancy Strategy: Beyond 2010, s.l.: Policy Documents. Department Of Education, 2012. Teenage Pregnancy – Guidance. [Online] Available at: http://www.education.gov.uk/childrenandyoungpeople/healthandwellbeing/teenagepregnancy/a0066808/teenage-pregnancy-guidance [Accessed 10th April 2013].

Help, M., 2005. Types of abuse. [Online]
Available at: http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=8476 [Accessed 15th April 2013].
Independent, 2012. Sex education ‘doesn’t cut teen pregnancy rate’ claims academic. [Online] Available at: http://www.independent.ie/lifestyle/mothers-babies/sex-education-doesnt-cut-teen-pregnancy-rate-claims-academic-26891431.html [Accessed 15th April 2013].

Klein, J., 1996. The Predator Problem. San Diego. CA, Green Haven Press. Kmietowicz, Z., 2002. US and UK are top in teenage pregnancy rates, London: BMJ. Krauthammer, C., 1993. Welfare Mama. San Diego, Washington Post Writers Group. Lemosandcrane, 2009. Freedom’s Consequences. Summary, pp. 6-16. Live Science, 2012. Does TV Glamorize teenage pregnancy?. [Online] Available at: http://www.livescience.com/20505-tv-glamorize-teenage-pregnancy.html [Accessed 10th April 2013].

Manlove, J. & Welti, K., 2011. Teen Parents in Foster Care: Risk Factors and Outcomes for Teens and Their Children. [Online] Available at: http://www.childtrends.org/Files/Child_Trends-2011_11_01_RB_TeenParentsFC.pdf [Accessed 15th April 2013].

Marmot, M., 2005. Social determinants of health inequalities. Public Health, Volume 365, pp. 1099 – 1103. Marmot, M., 2008. Fair Society Healthy Lives, England: s.n.
Media Influences on Adolescent Pregnancy. 2011. [Film] s.l.: Youtube. Medline Plus, 2013. Rural health concerns. [Online]
Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ruralhealthconcerns.html [Accessed 15th April 2013].
MedlinePlus, 2013. Teenage Pregnancy. [Online]
Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/teenagepregnancy.html [Accessed 10th April 2013].
NCB, 2013. Watered down sex education in schools will put children at risk. [Online] Available at: http://www.ncb.org.uk/news/watered-down-sex-education-in-schools-will-put-children-at-risk [Accessed 15th April 2013].

Nelson, T., 1982. 1 Corinthians . In: P. C. Edition, ed. The Holy Bible. s.l.:King James Bible “Authorized Version”, , p. Chapter 7: Verse 2. Nuffield Trust, N.D. Tackling Health Inequalities in the UK. [Online] Available at: http://www.sochealth.co.uk/public-health-and-wellbeing/poverty-and-inequality/health-inequalities-conference-2003/tackling-health-inequalities-in-the-uk/ [Accessed 15th April 2013].

Patricelli, K., 2005. Types of abuse. [Online]
Available at: http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=8476 [Accessed 15th April 2013].
Pro Familia , 2006. In: Schwangerscaft and Schwangerschaftsabbrunch with minor’s women: Part I. Study social situation, circumstances of conception, pregnancy outcome. s.l.:s.n., pp. 35-37. Pro Familia, 2006. In: Schwangerscaft and Schwangerschaftsabbrunch with minor’s women: Part I. Study social situation, circumstances of conception, pregnancy outcome. s.l.:s.n., pp. 19-34. Rogers, S. & Evans, L., 2011. Teenage pregnancy rates through England and Wales. [Online] Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2011/feb/22/teenage-pregnancy-rates-england-wales-map [Accessed 15th April 2013].

Rosen, R., 1996. Poverty Drives Girls Into Early Motherhood. San Diego, CA, Los Angeles Times. The Poverty Site, 2010. Sexual intercourse activity by age group of participants. [Online] Available at: http://www.poverty.org.uk/w24/index.shtml

[Accessed 10th April 2013].
The Poverty Site, 2011. The underage conception rate is highest in the North East of England. [Online] Available at: http://www.poverty.org.uk/w24/index.shtml
[Accessed 10th April 2013].
UNICEF, 2008. Young People and Family Planning: Teenage Pregnancy. [Online] Available at: http://www.unicef.org/malaysia/Teenage_Pregnancies_-_Overview.pdf [Accessed 10th April 2013].

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Teenage Pregnancy Essay

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 295

  • Pages: 1

Teenage Pregnancy

In years past teen pregnancy created problems in several countries. However in the United States among teenagers, teen pregnancy rose, but there was no help from programs like the National Geographic’s channel, and Teen Mom that aired on MTV. Individuals saw a version of what might have been with cameras rolling, however if the cameras are not rolling then life takes on a different meaning. When someone is not paying for your chance at fame out in the world and your problems are exposed on television all you would have to turn to are yourself and your newborn baby. Anonymous. Issues in science and Technology, Jan 1, 2005, Vol .21, No 3 (Spring 2005), P 65-70 Retrieved April 7, 2013, from ProQuest database. This article represented the work of Sarah S. Brown and what she has done with the campaign for preventing teen Pregnancy the article was well done and depicted lots of information about Sarah work. Sarah represents the director of National Campaign for Teenage Pregnancy. The article gives an explanation of why teenagers should refrain from having sex, and it’s the best way of preventing pregnancy between teenagers. This article shows that it was peered reviewed. Malcolm, D Targeting teenage single mothers. The Lancet, Vol. 342, No. 8877 (October 16, 1993), p. 978. Retrieved April 7, 2013, from the ProQuest Database. The article was very interesting, and described that there was 45,000 single teenaged mothers in the United Kingdom in 1993, which is a growing concern for teenagers around the world and not just the United Kingdom. In the United States the article stated that President Clinton will face challenges pertaining to women’s Health. The article also presented lots of information pertaining to the United States and the United Kingdom. This article was also peered reviewed.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 910

  • Pages: 4

Teenage Pregnancy

Nowadays, one of the major problems in our country is the rapid increase of population. Teenage pregnancy is a big part of this problem. From 2000 to 2010, the number of live births by teenage mothers in the Philippines rose by 60 percent. A total of 207,898 mothers aged below 20 years old gave birth in 2010. In 2000, however, this number was only 126,025, NSO said. Many of the teenagers admitted that they have already been doing or engaged in premarital sex and were now facing the problem of pregnancy and not knowing about the consequences and future responsibilities of being a mother. Teenagers who are engaged on this situation create a very big impact to their personality development due to the broken pattern of a person’s life development.

Even though they are not mature enough they are being forced by the situation to cover up the immaturity that they were still dealing with. Nevertheless, they come up to ignore their fruitful child and in some cases abortion or forced abortion come to their minds to escape from responsibilities that are immoral. As no exhaustive researches have been done to this matter, this study is an attempt to document qualitatively on unmarried teenage mothers. It is very important to give prior attention to unmarried teenage mothers because they are not very well aware regarding pregnancy and its upcoming responsibilities. This study could be very useful for some professionals that are conducting research, too. Findings from the study could be a very good resource in the production of information, communication, education materials for teenage group and students.

Research Problem
The study aims the following questions:
1. What is the demographic profile of respondents when grouped according to:
a. age
b. educational attainment
c. Religion
d. monthly family income
e. whom the respondent lives with
f. occupation

2 .What are the possible consequences face by young unmarried mothers in terms of:
a. Poverty
b. Ostracism
c. reduced chances of getting married
3.What are the changes in life role as single parent
A. Habits
b. views on marriage
c. views on unmarried motherhood
d. motivating factor(hope)
4. what are the impacts to teens of parenthood?
a. time
b. cost
c. educational impact
5. what are the

Significance of the Study
This study is conducted to help the pregnant teenagers that are unmarried regarding health monitoring and prenatal care. The findings will be beneficial to the following:

Community. This study is beneficial to the community through information about right child bearing and prenatal care. They will be more aware of the situation of a pregnant teenager.

Future researchers. This study will serve as a reference to them in conducting their own research. It will be a lot useful for them especially if they do the same concept.

Nursing practice. This study will serve as a guide in which the practice in prenatal care and proper child bearing.

Chapter 2
Review of literature

The sexual revolution has ushered in a period in which the average adolescent experiences tremendous pressures to have sexual experiences of all kinds. Filipino teens get a higher exposure to sex from the Internet, magazines, TV shows, movies and other media than decades ago, yet without any corresponding increase in information on how to handle the input. So kids are pretty much left to other kids for opinions and value formation when it comes to sex.

Sexual misinformation is therefore equally shared in the group. Parents at home and teachers in school feel equally inadequate or uneasy to discuss the topic of sex with youngsters. The problem mounts because the barkada (gang) has a more profound influence than parents do and they exert pressure and expect theadolescent to conform to the rest of them.

In fact, female adolescents whose friends engage in sexual behavior were found to be more likely to do the same compared to those who do not associate with such peers. If the teen perceives her peers to look negatively at premarital sex, she was more likely to start sex at a later age.

Numbers
Statistics in the United States show that each year, almost 1 million teenage women 10 percent of all women aged 15-19 and 19 percent of those who have had sexual intercourse become pregnant and one-fourth of teenage mothers have a second child within two years of their first. To be young in the Philippines means having many problems, one of which is sexual in nature, recent studies have pointed out. Sexually related problems include teenage pregnancies. There are disturbing reports of increasing abortion cases (illegal in this country) among the young. The majority of Filipinos aged 15-24 have been attracted to the opposite sex and in turn have been actively courted by men. In their dating behavior and pre-marital sex experience, young women in the villages apparently do not differ from their sisters in the cities. About one eight young women admitted having had sex prior to marriage. These encounters were usually repeated.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 688

  • Pages: 3

Teenage pregnancy

Teenage pregnancy is defined as a teenage girl, usually within the ages of 13-19, becoming pregnant. The term in everyday speech usually refers to girls who have not reached legal adulthood, which varies across the world, who become pregnant.

Causes and of teenage pregnancy
Teen pregnancies may result for different reasons in industrialized countries as compared to developing countries. Factors that contribute to teenage pregnancies include: Customs and traditions that lead to early marriage (developing countries) Adolescent sexual behavior which may also be influenced by alcohol and drugs Lack of education and information about reproductive sexual health including lack of access to tools that prevent pregnancies Peer pressure to engage in sexual activity

Incorrect use of contraception
Sexual abuse that leads to rape
Poverty
Exposure to abuse, violence and family strife at home
Low self esteem
Low educational ambitions and goals

Effects of teenage pregnancy
Research indicates that teen pregnancy and motherhood can have detrimental socio economic and psychological outcomes for the teen mother, her child, and her young siblings.

A teen mother is more likely to:
• Drop out of school
• have no or low qualifications
• be unemployed or low-paid
• live in poor housing conditions
• suffer from depression which may result in suicide
• live on welfare

The child of a teen mother is more likely to:
• live in poverty
• grow up without a father
• become a victim of neglect or abuse
• do less well at school
• become involved in crime
• Abuse drugs and alcohol
• Eventually become a teenage parent and begin the cycle all over again

The younger sibling of a teen mother is more likely to:
• accept sexual initiation and marriage at a younger age
• Place less importance on education and employment

Disadvantages of teenage pregnancy
TEEN PREGNANCY: STIs, HIV AND AIDS
• As a result of unprotected sex, young people are also at risk of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection. • The highest rates of STIs worldwide are among young people aged 15 to 24. Some 500,000 become infected daily (excluding HIV). • Two in five new HIV infections globally occur in young people aged 15 to 24. • Surveys from 40 countries show that more than half their young people have misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted. • Married adolescent girls generally are unable to negotiate condom use or to refuse sexual relations. They are often married to older men with more sexual experience, which puts them at risk of contracting STIs, including HIV.

Prevention
FAMILY PLANNING AND YOUNG PEOPLE: CHALLENGES
• Many societies, including in Malaysia, disapprove of premarital sex. • As a result, young people have limited or no access to education and information on reproductive sexual health care. • Modern contraceptive use among adolescents is generally low, and decreases with economic status. Fewer than 5% of the poorest young use modern contraception. • Young women consistently report less contraceptive usage than men, evidence of their unequal power in negotiating safer sex or restrictions on their access to services (such as lack of information, shame, laws, health provider attitudes and practices, or social norms). • Young people may hesitate to visit clinics because of lack of privacy and confidentiality, inconvenient locations and hours, high costs, limited contraceptive choices and supplies, and perhaps most importantly, negative or judgmental provider attitudes. • Laws and policies also may restrict adolescents’ access to information and services, for example, by limiting family planning to married people or requiring parental or spousal consent. • A basic challenge in advocacy, especially in traditional societies, is the taboo on public discussion of sexual issues, including the fact that many young people are sexually active before marriage.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 945

  • Pages: 4

Teenage Pregnancy

Throughout life teenagers go through very tough decisions that could mold their future for the rest of their lives. At such a young age, adolescents believe that they’re old enough to make their own decisions on crucial matters. One of those choices is deciding that it’s time to have a child. Teenage pregnancy is a very difficult transition that no adolescent should put upon themselves at such a young age. Once you go through with it there’s no going back; your childhood is over, it’s time to become an adult. There are too many negative outcomes for teenage mothers that pregnancy as an adolescent should be illegal.

The fear of poverty sets in along with the social challenges that accompany becoming a teen mom. Safe sex and being aware of possibly going through with an abortion should always be the option. Most, if not all teenagers aren’t aware of the struggles that come with becoming a parent at that age. Providing for one’s self growing up is tough enough, but to take on the role of mending for another life that young is just mind boggling. The first people that come to thought that influence a decision like this have to be those adolescents’ parents.

Older parents have to make a better effort in talking to their children about sex and the consequences that are associated with it. According to the New York Times article “Income Inequalities and Teenage Pregnancy”, Teenagers are most likely to seek sexual information from their friends (61 percent). Although they are least likely to seek information from their parents (32 percent), a significant number of teenagers (43 percent) express a strong desire to have more information on how to talk to their parents about sex and relationships. Adults of course aren’t the only ones to blame.

The world we live in today is full of different types of media that can mislead a teen into making wrong decisions. For example, the television show “Teen Mom” on MTV is a very good portrayal of the life of an average teen mom. The show depicts the various difficulties associated with having a child as an adolescent. The message it tries to get across can be taken one way by some and could be taken the complete opposite by others. Some teens may think that the struggles that come with the individuals on the show could never happen to them. This is where they’re seriously wrong.

Raising a child isn’t just about caring for him and tending to all of its needs; finances play a huge role in making sure you and your child don’t live through poverty. You can bet that if you’re pregnant before you leave high school, getting a degree and education will be drastically affected. In fact, “The Unplanned Pregnancy for Teens and College Students” states that parenthood is the leading reason that teen girls drop out of school. More than half of teen mothers never graduate from high school. Not only that but less than 2 percent of teen moms earn a college degree by age 30.

Now keeping this in mind, it’s very difficult to find a decent paying job without a degree these days. To top that off, 8 out of 10 teen dads don’t marry the mother of the child. So now we’re talking possibly becoming the sole provider for your child. Would you want you and your kid to growing up into poverty and living at ends meet? This isn’t always the case but it looks like the ideal situation to abide by would be staying in school, getting a degree and not putting yourself into a situation that you could regret for the rest of your life.

There are many different ways you can avoid putting yourself at risk to become so sexually active that the chance of becoming pregnant doesn’t happen. Re-evaluate the people that you surround yourself with. The article from the New York Times concludes that “Adolescents (ages 13 to 18) report that they are most likely to get information about sexual health issues from their peers. ” Peer pressure is something every teenager will go through at one course in their lives.

It’s their responsibility to recognize when it’s good and bad pressure. Why associate yourself with friends that are all about sex, drugs, and money? Knowing which group of peers to avoid hanging out with will increase your decision making and make you a better decision taker. Another way you can stray away from being a parent so young is practicing different methods of contraception. Sexual intercourse will eventually happen for every teen. Putting yourself at risk for not wrapping it up or being on birth control is idiotic.

As you can see, your teenage years are supposed to be the time of your life. There shouldn’t be any stress or any major concerns with how your future is falling into place. Becoming a teenage parent is a foolish decision and isn’t worth throwing the good times away. Raising a child is a huge responsibility and in my opinion, is more of an immature move than a mature one if you’re that young. Raising a family is supposed to be a rewarding experience, not one that you should have any regrets on.

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 2115

  • Pages: 8

Teenage Pregnancy

Statistics from the Malaysia Welfare Department for this year, from January to April 2010, reported that 111 unmarried young girls were pregnant. The figure, however, is just the tip of the iceberg as many cases go unreported and pregnancies terminated. It also reported in New Straits Times on 23rd July 2010, the body of a baby girl found in a bag at a bus stop near the Sultan Ismail Hospital, Johor Bahru in the morning. Also there a baby found buried. New Straits Times on 18th July 2010, reported that a fetus was found buried by the roadside in Jalan 12, Bandar Puteri Puchong, Selangor.

Baby dumping is not the solution to a life problem and it could be charged under Section 317 of the Penal Code which carries a maximum jail term of seven years or fine or both according to the Malaysian law. For the past few years there are many newborn babies have been found, dead or live in the most unlikely places like rubbish dump. For instance, The Malay Mail on 26 July 2011 [5] reported that a fetus with the umbilical cord intact was found in a garbage can at Pulau Mutiara wholesale market in Jalan Makloom, Penang. This shows clearly that “baby dumping” is really serious problem that currently happened in our society.

Based on Table 1, the statistic from the Headquarters of Royal Malaysia Police (PDRM) [6] indicated that there were 407 cases of baby dumping, for the past five years starting from 2005 until 7th April 2010. On average, there are 68 cases every year and these cases keep increasing. While in Figure 1.2.1, it shows that, there are 472 babies found dumped nationwide since 2005 until 16th August 2010. In year 2010 alone, it already recorded 65 cases up to 16 August 2010. That is means average 8 cases per month solely in year 2010 and this figure is not included the cases that not reported. According to Federal Criminal Investigation Department (CID) Director Commissioner Datuk Seri Bakri Zinin, this year alone (2010), as at 16 August 2010, 65 dumped babies had been. As compared to 42 cases during the same period last year (2009), there is an increase in these cases [7].

Recently, the Cabinet also informed that there were 21 recorded cases of students who got pregnant out of wedlock between 2006 and 2010. Then, what about the unreported and unrecorded cases? Public belief that the figure more than what we can imagine. After all the shocking incidents proven by the data produced by PDRM and Welfare Department, we found a strong base to do this study.

3. Methods & Material

A simple random sampling technique was conducted among 400 students (out of total 7535 students) from Form One until Form Six (Upper Six) in secondary schools at the area of Bakar Arang State Assembly under Sungai Petani Parliamentary, Kedah. The schools involved were Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan 138

Ibrahim, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sungai Pasir, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Khir Johari and Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Bandar Sungai Petani in Sungai Petani, Kedah.The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) in getting descriptive statistic and correlation. 4. Results & Discussion

4.1. Profile of Respondents

Out of 400 respondents, there were 183 (45.75%) male respondents and 217 (54.25%) female respondents. This finding showed the dominant of female respondents in this study. Regarding the age group, the respondents were in the age of 13 years old (18 students or 4.50%), followed by 14 years old (51 students or 12.75%), 15 years old (44 students or 11.00%), 16 years old (97 students or 24.25%), 17 years old (94 students or 23.50%) and lastly 18 years old and above which is 96 students or 24.00%.

The highest respondents in this study was 16 years old, followed by 18 years old, 17 years old, 14 years old, 15 years old and the lowest respondents were 13 years old. The race of respondents in this study consist of three major races in Malaysia which is Malay, Chinese, and Indian and the balance was other races. From the finding, it can be concluded that the highest race in this study was Malay, which consist of 242 students (60.5%), followed by Chinese, 75 students (18.75%), Indian 67students (16.75%) and the lowest was other races which consist 16 students (4.00%).

4.2. Result of Findings

H1: There is a significant relationship between awareness towards consequences of free sex and baby dumping issue from the secondary school students’ perspective. Table 2. Awareness on consequences of free sex towards a perspective of baby dumping issue Awareness towards consequences of free sex

Baby Dumping Pearson Correlation 0.396**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 400

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). There was a significant relationship between awareness towards consequences of free sex and a perspective of baby dumping issue from the secondary school students’ perspective whereas P =0.000 and r = 0.396. Significant level is P < 0.05 (P = 0.000). So, the researcher accepts the H1. This means, the awareness towards consequences of free sex has an influence towards perspective of the baby dumping issue. This finding was also supported by APWLD Annual Report 2010 [9]. H2: There is a significant relationship between knowledge on sex education and baby dumping issue from the secondary school students’ perspective.

Table 3: Knowledge on sex education towards a perspective of baby dumping issue.
Knowledge on sex education
Baby Dumping Pearson Correlation 0.445**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 400

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). There was a significant relationship between knowledge on sex education and perspective of the baby dumping issue from the secondary school students’ perspective whereas P = 0.000 and r = 0.445. Significant level is P < 0.05 (P = 0.000). So, the researcher accepts H2. This means, the respondents agreed that knowledge on sex education is important in order to prevent or reduce the number of baby dumping that happen in Malaysia. Besides that, most of the respondent agreed 139 that by learning sex education, teenagers will be more matured and responsible to themselves and having knowledge on sex education is important to prevent free sex among teenagers. H3: There is a significant relationship between religious belief and baby dumping issue from the secondary school students’ perspective.

Table 4.Religious belief and a perspective of the baby dumping issue.
Religious Belief
Baby Dumping Pearson Correlation 0.386**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 400

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). There was a significant relationship between religious belief and a perspective of baby dumping issue from the secondary school students’ perspective whereas P = 0.000 and r = 0.386. Significant level is P < 0.05 (P = 0.000). So, the researcher accepts H3.

Religious belief also plays an important role in order to prevent baby dumping that increase from time to time. Other than that, most of respondents also agreed that religious belief need to apply in their daily life activity. This finding was also supported by the Azmi (2010) [1] and Coleman & Testa (2007)[8]. 5. Conclusion

As a conclusion, awareness towards consequences of free sex, knowledge on sex education and religious belief showed the significant relationships with the baby dumping issues in our country. Most of the respondents agreed that these three variables have a significant impact on baby dumping cases. It is important for the teenagers to understand the consequences of free sex so that they can prevent the unwanted pregnancy at the young age. Besides that, the knowledge on sex education is important to ensure the teenagers have a better understanding about their body so that they will not easily involve in free sex which can lead to the baby dumping.

On top of that, the important of religious belief and practices also play a vital function. Every religion has lay down and taught about the dos and don’ts, about the sin and reward, and all religion prohibited the act of free sex. In order to prevent it, the government, schools, parents and teenagers should take necessary actions to stop this baby dumping issue from becoming worst.

6. Recommendation

In order to cope with this baby dumping cases, government should come out with several policies and programmes. First of all, the government may incorporate sex education in school curriculum as part of a holistic approach to tackle baby dumping cases. This approach is needed in order to provide awareness and better understanding of reproductive system and health at school level. Besides that, the government also can restructure or add the syllabus in certain subject such as “Pendidikan Islam” or “Pendidikan Moral” in order to create awareness and highlighted the consequences of social problems like free sex and baby dumping.

The government also should promote Islam as a way of life especially to the Muslim youth as we can see nowadays; most of the people who involved in baby dumping were Muslims. Islamic scholars and Ulama’ must take this responsibility to explain to the community about Islam. However, it is important for the religious persons to use suitable method according to target group in performing this task. The government also can bring the Ulama’ or others religious person from other religion to give talk to the teenagers based on their belief especially when there is a program for teenagers as well as when there is a national campaign to curb with this kind of social problem.

Drastic step by the government in categorizing baby dumping as a criminal amounting to murder if it meets with all the legal specifications is also can be introduced. The government can give another chance to the guilty parents if their baby is found alive but if the baby is found dead, the guilty parents need to be penalized under this criminal act.

140

Government also can help to curb this problems by exterminate pornographic materials from internet and electronic multimedia. These pornographic materials also one of the biggest factors that can contribute to the baby dumping issues because it will influence teenagers to do bad things. It is also recommended that the government come out with new rule to restrict the teenagers below 18 years old to check-in hotel or motel without parents or guardian. This rule will able to reduce free sex among the teenagers.

Besides government, parents also should actively play their role in coping with this issue. For instance, they should discuss “openly” about sex and things related to it with their kids. Even though this topic still “taboo” in certain culture but it will prevent teenagers to get wrong information about sex from wrong sources.

Weak family ties also one of the contributing factors in the rising cases of baby-dumping. It is a signal to all the parents not to concentrate and busy with their works and forgets to spend time with their children. As caring parents, we should hug, kiss, love and give more attention to our children before other persons do it for them.

7. Acknowledgements

Our sincere thanks goes to our colleagues in UiTM Kedah, Malaysia for whom we have great regard, and we wish to extend our warmest thanks to all those who have helped us with the creation of this paper especially to Abdullah Fathi Muslim,Izzatul Nadiah Isa, Noor Atiqah Idris, Nurul Farakhin Zahrin and Nurzawani Abd Salam.

8. References
[1] Dali, A. (2010), “Gejala buang bayi meningkat”, Kosmo , 17 August, pp. 6. [2] New Straits Times (2010), “Eight held over selling of babies” available at: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1- 188506529.html (accessed 26 July 2011)

[3] New Straits Times (2010), “Foetus found buried by roadside” available at: http://www.nst.com.my/nst/articles/27jani/Article (accessed 26 November 2010) [4] New Straits Times (2010), “Newborn found in plastic bag”, available at: http://www.nst.com.my/nst/articles/28sarr/Article/index_html (accessed 26 November 2010) [5] The Malay Mail (2011), “Foetus of boy found in garbage can”, available at: http://www.mmail.com.my/content/45796-foetus-boy-found-garbage-can (accessed 26 July 2011) [6] PDRM (2010) “Baby Dumping Statistic” available at: http://www.rmp.gov.my (accessed 26 November 2010) [7] The Star (2010), “CID Chief: 472 babies found dumped since 2005”, available at: http://thestarmobile.com/jsp/news/viewNews.jsp?newsID=151204&catID=19 (accessed 16 August 2010) [8] Coleman, L.M. and Testa, A. (2007), “Preferences towards sex education and information from an ethnically diverse sample of young people”, Sex Education, Vol. 7 No. 3, pp. 293-307. [9] Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development (APWLD) Annual Report 2010. 141

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 996

  • Pages: 4

Teenage Pregnancy

Teenage pregnancy has proven itself to be a global problem that places both the mother and child at risk. This paper will examine studies about the risk factors for pregnancy in women under the age of 19 and comparing them to risk factors for women between 19 and 35 inclusively to determine if there is indeed some correlation existing between health and social issues, and teenage pregnancy. To accomplish this task, studies citing a correlation between the above mentioned issue and associated risks will be examined and evaluated to help determine if the correlation is true or spurious in order to validate or dismiss the risk assessment.

Statement of the Problem

Teenage pregnancy is a relevant issue because of its implied correlation to health issues, social issues, educational issues, and financial issues. It is a stigma that brings with it many repercussions that follow both the parent and the child and can place them at a disadvantage or stunt their growth potential. According one study, teenage mothers are more likely to develop health issues such as anemia, hypertension, delivering pre-term, and having underweight babies. The same study shows a correlation between poor socio-economic conditions, low literacy rates, and lack of awareness as some of the underlying factors contributing to teenage pregnancies (Mahavarkar, 2008).

Literature Review

Correlation is defined as a relationship in which two or more things are mutual or complementary, or one thing is caused by another. In doing a follow up case study on teenage pregnancy, Spear (2004) discovered that the majority of the studies on the subject have been “qualitative in nature with relatively few studies that examine the personal perspective and worldview of the adolescents who experience pregnancy and childbearing” (Pediatric Nursing, 30.2). Conducting studies on the subject is one matter but failing to understand and shed light on the underlying factors or repercussions is in no way advising others on how to deal with or avoid being caught in the proverbial trap of teenage pregnancy.

In Mirowsky’s study he not only found that the ratio of health problems expected given first birth under age 18 versus around age 34 equals that from currently being 14 years older at age 48. He states that the risk of dying in child birth also declines with having delayed first birth well beyond the end of puberty and a comparison to non-mothers of similar age and race/ethnicity shows that the correlation of motherhood with health problems and mortality hazard switches from detrimental to beneficial with delay beyond about age 22 (Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46.1). Talking out of context, it is easy to conclude from his findings that delaying child birth and pregnancy to an age over 22 will not only prolong life, but put us in a better position to pursue needed social, educational, and financial needs.

Mirowsky also enlightens us in the same issue, of some of the medical issues faced when dealing with teenage pregnancy. These issues are more common to mothers under the age of 20 compared to mothers in their 20s or 30s, including lung disease, eclampsia, kidney disease, fevers, seizures during labor, and congenital anomalies which may result from incomplete development of the reproductive system. The study also shows that first-time teenage mothers who receive proper pre-natal cares, which are more mature, and more stable than most of their counterparts, faces a higher risk of birthing premature and low birth weight babies than older first-time mothers with the same characteristics. Not to be discounted but “mothers older than 35 or 40 have a higher probability of developing gestational diabetes, placenta previa, breech presentation, postpartum hemorrhage, birth asphyxia, delivery before 32 weeks, birth weight below the 5th percentile, down syndrome, and stillbirth” (Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46.1).

One study tells us that pregnancy at any age involves developmental change, and usually this spells disaster for a teenager because “when the stress of two developmental stages, adolescence and young adulthood are compressed, successful completion of both sets of tasks is compromised” (Rodriguez, 1995). This can put both the teen mother and their children at risk for social, developmental, and psychological retardation. Rodriguez seems to have the solution for these issues. He recommends that there be a “correlation of positive father/daughter relationships with feeling good about self, and the more positive relationships with mother and father” and “family involvement, regardless of how it is defined and measured” (Rodriguez, 1995).

The study done by Spear (2004) does show that some teenage mothers who are sometimes forced to grow up and face their responsibilities actually do so. Two of her subjects have moved on and have come into their own, educationally, financially and socially and based on their experience, they can advise their children on the issue at hand.

Conclusion

Taking into consideration the global concern for teenage pregnancy and the literature studied, it is easy to surmise that that the group is indeed at a higher risk level for medical issues, social stagnation and educational retardation. The studies show that an underdeveloped body is in no way prepared to sustain another especially when poor diet, lack of knowledge, or lack of proper medical care are the most prominent factors to contend with. Social stagnation is possible since the age of both the child and parent in such close proximity of each other. Educational retardation is also most certainly a possibility for both the child and the parent since the basic needs will most likely be centralized around food, clothing, and shelter. The studies are in no way conclusive but it sheds a great deal of light on the issue at hand and provides information that can be used as a tool for guidance in curbing the problem.

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 453

  • Pages: 2

Teenage Pregnancy

One of the societal problems that our country encounters is the teenage pregnancy or the early pregnancy. Many Teenagers are involve in premarital sex. This also lead to other societal problem like overpopulation and poverty. The sexual revolution has ushered in a period in which the average adolescent experiences tremendous pressures to have sexual experiences of all kinds. Filipino teens get a higher exposure to sex from the Internet, magazines, TV shows, movies and other media than decades ago, yet without any corresponding increase in information on how to handle the input. So kids are pretty much left to other kids for opinions and value formation when it comes to sex. Sexual misinformation is therefore equally shared in the group. Parents at home and teachers in school feel equally inadequate or uneasy to discuss the topic of sex with youngsters.

The problem mounts because the barkada (gang) has a more profound influence than parents do and they exert pressure and expect the adolescent to conform to the rest of them. In the Philippines, according to the 2002 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study by the University of the Philippines Population Institute (Uppi) and the Demographic Research and Development Foundation, 26 percent of our Filipino youth nationwide from ages 15 to 25 admitted to having a premarital sex experience. What?s worse is that 38 percent of our youth are already in a live-in arrangement. In fact, female adolescents whose friends engage in sexual behavior were found to be more likely to do the same compared to those who do not associate with such peers. If the teen perceives her peers to look negatively at premarital sex, she was more likely to start sex at a later age. Teenage mothers tend to have poor eating habits and are less likely to take recommended daily multivitamins to maintain adequate nutrition during pregnancy.

They are also more likely to smoke, drink or take drugs during pregnancy, which can cause health problems for the baby. Unplanned pregnancies lead to a higher rate of abortions. In the Philippines, although abortion is illegal, it would shock you to know that we even have a higher abortion rate (25/1,000 women) .For sure, there are more abortions that happen in our country that are not even reported. Backdoor abortions are resorted to with untrained ?hilots? with questionable sterility procedures, increasing the possibility for tetanus poisoning and other complications. Even though there are many ways to stop this problem, there will always be the lak of discipline of the teenagers.That is why there is the controversial RH Bill which will solve the problem or maybe it cannot.

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 350

  • Pages: 1

Teenage Pregnancy

Teenage pregnancy is pregnancy in a female under the age of 20 (when the pregnancy ends). A pregnancy can take place as early as two weeks before menarche (the first menstrual period), which signals the possibility of fertility, but usually occurs after menarche. In healthy, well-nourished girls, menarche normally takes place around the ages 12 or 13. Whether the onset of biological fertility will result in a teenage pregnancy depends on a number of personal and societal factors. Teenage pregnancy rates vary between countries because of differences in levels of sexual activity, general sex education provided and access to affordable contraceptive options. Worldwide, teenage pregnancy rates range from 143 per 1000 in some sub Saharan African countries to 2.9 per 1000 in South Korea.

Pregnant teenagers face many of the same obstetrics issues as women in their 20s and 30s. There are however, additional medical concerns for mothers younger than 15. For mothers between 15 and 19, risks are associated more with socioeconomic factors than with the biological effects of age. However, research has shown that the risk of low birth weight is connected to the biological age itself, as it was observed in teen births even after controlling for other risk factors (such as utilisation of antenatal care etc.).

In developed countries, teenage pregnancies are associated with many social issues, including lower educational levels, higher rates of poverty, and other poorer life outcomes in children of teenage mothers. Teenage pregnancy in developed countries is usually outside of marriage, and carries a social stigma in many communities and cultures. Many studies and campaigns have attempted to uncover the causes and limit the numbers of teenage pregnancies. Among OECD developed countries, the United States, United Kingdom and New Zealand have the highest level of teenage pregnancy, while Japan and South Korea have the lowest in 2001. The latest data from the United States shows that the states with the highest teenage birthrate are Mississippi, New Mexico and Arkansas while the states with the lowest teenage birthrate are New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Vermont.

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