Technical Communication Essay

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Technical Communication Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1634

  • Pages: 7

Technical Communication

The field of Criminal Justice has many different opportunities to develop good communications skills. There has not always been a direct communication between officers and the dispatch center; there is a long list of inventions, throughout history. In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell, invented the telephone, in 1921 the Detroit Police department began experimenting with a one-way vehicle mobile service. In 1933, Bayonne New Jersey Police department used regular two-way communications with its patrol cars. In 1971, Richard Frenkiel and Joel Engel of AT&T applied computers and electronics to make commercial photo, phone service work (telephone history).

Now in the year 2011, we have an abundance of technological tools to help in the law enforcement system. It is important to know the tools and the current technology that are available to use while communicating with dispatch, and the tools and current technology that dispatch will use to communicate in return. The importance of communicating properly in the field of Criminal Justice, a person needs to know the proper protocol of tone, codes and always remember respect for the individual.

The current technological tools that enable officers to get information for their own area of jurisdiction, such as demographics of the area of which they work this are an important tool. This tool helps the officers know the area that they may be going into, and are more aware of the gang presence. The future technologies that are being developed to enhance the communications for interviews or interrogation are on the rise a well. Technological Tools for Communications.

When communicating with dispatch it is important to speak clearly, and give as much information as possible. The dispatch center is equipped with many
different systems that enable them to have eyes that a police officer may not have, even though in larger departments the patrol cars are set up with technological abilities that give them information on suspect’s arrests, personal characteristics, at a moment’s notice. Dispatch has tools to help with translation, when a person is not fluent in the American language; this is to ensure that the information that is being relayed is accurate. It would be a shame if the dispatcher did not understand the caller, and sent the police to the wrong address, and someone ended up extremely hurt.

Some of the other tools that help dispatch communicate with the officers, for their safety and others are the built in GPS that is tied into the officer’s laptops in the vehicle. This tool lets dispatchers know where the deputies’ vehicles are in case the officer is in a dangerous situation, but is unable to radio to dispatch. Currently, there are fewer dispatchers, because in the larger cities, the officers have all the technology right at hand in the patrol car. Digital fingerprinting, built in wireless cameras, electronic records systems (The Columbus Dispatch, Nov, 14, 2010), all of this technology makes it easier for the officer to do his job, however it has replaced most of what the dispatcher does. Current Technological Tools in Effective Communications per Jurisdiction.

The primary purpose of a dispatch center is to direct calls for service from the public, provide communication and information support to field police officers because some centers are the first point of collection of police statistics. (Real police, 2007), some dispatchers are often the key to an officer’s safe and successful outcome on calls, traffic stops, and other incidents.

For dispatchers and officers to work well with each other, dispatchers need to be observant and informed about an officers safety and survival. This can be done by attending outside training courses, reading law enforcement publications and staying side by side of officer survival news and information. Dispatchers can help officers by providing additional information before officers ask for it. For example if they are sent to a location where other incidents have occurred, and providing any criminal history of the person they are dealing with. Knowing the area that officers are patrolling can aid in keeping the officers safe instead of relying solely on what the computer screen shows them.

Both the dispatcher and police officers jobs are stressful. Police officers need to remember that inside the communication center is a high level of stress because every call they receive is a “crisis” and a cry for help. Dispatchers relay the information to field officers so they can respond to each incident. Dispatchers spend their time responding to one catastrophe after another and they rarely see or hear the result of their actions, particularly in grave incidents such as house fires where victims are trapped, or auto accidents where individuals are awaiting the arrival of police officers and emergency medical technicians. By calling dispatch to inform them of the final outcome of the call they took will provide some closure.

Cooperation is the key to a team’s operation and that is exactly what police officers and dispatchers are. As long as everyone understands what their roles are which both dispatcher and officer are to serve the public who majority of the time do not appreciate or understand what they do. Sometimes a tone of one’s voice can cause hostility between the dispatcher and a police officer, so each much remember to think before they speak. They are there to work as a team and while doing so makes work a much better place. Future Technologies to Accelerate Communication: Interviews and Interrogation

Technology used in the criminal justice system is forever-changing and advancing. The Criminal Justice system has seen more advances over the last few years in Biometric technology in the areas of DNA, fingerprinting, and facial recognition software. Agencies such as the National Institute of Justice are constantly working on new technology to assist in the communication within the Criminal Justice System.

Currently we have seen advances in the DNA databases, but the future of those advances could be in the hands of patrol officers in the future. There are advances being made to introduce portable DNA labs that can be hand
transported to crime scenes. With this advancement multiple samples will be tested at the same time providing immediate results with relatively low cost to the law enforcement departments. Police officers and prosecutors will be able to match samples rapidly and exclude or include suspects immediately. This advance will allow officers to pinpoint, interview, and interrogate suspects in cases immediately. This swift collection and identification of DNA samples will eleviate the potential loss of evidence in the field.

The National Institute of Justice is currently funding three separate technologies that will allow officers to detect if a person is carrying a concealed weapon (Travis, March 13, 1997). This advancement will protect the lives of many officers in the field. In the future officers, court officials, and other law enforcement officials will know whether suspects or other individuals are carrying a weapon. Imagine the ability of law enforcement officials simply use a hand held device at short range to determine if an individual was armed. This will also protect others in the event the initial officer does not find the weapon. There have been cases of suspects being searched for weapons, and they are not found. The suspect in turn takes the weapon into the interrogation room and shoots himself. These new advances will provide a first line of defense against anyone being hurt.

The National Institute of Justice and the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services in the Department of Justice awarded $4million in grants to help develop technology that supports community policing (Travis, March 13, 1997). This new technology is being developed to support the problem solving efforts in community policing. Developers hope these advances will help police officers, judges, and probation officers work together and communicate better. These new advances will allow all agencies make better decisions and be aware of what each other needs are. If all agencies have access to the same information this will allow the system to work together more efficiently and possibly solve many of the communication issues of today.

The job of an officer in the field is a difficult one and the proper communication between the officer and the dispatch center can mean life or death in certain situations. The technological tools used today enable an officer to communicate with the dispatcher and allows the dispatcher to do his or her job effectively and efficiently. As more technological advances are developed more officers’ lives will be saved as well as victims. The advances today are necessary to ensure all law enforcement components are able to communicate with each other, as well as do their jobs effectively and efficiently.

References
Relationship between Officers and Dispatchers (2007) Retrieved from http://www.realpolice.net/forums/archive/t-69519.html

The Great Idea Finder. (2006). Inventions: Telephone. Retrieved January 15, 2011, from

http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/telephone.htm

The Columbus Dispatch, Allison Manning, November 14, 2010, retrieved from

www.dispatch.com

Institute for Law and Justice. (n.d.). Institute for Law and Justice. Retrieved from http://www.ilj.org/publications/technology/index.html Travis, J. (March 13, 1997). Technology in Criminal Justice: Creating the tools for transformation. National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/speeches/acjs.htm

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Technical Communication Essay

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Technical Communication Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 2977

  • Pages: 12

Technical Communication

Normally, texts which contain technical terminology will incorporate definitions and explanations. This is particularly the case if the text is aimed at non-experts or students of technical subjects. A term should be defined if the word or phrase used

1: is unfamiliar to the reader
2: has multiple meanings
3: has a specific meaning in that discipline. The same word in one discipline can mean a different thing altogether in another discipline

A definition is:

‘a statement which gives clear, exact, concise description or explanation of a statement of the meaning of a word or phrase or the nature of an object’

When writing definition, some common words and expressions could be used, such as:

Examples:
1. A computer is an electronic device.
2. Exercises are physical and mental activities.
3. The term laboratory refers to a room or building used for scientific
research. 4. Arachnophobia means that a very strong fear or hatred of spiders.

Elements of Definitions

← Plain English – the purpose of definition is to clarify meaning, so use language readers could understand

Examples:

compare:
i) A tumor is a neoplasm

ii) A tumor is a growth of cells that occurs independently of surrounding tissue, and serves no useful function.

← Basic properties – definition should convey the properties that differentiate it from all others.

Examples:

i) A thermometer measures temperature

ii) A book can be used to write in, to display pictures, and to record financial transactions.

iii) A book is a bound volume of pages.

← Objectivity – we need to omit our opinions from a definition, unless readers ask for them.

Examples:

i) Bomb is defined as an explosive weapon detonated by impact and a timing mechanism.

ii) Bomb is an explosive weapon devised by some idiots to blow up the world.

2 types of definitions

1: the short formal definition of one sentence

2: the extended definition of several paragraphs or of the whole process

The short formal definition

▪ Usually of one sentence that contains 3 parts
1. the term or word or phrase to be defined
2. the class of object or concept to which the term belongs 3. the different characteristics which distinguish this term from all others of that class

|1 | |2 |3 | |WORD/TERM |V |CLASS |DIFFERENTIATING CHARACTERISTICS | |Water |is |a liquid |made up of molecules of 2 parts of hydrogen to 1 part of | | | | |oxygen. | |Topaz |is |a mineral |which is transparent or translucent aluminium silicate, | | | | |usually yellow in colour and used as a gem. | | | | | | |A pencil |is |an instrument |for writing or drawing, made of thin rod of graphite, | | | | |enclosed in a wooden cylinder. |

In writing short formal definition, there are 2 rules:

▪ 1. Specific class differentiation
▪ Assign the term to a class and then detail precisely how this term differs from other term within that class

Example:

An elephant is a huge mammal order of Proboscides, of the suborder Elepantoidea.

Rule 2:

▪ No repetition of word.
▪ Never repeat same word used in definition as it is a weak definition. It does not tell the reader any new information. ▪ Use another word to give more information.

Example:

A postman is a man who carries and delivers letters.

A postman is a mail carrier who delivers letters.

Now, let’s try giving a short, formal definition to the following terms:

|Word / term |Verb |Class |Differentiating characteristics | |Hay |is |grass |mown and dried for cattle food. | |A headache |is |a continuous pain |in the head. | |1. A heart | | | | |2. A supermarket | | | | |3. A clock
| | | | |4. A volcano | | | | |5. An engineer | | | | |6. An orchid | | | | |7. A dolphin | | | | |8. A computer | | | | |9. A mobile phone | | | | |10. A bicycle | | | |

Table 1: Short formal definition
The Extended Definition

What is Extended Definition?

❑ Some definitions and explanations give further distinguishing characteristics by means of a defining relative clause. ❑ Expanded definition that involves more than one sentence. ❑ It could be written in a paragraph or more, or even a whole essay to clarify the definition. ❑ This depends on the topic for each discipline and the need for details to achieve the purpose of writing it.

Relative clause includes relative pronouns which are:

Ways to extend a definition:

1.Etymology or Derivation
■ Refers to the origin of the word, its multiple meanings, and the way the word is used up to the present time.

Examples:

i. Alcohol has its original roots from the Arabic word al-kuhul, which meant a colourless, inflammable, and pungent liquid with the chemical properties of C2H6O. Alcohol today can be burned as fuel, used in industry and medicine, and can be intoxicating element found in whiskey, wine, beer or in fermented and distilled liquors known as ethyl alcohol.

ii. Nicotine has its roots in the French word nicotiane, which means the tobacco plant. This Nicot’s plant was named after Jean Nicot, French ambassador at Lisbon. He introduced the tobacco seeds to France in 1560. This tobacco plant is poisonous water-soluble alkaloid, C10H14N2, found in the tobacco leaves which are used ordinarily in an aqueous solution of its sulphate as an insecticide. When the smokers of tobacco leaves became addicted to smoking, the scientists had to coin new word nicotine for the addictive ingredient in tobacco.

iii. Laser is an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. The idea of lasers dates back as far as 212 B.C. when Archimedes used a magnifying glass to set fire to Roman ships during the siege of Syracuse.

2.Explication
■ Explains and clarifies any word in the definition that may confuse the readers

Example:
i. The word autobiography is made up of two words: auto, which means self or by oneself/itself, and biography, which means an account of a person’s life. Therefore, autobiography means the story of one’s own life written or dictated by oneself.

3.Negative comparisons or Negation
■ Readers can grasp some meanings by understanding clearly what the term does not mean.

Examples:

i. A cucumber is not a vegetable but a long fruit.
ii. Love is not hate although there is a love-hate relationship. iii. Lasers are not merely weapons from science fiction.

4.Classification
■ Defines a word into different categories and explains each categories in detail.

Example:

A. Term – Elephant
B. Classification – Mammal
C. Basis for Division – i) Asiatic(ii) African
D. Detailed characteristics of each division – i) physical characteristics, (ii) location (iii) uses

5.Compare and Contrast

■ Use of analogies can compare the unfamiliar with the familiar based on a pattern of similarities. In doing this, we need to ask the following questions when giving definition: □ Does it resemble anything familiar?

□ How does it differ from comparable things? □ How is it both similar and different?

Examples:

i. The way the animal heart pumps blood throughout the body is like the way water pump works to pump water into the water pipes.

ii. A seam gauge resembles a short ruler, except it has a length wise
slot in the middle of its entire length.

iii. Fiber optics technology results from the superior capacity of light waves to carry a communications signal. Sound waves, radio waves, and light waves can all carry signals; their capacity increases with their frequency. Voice frequencies carried by telephone operate at 1000 cycles per second, or hertz. Television signals transmit at about 50 million hertz. Light waves, however, operate at frequencies in the hundreds of trillion of hertz.

In addition to the 5 ways of expanding a definition above, we can also use descriptive details where we elaborate details like class, size, shape, colour, properties, uses and other information which we think are helpful in clarifying the term. Other than that, we can use examples and incidents, and we can also combine several ways in order to help with the understanding of the term.

Exercises

1.The following are 2 samples of extended definitions written by a group of students. Read the samples and identify:

a) the term, the class, and the differentiating characteristics b) which way they used to define the term
c) whether the definition is successful in explaining to readers what the term means

2.The technical words in column A are similar in meaning to the more general English in column B. Match them.

|A |B | | | | | | |1 |Sheets |A |Goes up and down | |2 |Escalator
|B |Swings backwards and forwards | |3 |Motion |C |Goes in a line | |4 |Converts |D |Movement | |5 |Has a linear motion |E |Goes round and round | |6 |Reciprocates |F |Moving stairs | |7 |Rotates |G |Large, thin, flat pieces | |8 |Oscillates |H |Changes | | | | | |

3.Choose 1 term from Table 1: Short formal definition that you have done earlier. From the short formal definition, expand the description of the term using ways that you have learned in this unit. Write it in the following space.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

[pic]
Read the following paragraphs:

1.

Source: http://www.kaboodle.com/reviews/the-elven-brooch

2.

Sources: http://www.answers.com/topic/stapler , http://www.allproducts.com.tw/manufacture98/shyouken/product2.html

Exercises:
1.From the paragraphs in the previous pages, find:
a) words that you think are factual
b) words that represent the writers’ opinion
Fill in the table below with your answers.
|Paragraph 1 |Facts |Opinion | | | |gorgeous | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

|Paragraph 2 |Facts |Opinion | | |metal stampings | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

When you are done, compare your answers with a friend. Be prepared to rationalize your answers.

TUTORIAL TASK
2.In this part, you need to choose 1 card. Each card contains questions regarding ‘Technical Description’. Prepare the answers to the questions, and present it to the whole class. You may do it using power point slide presentation. You are given about 5 minutes to talk about what you have discovered. While your friends are presenting, you may take notes for the rest of the question cards.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

LANGUAGE ENRICHMENT

3.In the following box are verb participles that can be used when writing a description of a functional, physical, or manufacturing process. Choose an object and write the description using the passive voice in present tense. You can use the verbs given or other verbs that you know. When you are done, read aloud the descriptions without saying the name of the final product. Your classmates have to guess what is being described.

[pic]

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

ASSIGNMENT 1 – TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION (10%)

For this assignment, you are going to write a technical description of an object of your choice. The following is how you are going about the assignment:

1. Choose an object. You must get the approval from your lecturer about
your choice. 2. Take not more than 5 pictures of the object from different views and print them. You are not allowed to lift images from other sources such as the Internet or books. 3. Label the parts of the object.

4. Write a description of the object which should include the following items: a. The extended definition of the object
b. The physical aspects of the object
c. The functional aspects of the object
5. Organise your description into Introduction, Content, and Conclusion. You must include the pictures that you have taken in the description. 6. You should write about 1000 words. Indicate the word count on the assignment cover page.

_________________________________________________________________

Your assignment will be evaluated by the following criteria:

Content – the answer is relevant and adequate to the assigned situation, shows knowledge to the subject, and well-developed thesis/topic.

Language use – effective simple and complex constructions, few errors of agreement, tense, number, word order/function, articles, pronouns, prepositions

Organisation – fluent expression, overall pattern is clear, well-organised, logical sequencing, cohesive.

Mechanics – mastery of conventions – few errors of spelling, punctuation, capitalisation, paragraphing.

References:

Boeckner, K. and Brown, P.C. (1993). Oxford English for Computing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Glendinning, E.H. and Glendinning, N. (1995). Oxford English for Electrical and Mechanical Engineering. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lannon, J.M. (1994). Technical Writing. 6th ed. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers. Rose Tunku Ismail. (2001). A Student’s Guide to Writing. Kuala Lumpur: DBP.

http://www.public.iastate.edu/~bccorey/105%20Folder/Tech%20Def%20Assign.doc

———————–
Neoplasm – this word is still unclear and needs more explanation

This is better because it gives accurate description of the term

This is essential information and gives real meaning of the term.

For this term, it cannot be defined according to functional properties because books have multiple functions.

Therefore, the basic property of the word that we could use is ‘physical’.

This definition gives fact.

‘some idiots to blow up the world’ is opinion and the definition ignores a bomb’s basic property.

Specific class differentiation to define item

Class

Repetition

Gives new information to the work of a postman

Scientific calculator is an electronic device that people use to calculate mathematics equation. This device is made up from electronic components. The case is made up from hard plastic. The structure consists of buttons and screen. The buttons are used to type in numbers and mathematics symbols. The function of the screen is to display what is being punched from the buttons.

Student A

Mechanical pencil consists of two terms that are ‘mechanical’ and ‘pencil’. It is called mechanical because the pencil is produced by machines and it consists of a set of moving parts that does a certain task. While pencil is a type of stationery used to write. So mechanical pencil is not like conventional pencil because mechanical pencil uses spring to eject the thin carbon lead from the body in order to write. Whereas, the normal pencil needs to be sharpened in order to write. Student B

Card A
1. What is the definition of “Technical Description”? 2. List 3 important features in a technical description.
3. How do you describe an object?

Card B
1. Give examples of words/terms that you use to describe an object. 2. Do you need to include visuals in technical description? Why/Why not? Give examples. 3. What is physical description?

Card C
1. What is the purpose of writing technical description?
2. What is functional description?
3. What should a technical description contain?

Card D
1. What is a process description?
2. How do you organize the descriptive sequence of an object? 3. What style/tone/ of language that you should use in a technical description? Give

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Technical Communication Essay

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Technical Communication Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 573

  • Pages: 2

Technical Communication

Technical communication is a broad field and includes any form of communication that exhibits one or more of the following characteristics Communicatingabout technical or specialized topics, such as computer applications, medical procedures, or environmental regulations. Communicatingby using technology, such as web pages, help files, or social media sites. Providinginstructions about how to do something, regardless of how technical the task is or even if technology is used to create or distribute that communication. Technical Writing Definitions for Technical Writing Technical writing is writing about scientific subjects and about various technical subjects associated with the sciences. Is characterized by certain formal elements, such as its scientific and technical vocabulary, its use of graphic aids, and its use of conventional report forms. Is ideally characterized by the maintenance of an attitude of impartiality and objectivity, by extreme care to convey information accurately and concisely, and by the absence of any attempt to arouse emotion.

Is writing in which there is relatively high concentration of certain complex and important writing techniques, in particular description of mechanisms, description of process, definition, classification, and interpretation. Five basic principles of Good Technical Writing Always have in mind a specific reader, real or imaginary, when you are writing a report, always assume that he is intelligent, but uninformed. Before you start to write, always decide what the exact purpose of your report is, and make sure that every paragraph, every sentence, every word makes a clear contribution to that purpose. Use language that is simple, concrete and familiar. At the beginning and end of every section of your report, check your writing according to this principle First you tell the reader what youre going to tell him and then ask him what youve told him. Make your report attractive. Differences between Technical Writing and other forms of writing Technical writing conveys specific information about a technical subject to a specific audience for a specific purpose.

Creative writing is fiction poetry, short stories, plays, and novels and is most different from technical writing. Expressive writing is a subjective response to a personal experience journals and diaries whereas technical writing might be objective observations of a work-related experience or research. Expository writing exposes or reveals a topic analytically and objectively, such as news reports. Like technical writing, the goal of expository writing is to explain or reveal knowledge, but expository writing does not necessarily expect a response or action from the readers. Persuasive writing depends on emotional appeal. Its goal is to change attitudes or motivate the reader to action. Copyright law covers the protection of the rights of the author. Trademark law pertains to federal protection (different from registered trademarks). Contract law covers written warranties or their implied warranties.

Liability law pertains to responsibilities or obligations of writers especially claims they made on their paper. Principles of Ethical Communication Abide by relevant laws. Abide by the appropriate corporate or professional code of conduct. Tell the truth. Dont mislead your readers. Be clear. Avoid discriminatory language. Acknowledge assistance from others. Avoid the following when writing technical communication False implications happens when a person assumes the outcome of a project or makes sweeping generalizations. Exaggerations – happen when situations are expressed in extreme proportions. Euphemism means writing about situations in seemingly good conditions even though they are not.

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  • University/College:
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  • Words: 804

  • Pages: 3

Technical Communication

Chapter 1. Introduction to Technical Communication.

Communication is the exchange of thoughts, message or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behavior. Derived from the Latin word “communis”, meaning to share. Communication requires a sender, a message, and a recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender’s intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distance in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender.

Technical Communication would mean a communication specific to the sender and the recipient and both would be from the same field of knowledge. This communication may not be understood by any others in the sense that the messages passed across are in a language that can be understood by persons from once field of knowledge. Here the importance subset of such a communication. Technical Communication is the flow or exchange of information within people or group of people sharing a common platform of similar knowledge or people from the same field with or without the technical knowledge.

Means of Communication

1. Verbal Communication: Spoken and pictorial languages can be described as a system of symbols (sometimes as known lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word “language” also refers to common properties of languages. Language learning normally occurs most intensively during human childhood. Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns of sound or gestures for symbols which enable communication with others around them. Languages seem to share certain properties although many of these include exceptions. There is no defined line between a language and a dialect.

Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming languages and various mathematical formalisms are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages. Communication should also include the display of text, Braille, tactile communication, large print, accessible multimedia, as well as written and plain language, human –reader, augmentative and alternative modes, means and formats of communication, including accessible information and communication technology. Manipulative Communications are intentional and unintentional ways of manipulating words, gestures, etc. to “get what we want “, by demeaning, discounting, attacking or ignoring instead of respectful interaction. Sarcasm, criticism, rudeness and swearing are examples.

2. Non Verbal Communication: A variety of verbal and non-verbal means of communicating exists such as body language, eye contact, sign language. Nonverbal communication describes the process of conveying meaning in the form of non – word messages. Research shows that the majority of our communication includes chronemics (use of time) , haptics (using the sense of touch),gesture, body language or posture; facial expression and eye contact, object communication such as clothing , hairstyles, architecture, symbols infographics, and tone of voice as well as through an aggregate of the above. Speech also contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage.

These include voice lesson quality, emotion and speaking style as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Likewise, written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotional expression in pictorial form. 3Oral communication: Oral communication, while primarily referring to spoken verbal communication, can also employ visual aids and non verbal elements to support the discussion, and aspects of interpersonal communication. As a type of face-to face communication, body language and choice tonality play a significant role, and may have communication also garners immediate feedback.

Historic Stages in Written Communication:

1. Pictograms in the form of stone graphics hence immobile. 2. Written form on papyrus, paper, clay tablets. Introduction of common alphabets and also the invention of printing in the 15th century made the written form a very strong means. 3. Transfer of information through controlled waves and electronic signals.

Effective Communication

All communication, intentional or unintentional, has some effect. This effect may not be always in communicator’s favor or as desired by him or her. Communication that produces the desired effect or result is effective communication. It results in what the communicator wants. Effective communication generates the desired effect, maintain effect & increase effect. Effective communication serves its purpose for which it was planned or designed. The purpose could be to generate action, inform, create understanding or communicate a certain idea/point etc. Effective communication also ensures that message distortion does not take place during the communication process.

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