Sustainable Agriculture Essay

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Sustainable Agriculture Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1193

  • Pages: 5

Sustainable Agriculture

“Sustainable agriculture is a way of raising food that is healthy for consumers and animals, does not harm the environment, is humane for workers, respects animals, provides a fair wage to the farmer, and supports and enhances rural communities” (sustainabletable. org). Depending on where you are purchasing your sustainable goods from purchasing these sustainable foods one is not only helping our economy they may also helping their own bodies. There are many unique ways to incorporate growing sustainable foods and incorporating the process into our daily lives.

By using hydroponic production of fruits and vegetables you can also produce artistic piece of work plus nourishment. Sustainable Agriculture There are many reasons to purchase sustainable foods for one’s family they range from the taste of the actual food, the health and well being of your family, and the support it gives back to the local community. “Most people claim that sustainably-raised food simply tastes better. For example, today’s industrial-raised turkeys are injected with saline solution and vegetable oils to try to improve “mouth feel”.

Years ago, a cook only had to put a turkey in the oven; today, the bird must be marinated, deep fried or brined to try to counteract the lack of flavor and dryness inherent in the meat” (sustainabletable. org). Personally I think I would rather have a piece of meat that was not injected with additional fat or extra salt. By eating locally the health and well being of your family is affected as well. There is not as much preservative added to the food and also by eating locally grown and raised animals many of them are usually feed mainly grass which increases the Omega 3 in your diet.

Omega 3 helps with the development of one’s heart. When you purchase locally grown sustainable foods you also support local farmers which in turn keeps more businesses running and more jobs available. This helps the community all around. Hydroponics Hydroponics is a unique way to employ an artist view and maintain sustainable food resources. “Hydroponics is a way of growing plants without soil. It can be used just about anywhere, but it’s particularly suitable for small gardens, for greenhouses, or for elderly or handicapped people (acs.

edu). When choosing a hydroponic system you must choose wisely because as with anything certain systems grow certain fruits and vegetables better than others. Disney World has always made art out of food from their traditional looking Mickey Mouse shaped pancakes to their Mickey Mouse shaped ice cream bars. They we always very different and no one ever so anything like them. Now they have gone the way side of artistic looking food thanks to the help of the hydroponics systems.

Since many of the hydroponic foods are grown from vines and have no need for soil Disney World has envisioned a way to make Mickey Mouse shaped pumpkins, cucumbers, and watermelons for an attraction and for use in their restaurants. “Autumn brings the biggest harvest of pumpkins at The Land, and Mickey Mouse-shaped pumpkins have quickly become a favorite. Introduced in 2004, the Mickey Mouse-shaped pumpkins — some which weigh nearly 80 pounds — are harvested and placed inside the greenhouses for guest viewing.

Also featured: the “Cinderella” pumpkin, named for the shape it shares with Cinderella’s famous coach” (www. intercot. com). Also how about one plant that could feed family tomatoes for a year or more; well Disney World is working on that as well. “Yong Huang, Epcot’s manager of agricultural science at The Land pavilion, is working with a new “tomato tree” that is currently growing inside the theme park’s experimental greenhouses. The only one of its kind in the United States, the plant yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine.

Huang discovered the plant while on vacation last year in Beijing, China” (www. intercot. com). “The Land scientists utilize growing systems that are kinder to the environment and improve productivity: (www. intercot. com). Hydroponics and Art If the people at Disney world can produce food like this that not only entertains people because of its uniqueness an d also supplies nourishment for the visitors of the park then why can’t regular people like you and I produce art and nourishment for people outside of Disney World.

All one would need to do is come up with unique forms to make different shapes. Example if there were a need for a dog shaped cantaloupe just make the mold look like the shape of the dog you would want and proceed with the development of the cantaloupe. This would be a great concept especially if you had picky kids that did not like to eat their fruits and vegetables you could change the shape of them to suit what the kids were in to. Say your child liked Hello Kitty for example get molds of her silhouette and you could produce fruits and vegetables that your child may eat.

This new field of hydroponics could revolutionize the field of farming not only by being able to make artistic looking food, but also by producing mass quantities of the fruits and vegetables you are growing in the system. This would be beneficial to families of low income because they only need to spend a little to receive a lot. Also it is beneficial to the sustainability of local farmers and the land. Local farmers can also benefit from using hydroponics since more product is produced using this form they can plant more and produce more to support families.

By using hydroponics our land is not being ripped of it vital materials we are leaving land available for the life that lives on it and in it. Eventually if we would continue to rob the earth of its products we will no longer have a place to live and may end up extinct. Conclusion One can still maintain the sustainability of the planet and keep themselves all by planting fruits and d vegetables. By using hydroponics you are also contributing to the use of sustainable agriculture by not using chemicals and fertilizers. So therefore one is help the environment and small local farmers.

When purchasing these sustainable foods one is not only helping our economy they may also helping their own bodies and they could be incorporating art into their live as well. There are many unique ways to incorporate growing sustainable foods and incorporating the process into our daily lives. Beneficial food and art all in one who could ask for more? References (2009). Epcot. Retrieved from http://www. intercot. com. (n. d. ). ACS Distance Education . Retrieved from http://www. acs. edu (n. d. ). Sustainable Table. Retrieved from http://www. sustainabletable. org

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Sustainable Agriculture Essay

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Sustainable Agriculture Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 850

  • Pages: 3

Sustainable Agriculture

As the main objectives of the fieldtrip are to view the integrated system farm, therefore we have to relate this fieldtrip with our subject, Sustainable Agriculture. Based on the definitions of the sustainable agriculture, it is defined as an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will, over the long term: a) Satisfy human food and fiber needs,

b) Enhance environment quality and the natural resource base upon which the agricultural economy depends, c) Make the most efficient use of non-renewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, were appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls, d) Sustain the economic viability of farm operations, and e) Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole. Hence, there are several principles in sustainable agriculture must comprise of which are economic viability, environmental sound and socially.

These principles we can found it in MARDI station Sg. Baging as we tour around in the station. Sustainable agriculture Principles’: 1) Economy viability Economically viable means that the farmers can produce enough for self sufficient income and gain sufficient returns. Economic viability is measured not only in terms of direct produce but also in terms of functions such as conserving resources and minimizing risks also. 2) Ecologically sound Ecologically sound means that quality of natural resources is maintained and the vitality of the entire agro-ecosystems from human beings, crops and animals to soil organisms is enhanced.

This is best ensured when the soil is managed and the health of crops, animal and human is maintained through biological processes. 3) Socially Just Socially just means that the resources and power are distributed in such a way that the basic need of all members of society are met and their rights to land use, adequate capital, technical assistance are assured. All people should have opportunity to participate in the decision making.

After understands what is mean by these principles, hence, we, as the students have to relate on which criteria that MARDI station Sg. Baging portrayed. Sustainable Agriculture at MARDI station Sg. Baging Some of the criteria that are showed by MARDI station Sg. Baging are: 1) Economic viable i) Varieties of Livestock Products| MARDI station Sg. Baging has successfully breed local sheep with Dorper sheep species from African that are high quality in meat. This species are great meat producers which can reach a live weight of 90-120 kg and ewes 50-80kg. It is suitable to sale in domestic market and international sale of prime lamb meat. Currently, MARDI sale it based on demand.

Besides, its wool also can be commercialized as material for pillow. | ii) sheep dung as manure products| In addition, sheep dung from Dorper species also can be used as biologically manure for plants here and also can be commercialize. About 25 kg, these manures are sold at RM 5 while RM 7- RM8 for treated one. One of the staff on duty said that the sheep dung is collected in built drain near the sheep -pen and it will move to manure trap behind the sheep-pen. It does not have any uncomfortable smell as the staff insert in food pallets products named Genkimo that use a technology to make it less odor.

| iii) Commercialize screwpine coconut product| Besides, there also plants Screwpine Coconut or also called as ‘Kelapa Pandan’. It is tasty, sweet, and has a thick layer of coconut flesh. It is suitable for coconut shake and coconut jelly to be commercialize. It is sold at RM 1. 50 for each coconut. | | | 2) Environmentally sound i) Uses of natural sources of water| For drinking water, watering the plants, the station used underground water sources by using a machine that is called tube well. It is function by using generator and also can be handled manually.

It is not only used as sources of watering and drinking but also use for other necessity like washing the instrument, cleaning the sheep-pen and others. Even though, the station is near the sea, but it is not salty and can be used as drinking water for the animal without treated. | iii) Integrated pest management| The uniqueness of MARDI is they apply integrated pest management as one of the system in handling pests. It is a system that are friendly to environment where it is also count in Air Index in the respective area before treat the plants.

Before treat, they will analysis what disease attacks the tree to avoid repetition of treatment. It is not only waste the pesticide but indirectly also pollute the air in local area if conduct frequently. Therefore, integrated pest management is about biologically control of the disease and attacks of pest and periodic treated of pests using pesticides. | iv) Biologically control of pest (natural)| For protecting the fruits from fruits flies, they wrap it with newspaper. It is a method| | |

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Sustainable agriculture Essay

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Sustainable agriculture Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1459

  • Pages: 6

Sustainable agriculture

Organic foods are becoming more available in all types of stores where food is sold. Nowadays, instead of scouring many stores looking for organic foods, they have become available for purchase in everyday shopping locations such as Vons, Ralphs, as well as Target and Wal-Mart. With most of the population being consumed with healthier eating and fitness, eating organic foods is a step people make in bettering oneself. Additionally, it is essential to protect our planet in as many ways as possible.

Organic foods have grown nationally, are healthier and safer to consume than conventionally farmed foods, and are beneficial to the environment. Originally, there was no such thing as organic or conventional foods. All farming was organic as there were no pesticides available.

However, as the demand for foods increased, farmers had to figure out how to increase the production of their product, as well as preserving the food to be available for longer periods of time; therefore pesticides were born. The term organic foods is defined by the article Is Organic Food Better For You, as “crops [that] must be produced without conventional pesticides (including herbicides), synthetic fertilizers, sewage sludge, bioengineering, or ionizing radiation. ”(1)

Basically the article is saying that organic foods must be grown naturally without any “help”. This implies that farmers can use natural elements but nothing man made. Robin Parnes emphasizes that “organic food, [is] defined by how it cannot be made rather than how it can be made” (Parnes 2). Parnes is insisting that it is more important to state what cannot be used to ensure an authentic organic product.

This is because what is NOT in a product is what makes it organic, not what IS in it.A common misconception about organic foods is that they are “natural”. This is not true. According to Parnes, “Natural foods can include organic foods, but not all natural foods are organic”. The essence of Parnes’ statement is the misconception is just that, a misconception, with the fact foods may be classified as “natural” but not classified as organic. Food that has been minimally processed and contains no preservatives is referred to by the food industry as “natural” (2). Given that the definition of organic food is very similar, it’s understandable why the two would be lumped together as one.

However, the main difference as stated by Laurel Vukovic, is that foods must contain at least 95 percent organic ingredients in order to be classified organic (50). Organic farms are not always “small family farms” like consumers would think. Shapin states, Earthbound Farm, a large organic producer, was once a small “two-and-a- half acre raspberry-and-baby-greens farm”. Like most great things, the company grew and they now have large farms in nine different counties in the states of California, Arizona, Colorado, and even farms in three Mexican states.

When organic farming first started in 1993, the owners of Earthbound Farm were asked by Costco, their first client, to drop the term organic because they were afraid their customers would be “intimidated” and not want to buy the product, because the entire concept was too new.

In 2004 Earthbound’s farms had grown nationally with twenty-six thousand acres and is now “available in supermarkets in every state of the Union” (Shapin). Organic foods today have become a more common household name and consumers are flocking to buy more of it. Katherine DiMatteo states that there has been a “strong 20%-a-year growth rate since 1990” (qtd. in Is Organic Food Better For You?).

DiMatteo is explaining that organic farming is becoming more in demand as people look more to eating right. Parnes supports this fact by stating that “according to the Food Marketing Institute, more than half of Americans now buy organic food at least once a month” (1). Considering that organic foods used to be very difficult to find and most people were not concerned with eating organic, this is a huge change. This supports the fact that people want to be healthier and eat better. According to Jennifer Alsever, this change is represented by organic foods replacing sugary foods and sodas in some vending machines in Chicago (8).

With all the health problems affecting consumers today, people are searching for more healthy alternatives and “junk food” seems to be disappearing. Consumers have become awakened by their bad food choices and with all of the information on the news and tv today, telling people how rich organic produce is in vitamins and minerals, they are looking to nature for ways to improve their body and overall health. It has been proven that vitamin C and certain antioxidants can help with different diseases, such as “aging, cardiovascular disease, and cancer” as stated in Is Organic Better For You (3).

This article also states that letting nutrient rich organic foods sit for too long in the refrigerator can actually cause the vitamins to deplete by oxidation, therefore losing the benefit. (3). So if you buy organic for the higher vitamins and nutrients, it is important to eat it as soon as possible, so that the benefit you paid a little extra for does not get “wasted”. Organic food not only helps our bodies, by reducing diseases and supplying us with needed nutrients, it can also help protect the environment. When conventional farming machines pollute the earth, this affects us as well.

The air we breathe is polluted, as well as the ground by chemicals and pesticides. Even those who eat organic, can still be affected by conventional farming because of the harmful effects to the environment. Pesticides that are put on plants collect in the soil of the land as well as in water nearby conventional farms. People then drink this water and are exposed to the chemicals. In the article Is Organic Food Better For You, DiMatteo asserts that “… by eliminating the use of these pesticides and fertilizers in the organic production system, we are not contributing any further to this pollution” (3).

In making this comment, DiMatteo argues that the pesticides used in conventional farming is one cause to the pollution of our planet. She believes that replacing conventional farming with organic farming is one way to improve our plants health. When buying organic, the only thought which usually comes to mind is food. Yet, there are also organic hair products and skin products.

One might believe that these products cannot harm or help our bodies, when in fact these are just as important, if not more important. According to Laurel Vukovic, these chemicals are “absorbed through the skin and scalp can be even more harmful than those ingested, because [they are notdetoxified by the liver and] pass directly into the bloodstream and fat cells” (48).

Basically, she is stating that there is no way to fight off the effects of toxins contracted through hair and skin products. When toxins are ingested there is a detoxification process whereas when they are applied they are directly absorbed. Therefore, it is even more important to purchase products that are organic when trying to live a complete healthy life. Organic farming is a way to not only improve our health internally but externally as well, by protecting the environment.

Organic foods take us back to the way food was before the big corporations got involved and “tainted” the product. It is safer to consume foods (as well as use products) that lack the harsh chemicals and pesticides. Our society is “obsessed” with pushing food to last longer than nature intended and this is a big reason pesticides were developed. Unfortunately, there is a price to pay for keeping food fresh longer. This price is being paid not only by our bodies, but by our environment as well.

WORKS CITED Alsever, Jennifer. “No Twinkies? Vending Machines Go Organic. ” Going Green. NBCNews. com, 12 Jan 2011. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. Ciampa, Linda.“The Organic Debate: Healthier or Not? ” In-Depth Specials. CNN. com. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. “Is Organic Food Better for You? Here’s How to Decide If it’s Worth The High Price. ” Food & Recipes.

WebMD. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. Parnes, Robin Brett. “How Organic Food Works. ” How Stuff Works. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. Shapin, Steven. “Organic Food and Farming Has Drawbacks. ” The Local Food Movement. Ed. Amy Francis. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2010. At Issue. Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. Vukovic, Laurel. “A Shopper’s Guide to Organics”. Better Nutrition. Organic Directory, Sep. 2008. PDF fiile. 12. Feb 2013.

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Sustainable agriculture Essay

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Sustainable agriculture Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1631

  • Pages: 7

Sustainable agriculture

Are Organic Foods All They Are Hyped Up To Be: An Overview Of The Organic Food Industry Today, with cancer and obesity cases increasing quickly, people are turning their attention to the foods they are consuming. Such diets as the vegan, vegetarian, lacto-vegetarian, paleo, raw, and locavore are becoming more and more popular. The one thing these diets all have in common is the belief that organic foods are better than conventional foods. Similar to conventional foods, organic foods contain chemicals and toxic bacteria, emit more greenhouse gases, and are not sustainable.

The chemicals in organic foods cause harm to people and the environment. Furthermore, organic foods travel long distances, producing larger amounts of greenhouse gases and changing the nutritional content of the food. Organic foods also use more land and produces less food. Though there is much hype about eating organic produce, consumers may want to weigh out their options. Most people believe organic foods are better for you and the environment because they do not use chemicals.

For instance, The USDA website states that organic foods are foods that are produced without using most conventional pesticides; fertilizers made with synthetic ingredients; bioengineering; sewage sludge; or ionizing radiation (USDA). The truth is organic foods claim to be chemical-free except the organic pesticides they are allowed to use are so dangerous they have been “grandfathered” with current regulations and are not required to undergo strict modern safety tests. For example, organic farmers are allowed to use copper to treat fungal diseases on their farmland crops.

Copper is not biodegradable and stays in the soil forever and is toxic in excessive amounts to the human body (Johnston). Another example is in India, who is a large manufacturer and exporter of organic foods to the United States. It has recently been estimated that 75% of India’s surface water is contaminated by human and agricultural wastes (Michael). Organic foods can be just as harmful to humans and our environment. There is also debate whether ingesting harmful chemicals, which are sprayed during conventional farming methods in order to kill other living organisms, are toxic to the human body.

Because organic foods do not use fungicides and such, they are also frequently contaminated with bacteria and naturally occurring toxins that are harmful for human digestion (Miller). Studies have been performed to test the harmful effects to humans from organic chemicals. A recent study released by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) of 110 people and 358 matched controls showed two organic pesticides commonly used today, rotenone and paraquat, are linked to the development of Parkinson’s disease in humans. Use of either of these pesticides makes people 2.

5 times more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease. Rotenone prevents the mitochondria from making necessary energy within cells. Similarly, paraquat produces excessive harmful oxygen by-products that are harmful to cellular structures (NIH). Furthermore, A 2007 Study of Use of Products and Exposure-Related Behavior (SUPERB) surveyed 364 children between ages two and five in order to compare toxin consumption and cancer risk factors. Research found all children examined had excessive amounts of arsenic, dieldrin, DDE and dioxins, all known to cause cancer.

In addition, over 95% of preschool children had unacceptable amounts of acrylamide; a cooking byproduct found in potato and tortilla chips, also know to cause cancer (University of California). With so many pesticides and toxins, organic or not, proving to be harmful to the human race, it is difficult to understand what the best options are. Research concludes all chemicals, natural or synthetic, are damaging to the human body and the environment. So the question remains, is it better for people to ingest organic and synthetic chemicals or harmful bacteria and toxins?

Organic foods travel long distances and may be more damaging to the earth. Rich Pirog, the associate director of the Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture at Iowa State University, states that food travels 1,500 miles on average from farm to consumer, giving birth to the term “food miles”(DeWeerdt). Priog’s team concluded that conventional food distribution systems used four to 17 times more fuel and emitted five to 17 times more CO2 than the local and regional systems. However, Priog mentions that food miles are a good measure of how far food has traveled.

But they’re not a very good measure of the food’s environmental impact (DeWeerdt). For instance, heated greenhouse tomatoes in Britain use up to 100 times more energy than those produced in fields in Africa (Johnston). Another example is our country’s largest retailer for organic foods, Whole Foods. They actually purchase most of their products from China and only mention it in small fine print on the back of the products. Upon choosing your produce, it is helpful to check the label to identify the food miles accumulated.

Media and advertisements lead people to believe organic produce has a greater nutritional value than conventional foods. The USDA website makes no claims that organically produced food is safer or more nutritious than conventionally produced food (USDA/Miller). Likewise, the United Kingdom’s Food Standards Agency reported that there is no proof organic food is more nutritious than conventionally grown varieties (Taverene). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates the organic food industry.

Their standards have recently been scrutinized for allowing minimal amounts of approved chemicals. The EPA suggests the minimal traces of dangerous chemicals found in organic or conventional foods are not harmful to humans. However, studies report children and elderly are at the greatest risk of the damaging effects from chemicals. Charles Benbrook, previously a chief scientist for the Organic Center, states that the best benefits of organic foods are for children, pregnant women, and elderly who all tend to have weakened immune systems.

Furthermore, he also reports studies that have followed pesticide levels in pregnant women’s blood and found their children to score four to seven percent lower on IQ tests compared to their classmates (Chang). Organic foods are a wise choice for certain populations. Most people choose organic products believing they are sustainable. Organic farms yield 20-50% less produce compared to conventional farms, making organic farming a less efficient use of land. For example, organic potatoes use less in terms of fertilizer production and/or energy, but require more fossil fuel for plowing.

For example, a hectare of conventionally farmed land produces 2. 5 times more potatoes than an organic one. Subsequently, if only organic foods were available, half the current human population would starve to death (Taverene). Orgainc foods tend to cost more than conventional foods. Although organic food yields are less, prices are as much as triple the cost of conventional foods (Taverene). This is due to the greater amounts of labor involved with organic farming procedures. Organic farmers are also held legally responsible for cross-contamination by genetically engineered foods, which in turns raises costs of organic produce.

Organic farming uses fewer chemicals, which in turn promotes greater farmland biodiversity. According to the Organic Trade Association, organic fields also require less irrigation, reduce pollutants in ground water and create richer soils that aid plant growth while reducing erosion. Organic methods also minimize pesticides that can end up in your drinking glass. The Environmental Working Group (EWG) reports various cities in the United States to have unsafe levels of tap water consistently for weeks at a time (DeWeerdt). Some studies show no benefit to people consuming organic foods.

Although high doses of pesticide cause cancers and birth defects, there is no evidence proving the miniscule amounts of chemicals found in conventional foods are damaging to human health. Some studies released show cancer occurrences among farmers, who are often exposed to relatively high levels of these chemicals, are no more frequent than in other occupations. Furthermore, during the last fifty years, during a time when synthetic chemicals became the industry standard for food production, the average life expectancy has increased by over seven years (Chang). Organic foods claim to have more nutritional content than conventional foods.

However, every fruit and vegetable has differing nutritional composition, which depends on a wide variety of factors including but not limited to growing conditions and season, fertilizer administration, and means of crop protection (i. e. , herbicides, pesticides, fungicides, etc. ) Food products from animal sources also differ in nutritional contents depending on such factors as age, breed and feeding routine of the animal. Furthermore, the nutritional compositions of raw foods increase during processing, transportation, storage, and cooking before consumption (DeWeerdt).

Locally grown food decreases the transportation period, resulting in less carbon emissions to the environment and less oxidization to the produce, therefore providing better nutritional content (Chang). Furthermore, organic food usually tastes better, contains no synthetic fertilizers, pesticides or herbicides, which are known to cause cancer, and are more often locally grown. Furthermore, the USDA describes organic food as, food produced by farmers who promote the use of renewable resources and the conservation of water and soil to improve the quality of the environment for future generations (USDA).

Organic foods are not always better than conventional foods. It must be considered the bacteria and toxins remaining on organic produce, the environmental effects and chemical additions in order to make an adequate decision of what type of produce to purchase. After studying the USDA food pyramid logo, it is apparent that the federal government encourages consuming more fruits, vegetables, and grains without any evaluation of the current farming procedures that manufacture these foods. The food pyramid also suggests an apple is an apple and that we should be eating more apples and less processed foods, sugars and fats. (Michael).

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Sustainable agriculture Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1209

  • Pages: 5

Sustainable agriculture

From her educational text, Jenny Ridgwell states, “Many supermarkets stock a range of ‘organic’ foods; these are normally more expensive than other foods, since it is more difficult to match the volume of perfect fruits and vegetables that are produced by intensive farming. Organic foods are grown using traditional methods of faming without artificial fertilisers, pesticides or intensive growing systems. People who eat organic food believe that it tastes better and that it is better for the environment. ” (Examining food and nutrition.)

Having sourced this statement, I have studied its content and found it to be a very good definition of organic foods, showing the main features of organic food and people’s perceptions of organic products. Secondly according to a newspaper article from 2001, about the cost of going organic ‘at least 80 per cent of a cow’s feed would have had to be organically grown. Veterinary drugs would have been allowed if animals fell ill, but there would have been a ban on routine use of antibiotics to prevent infections’ (Times Newspapers Ltd 2001) .

This article reference shows the implications placed on farmers dealing in organic produce, yet it gives us an idea about the health related aspects of organic foods, such as them containing no artificial substances, as an end product and during the production process. In consideration of my viewpoints I have chosen to interview two people from my immediate family, who have separate roles within the home. My first viewpoint was from my mother, who is the main breadwinner of the family and sources the food for most meals, yet she responded negatively in the session.

In her statement she mentioned, “I do not buy organic produce as the price is much more expensive compared to standard produce of which you receive a greater quantity for the price with little quality compromised. ” On the other hand my second interviewee was my father, a previous agriculturist. He replied positively to the interview remarking that, “I would buy organic food just for the taste alone, but knowing the health benefits and what hard work is involved it is only a privilege to accumulate great food and give the tradition a well deserved boost.

From my discussions with the interviewees it has become apparent that they know the nature of organic food, the advantages and the disadvantages. To summarise, it is clear that organic food is not top of their priorities yet it is still considered and acknowledged in the day to day running of a household. Many people say organic food is better than non-organic foods, in many cases, they are healthier because ‘with processed foods there can be hidden fats, salt and sugar that can go in during the processing.

Food certified as organic is not allowed to contain genetically modified ingredients. ’news. bbc. co. uk (Accessed 02/10/12). “A four year European Union funded study found that with regards to organic food compared to “regular” food: There are 40% more antioxidants in organic food, milk that is taken from organic herds contains 90% more antioxidants, and there are higher levels of beneficial minerals. ” www. dosomething. org (Accessed 27/09/12). These findings clarify that my second interviewee’s opinion is wide spread on behalf of health issues throughout our consumers of organic produce.

While many people insist organic foods contain more health benefits, according to university studies, ‘overall, there was no discernible difference between the nutritional content, although the organic food was 30% less likely to contain pesticides. ’ www. bbc. co. uk (Accessed 19/09/12). This information emphasizes my mother’s statement about “little quality compromised” this also highlights her point that we pay more for less, in more aspects than one, perhaps maybe even including our vitamins and minerals. There are many unknown benefits of organic food that provides a great advantage over non-organic produce.

Many of these advantages are in connection with health, especially “children and foetuses who are most vulnerable to pesticide exposure due to their less-developed immune systems and because their bodies and brains are still developing. Exposure at an early age can cause developmental delays, behavioural disorders, and motor dysfunction. ” www. helpguide. org (Accessed 27/09/12) As well as organic food differing from non-organic foods in nutrition they also differ in price, the reason for organic produce being more expensive to buy ‘is that agro¬chemicals are designed to make food cheaper to produce.

Agro¬chemicals were not developed with nutrition, taste or the ecology in mind. The chemical designers’ remit was to make mass production of food cheaper. So what we get is a cheap but inferior product. ’ www. organicfoodee. com (Accessed 02/10/12) Much of this extra cost is due to the products necessary for produce to be classified as organic. A statement from Humphrey feeds revealed ‘organic wheat is costing us currently about 245 pound a tonne, whereas conventional wheat, most of what we had bought is about 120 pound a tonne,’ showing the costs implicated on organic producers.

(Food Programme, BBC Radio 4, 12th Oct 2008) In my opinion organic foods are of a much better quality, taste and are generally less harming to the environment, this is severely reflected in their price and in many cases has extreme effects on food choices. ‘Organic farming has always tried to anticipate the challenges farmers are now facing, such as payments, and now the Nitrate and Phosphate Regulations. Organic farming has a less intensive nature and integrated approach, so organic producers have generally been able to meet these challenges without too much difficulty. ’ www. dardni. gov.uk (Accessed 02/10/12).

This statement from the Department of Agriculture makes reference to the differences in farming techniques and the problems faced by non-organic producers, but to a certain extent organic farming goes back to nature, for example, farmers use crop rotation to fertilise the soil increasing stores of carbon in the soil, eventually ‘we could offset at least 23% of agriculture’s greenhouse emissions. ’ www. soilassociation. org (Accessed 19/09/12). This refers to mainly non-organic producers; however organic producers face hefty stipulation over what they can and can’t do.

In particular the Department of Agriculture imply a regulation in which the period of slurry spreading is suited to the weather. An article from a farming newspaper last week read; ‘The closed period is due to come into operation on October 15, after which farmers caught spreading slurry would normally face prosecution. (Farm Week, September 27th, 2012). This has a greater impact on organic producers due to their lack of permitted resources, implicating that they can only fertilise soil at particular times throughout the year compared to non-organic producers, nonetheless in my opinion this has great consideration for the environment.

In regards to helping the environment ‘organic farming practices use 30% less energy, less water, and obviously no pesticides,’ hence reduces groundwater pollution. www. thechicecologist. com (Accessed 02/10/12) In conclusion, I have found my research on organic food to be practical and obtained from a range of different sources to give adequate reasons for purchasing and consuming organic produce.

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Sustainable agriculture Essay

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Sustainable agriculture Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 2126

  • Pages: 9

Sustainable agriculture

While shopping at the market everyone experiences the same thought: “Organic or regular? ” If one does decide to go organic, a few things come to mind: Is organic worth the price? How do I know if it really is organic? Why should I buy the organic five-dollar raspberries, while the normal raspberries are only two dollars? These are thoughts that strike every one’s minds while shopping at their local super market. The majority of people would turn away from organic products due to the price. Not only is the price a factor, but people also like the consistency of their normal brand products.

Recently moving out myself, I have become very much aware of the money I spend on groceries. Even though it may seem like health comes at a price, it is a price I am willing to pay. This is a decision that could potentially affect people’s lives, yet is constantly being ignored due to the price of organic foods. The society we live in today has evolved greatly. Today, we are experiencing a green/organic movement. Many people wonder about the origin of this movement. In the early twentieth century, all food was organically grown. However, people didn’t know any different. Organic food was simply food.

As genetic engineering replaced organic farming, no one thought of purposely putting chemical spray to enhance crop growth and yield. The only concern of the farmers was how they could be more efficient in a less costly way. As petro-chemical industries began to rise in the early 1900’s, agricultural research shifted its focus to which chemicals were needed in order to promote plant and animal growth (Callaghan par. 6). These chemicals were convenient because they came from finite resources. At first, these chemicals sounded like a brilliant idea: they were efficient, cheap, and easily accessible.

Genetic engineers did not know what a horrible effect these chemicals would cause, but soon became a problem they couldn’t ignore. There was a reaction against chemical-induced food led by Rudolf Steiner, who reintroduced organic farming in the late twentieth century. It was people like Steiner who reinstated the healthier lifestyle that most people wish to take part in today, such as the green movement (Callaghan par. 7). Some people may find themselves buying organic foods mainly because everyone else is, although most people do not know what organic foods really are.

Like them, I did not have a true understanding of what organic foods were until I researched them. Organic foods and products are produced without the “use of most synthetic fertilizers, sewage sludge, pesticides, antibiotics, added growth hormones, ionizing radiation, or genetic modification” (Reinke par. 3). The fields where the food grows must be free of any prohibited material for three years before the soil can be used to grow organic crops. Since 2002, organic food and farming have been regulated by the USDA National Organic Program (Reinke par.3).

Animals are also allowed to grow as naturally as possible without any synthetic growth hormones. Livestock must eat organically grown food, as well as spend their time in pastures instead of constricting buildings (Reinke par. 4). It is important for people to be aware of what is going into their own bodies; in fact, it is their right. People need to realize that what they have been eating for years has been harmful to their bodies. Most consumers are oblivious to what they put into their bodies and the processed junk that surrounds us daily.

Organic production is an inevitable factor that easily accommodates the everyday healthy lifestyles for which our society yearns. Living in a society that thrives in this green movement really makes us consider the pros and cons of organic foods. The benefits of practicing an organic lifestyle largely out weigh the disadvantages of the hormone-induced diet that most consume. The overall gain we cannot ignore is that organic foods are proven to be healthier for you rather than the conventionally grown food, which undergoes many unnatural resources.

According to Andre Leu, in a scientific study, scientists have finally proven that organic food is healthier; they found that organically grown food was on average 63 percent higher in calcium, 73 percent higher in iron, 118 percent higher in magnesium,178 percent higher in molybdenum, 91 percent higher in phosphorus, 125 percent higher in potassium, and 60 percent higher in zinc. In addition, the organic food was on average 29 percent lower in mercury than the conventionally raised food (Leu 1).

Therefore, people don’t need to purchase organic food just because they believe it is healthier for them and their families; studies show that organic food is in fact much richer in vitamins and protein than we believe. Along with the overall benefit of healthier options, organic foods have higher levels of cancer-fighting antioxidants. A recent study from an article published in February 2003Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry claimed, “organically grown corn, strawberries and marionberries have significantly higher levels of cancer-fighting antioxidants than conventionally grown foods” (Leu 1).

Researchers also claim the compounds that make up these antioxidants include flavonoids, which carry potent antioxidant activities. These flavonoids are phenolic compounds “which are produced by plants in response to environmental stress, such as insects or competing plants. They are protective compounds that act as a plant’s natural defense and also have protective properties in human and animal health” (Leu 1). Research suggests that these pesticides and herbicides disrupt the developmental process of these protective compounds.

In contrast, proper “soil nutrition appears to increase the levels of these natural compounds that have anti-cancer, immune-boosting, and anti aging properties” (Leu 1). Those couple extra dollars on groceries could be those extra years on your life. The most dangerous difference between organic and conventional foods is the use of pesticides that conventional foods contain. The pesticides are horrible chemicals such as fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides. Consumers do not realize the damage that these pesticides contain and how they have become harmful for everyone.

The reason they are so dangerous is because they affect everyone, especially children and fetuses. Children and fetuses are most vulnerable to “pesticide exposure due to their less-developed immune systems and because their bodies are still developing” (Paul Et al, par. 10). This exposure is a serious threat because it can cause development delays, behavioral disorders, and motor dysfunction. Not only are children and fetuses at risk, pregnant women are highly vulnerable as well.

This is because pregnant women do not need the “added stress pesticides put on their already taxed organs” (Paul Et al, par. 11). Another reason pregnant women are susceptible is because pesticides can be passed on from mother to womb, even potentially through breast feeding (Paul Et al, par. 11) This exposure “can cause delayed effects on the nervous system, even years after the initial exposure”(Paul Et al, par. 11) The one danger that we have already encountered is the accumulation after years and years of being exposed to pesticides.

This horrible chemical is the source of birth defects, headaches, and even added strain on our weakened immune systems. Most conventional foods do not state the harmful pesticides on the label; it is up to the consumers to be aware of the fact that these companies have been using pesticides. With so many of us affected by these repulsive chemicals, you would think that everyone would be willing to spend those few extra dollars. Another negative aspect of conventional foods that requires consideration is the amount of nitrates the food contains.

According to Leu, “the use of soluble chemical fertilizers has resulted in high nitrate concentrations in many conventionally farmed foods, especially fruit and vegetables”(2). The extraction of these fertilizers also contains high nitrate levels in our drinking water systems. Nitrates can “impair the ability of the blood to carry oxygen and may pose a risk of methmoglobinemia, a condition that can occur in infants and adults with a diminished capability to secrete gastric acid”(Leu 2). Conventional farms basically produce poison that we ingest because they are cheaper than organic foods.

These farmers are not only poisoning food, but drinking water as well. Not only is organic food considerably healthier for everyone, but organic food just tastes better. Organic foods are much tastier than your average conventional foods due to the fact that organic foods are fresher. Conventional foods contain preservatives that ultimately make the food last longer, but organic foods do not, creating a rich, fresh taste in every bite. In order for organic foods not to have nasty preservatives in them, they usually come from small farms.

Since most of these farms are local, they only need to be transferred a short distance, not cross-country like conventional foods. Another benefit of organically grown foods is that they are better for the environment. For example, “Organic farming practices reduce pollution (air, water, soil), conserve water, reduce soil erosion, increase soil fertility, and use less energy”(Paul par. 14). Not only do human’s benefit, but also birds and small animals, due to the fact that organic farms do not use pesticides, making it easier for birds and small animals to reproduce.

People should want to help the environment as well their health. Unlike the conventional farms, organically raised animals are not given antibiotics, growth hormones, and are not fed animal byproducts. “The use of antibiotics in conventional meat production helps create antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria (Paul par. 15). This means that when someone gets sick from these strains they will not be as responsive to the antibiotic treatment. Also, when animals are fed other animal byproducts they are more susceptible to mad cow disease.

Not only do organic farms not practice any of these methods, but their animals are not caged in small pins. Instead, they are allowed to roam freely and as naturally as they can. When animals are stuck in small cages with lots of other fellow animals, they are more likely to become sick, and have a greater chance of catching diseases. Organic farms do not believe in treating their animals poorly, but rather they wish to treat their animals as naturally as possible, unlike the inhumane conventional farms.

Organic farms do their best in order to value mother nature’s course; they want their crops, meats, fruit, and vegetables to be extremely natural. There are a few ways these farmers precede to do so. For example, instead of using pesticides to keep the insects away, organic farmers use nets and fly traps. Organic farms also use natural fertilizers, such as manure and compost, as opposed to conventional farms that use synthetic or chemical fertilizers. One method conventional farmers use is genetic engineering and modification to make their crops grow faster and larger.

Conventional farms use chemical herbicides in order to control weeds, while on the other hand, organic farms take a more naturalapproach, such as crop rotation, hand weeding, mulching, and tilling. Organic farms try to do their best in order to keep our food that we ingest as natural as possible. When this is done, we are proven to live not only healthier but longer lives as well. Why would people want to even consume these poisonous foods that cause cancer and ultimately harm us? Their ignorance is a threat to themselves.

The benefits of organic farming and its products overwhelmingly exceed those of conventional food. Buying organic products not only helps our health but is beneficial to our environment as well. Organic is an easy, healthy, and green way to live. It is important for people to be more aware of what they put into their bodies. People have become so oblivious to the poison they are consuming, and unfortunately still very few people consider the benefits of organic products. Too many people neglect organic products due to the fact that they are more expensive than the average conventional foods, these extra few dollars could potentially be saving your life and your environment.

Buying organic foods not only makes you feel better knowing about what is going into your body, but also makes you feel better because you know your contributing to the community with each product you buy. So next time you are at the market and you contemplate whether or not the organic strawberries are worth five dollars, think about what good your doing to your body and environment. After writing this paper myself, I now know for sure that the expense is well worth it.

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Sustainable agriculture Essay

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Sustainable agriculture Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 4077

  • Pages: 16

Sustainable agriculture

In spite of the increasing popularity of Organic food these days, most of the people do not have a clear idea regarding the definition of organic food. In simple words, Organic foods are those foods that are produced, processed and packaged without using chemicals. They have been accepted due to their perceived health benefits over conventional food. The organic industry is growing rapidly and has caught the attention of farmers, manufacturers and, above all, consumers.

Some of the popular organic food items include organic tea, organic coffee, organic wine, organic meat, organic beef, organic milk, organic honey, organic vegetables, organic fruits, organic rice, organic corn, organic herbs, organic essential oils, organic coconut oil and organic olive oil. Organic foods protect from heart disease and cancer, as they contain Phenolic compounds. Organic food ensures high food quality, which other conventional foods cannot give. Organic food is natural and fresh, and thus, it is tasty. Many people prefer to grow organic food in their home gardens, because it costs about 20% more than the conventional food.

Organic gardening uses organic seeds, organic fertilizers, compost, organic root stimulators, and organic pest control. It has been claimed by health experts that organic food is more nutritious. Some of the features that can be associated with organic food are quality, good taste, proper selection of crop varieties etc. Advantages of Organic food • Organically grown foods are natural, without any sprayed chemical. • Organically grown foods are nutritious and full of taste although they may not look as colorful and well presented as shop produce.

• Organic foods put less burden on environment. Growing foods organically can protect the topsoil from erosion and is a great way of getting closer to nature. Some people believe that organic food is only a “concept” popular in the developed countries. They think that when it comes to organic food, India only exports organic food and very little is consumed. However, this is not true. Though 50% of the organic food production inindia is targeted towards exports, there are many who look towards organic food for domestic consumption.

Acnielsen, a leading market research firm, recently surveyed about 21,000 regular Internet users in 38 countries to find their preference for functional foods – foods that have additional health benefits. The survey revealed that India was among the top ten countries where health food, including organic food, was demanded by the consumers. The most important reason for buying organic food was the concern for the health of children, with over 66 percent parents preferring organic food to non organic food.

Though organic food is priced over 25 percent more than conventional food in India, many parents are willing to pay this higher premium due to the perceived health benefits of organic food. The increase in organic food consumption in India is evident from the fact that many organic food stores are spurring up in India. Today (2006) every supermarket has an organic food store and every large city in India has numerous organic food stores and restaurants. This is a huge change considering that the first organic food store in Mumbai was started in 1997.

What do Indian organic food consumers prefer? The pattern of organic food consumption in India is much different than in the developed countries. In India, consumers prefer organic marmalade, organic strawberry, organic tea, organic honey, organic cashew butter and various organic flours. However, the Indian organic food consumer needs education. There are many consumers who are unaware of the difference between natural and organic food. Many people purchase products labeled as Natural thinking that they are Organic.

Further, consumers are not aware of the certification system. Food purchasing behavior With incomes growing, the standard of living is improving. Increasingly, consumers are now realizing the importance of the impact of food on their health and well-being. The modern Indian lifestyles and lifestyle-related diseases, as well as limited time to cook at home, are also expected to create demand for health and wellness products in the coming years. These factors, coupled with environmental issues and growing resistance towards genetically modified food products, are predicted to accelerate growth in the organic food category.

Indian consumers currently spend a large portion of their income on food. Nearly 45 percent of consumption expenditures go for food (51 percent in rural areas and 39 percent in urban areas). In urban areas, the consumption of processed and ready-to-eat (RTE) or convenience foods is higher due to relatively higher disposable incomes, exposure to a greater variety of processed foods, a preference for quick meals, and familiarity with foreign foods or cuisines.

Rural consumers tend to prefer traditional Indian foods prepared at home, but exposure to processed foods is increasing even in rural areas. Demand for premium high-value foods such as chocolates, almonds and other dried nuts, cakes and pastries, imported fruits, fruit juices, and Indian sweets peaks during the fall festive and wedding seasons. With the penetration of modern retailing in the suburbs and semi-urban areas, more and more Indians have access to retail shops carrying organic food products.

Shopping habits Indian consumers traditionally purchase their daily food needs from small neighborhood stores and vendors because of convenience, perceived freshness, and limited refrigeration and storage space at home. Consumers of organic and health foods generally purchase these food items through modern retail outlets. Quality is considered important, but there is a reluctance to pay a premium.

With the penetration of retail outlets in larger cities, suburbs, and semi-urban areas, more and more Indians are gaining exposure to them. A growing number of people in urban areas are widely traveled and have experienced international cuisines and branded food products.

These consumer groups (often young professionals) have higher levels of disposable income, and generally prefer making weekly purchases of fresh and processed foods and branded products. In general, women do most of the shopping and make most of the food purchasing decisions. In households that can afford hired help, servants often do much of the shopping. Availability of many fresh foods, particularly fruits and vegetables, is seasonal, and people are accustomed to adjusting their diet to the season.

A typical Indian household will make regular purchases of wheat flours, pulses, edible oils, ghee (clarified butter), dairy items (milk, butter, yogurt, paneer (a local cheese)), spices and condiments, pickles, noodles, snack foods, jams and jellies, ketchup and sauces, and health drinks. Most packaged food items are sold in small containers to keep pricing low example is here Natural Mantra • Started November 2011 • Investment Rs 10 lakh • Working with NGOs and other social entrepreneurs who make natural and organic products • Social Impact Besides promoting eco friendly products, creating a window for others to sell *** Where would you go for bright lipsticks made with honey, ghee and kokum butter?

Or mosquito repellent diffusers with peppermint, citronella and lemongrass? Do you have a source for laundry soaps without added chemicals, organic and natural honey and whole wheat pasta? Some net-savvy consumers do — they go to the Natural Mantra e-store to choose from its 2,000-odd eco-friendly, all-natural products across categories like body care, food, home care, kids products, eco fashion and gifts. The site gets some 1,000 visitors every day and Nishant Nayak, who founded the company in 2011 and is its CEO, says he gets about 100 orders every month.

“The average ticket size has grown to about Rs 1,000 and the number of orders is doubling every month,” he adds. Natural Mantra is a result of Nishant and his wife’s struggle to find natural products for their daughter while they were in the US, where he worked with Ebay as a product manager. The infant had eczema and commercial lotions only irritated her skin further. Thus began their quest to find a non-toxic solution. The Nayaks began by carefully reading labels to identify chemicals, spoke with doctors and scoured the internet to make the right choice.

But when they returned to India in 2011 after a five-year stint in the US, they found that unlike the US, where natural products are easily available, there was no dedicated website or store here. “We had become used to living an organic lifestyle in the US as we found the products more healthy and clean.

But in India it is very difficult to lead such a lifestyle,” says Nayak, who quit his job as GM of product and analytics with futurebazar, the digital arm of Future Group, last year to set up this company.consumer perception The demand for environmentally friendly products such as organic foods has significantly increased due to increasing awareness on health, food safety and environmental concerns (Loureiro et al. , 2001, Nair, 2005; Briz and Ward, 2009).

Awareness and knowledge has become critical factor in changing the attitude and behaviour of consumers towards organic foods, which in turn is expected to drive the growth in the organic food markets (Soler et al. , 2008; Freeland-Graves and Nitzke, 2002).

Several studies have investigated the knowledge, awareness, attitude and behaviour of consumers towards organic food in both developed and developing countries (Chakrabarti, 2007; Compagnoni et al. , 2000; Cunningham, 2002). It has been argued that the consumer awareness & knowledge as well as consumption of organic foods are significantly higher in developed countries as compared to developing countries. In countries like India, where organic food markets are still in the early phase of its growth, comparatively have low level of awareness (Squires, 2001).

In general, consumers have positive attitudes towards organic products and perceived as healthier than conventional alternatives (Chinnici et al. , 2002; Harper and Makatouni, 2002; O’Donovan and McCarthy, 2002; Radman, 2005). However, market size for organic foods remained low due to both supply and demand side constrains (O’Donovan and McCarthy, 2002; Hill and Lynchehaun, 2002; Magnusson et al. , 2001; Stefanic et al. , 2001; Gil et al. , 2000) In terms of the role of ‘brands’ in this segment , these are still early days and only a limited number of brands are available in the market.

However, these companies are generally unfamiliar to the consumers, so they feel unsure about what they are actually buying. They find it easy to remember the names of the stores from where they buy organic food since these stores usually also double as the places from where they typically make their household purchases. Some store brands recollected by consumers of fruits and dairy products for instance are Reliance Fresh, Organic Bazaar, Organic Heritage, Namdharis, Navdanya, Naturally Yours,Spencer’s, Easy Day, Prakiti Aarogya Kendra, Sahakari Bhandar and Godrej Nature’s Basket.

Indian consumers are living in a dynamic world these days. They are continuously coming across newthings in the world of food. Organic food is one such new phenomenon that is widely talked about but rarely understood. Organic Food Overall While buyers of organic food like to try new categories, they are yet to feel convinced enough to completely overhaul their purchase patterns. The typical product categories that they prefer to purchase are usually perishable goods – fruits & vegetables and dairy products.

This pattern hints towards consumers’ concern regarding the quality of regular varieties currently available in these categories –as fresh products, the need for ‘freshness’ and ‘quality’ is paramount in consumers’ minds. While organic food is certainly perceived as a healthy option, there is lack of clear understanding among consumers as regards their exact health impact. Recent debates in the public sphere about the freshness and quality of regular food products have made consumers more aware about the possible adverse effects of such products.

Therefore, the health benefit they expect from organic food stem from the fact that organic products do not contain harmful chemicals or pesticides and are grown in hygienic conditions. However, even considering the perceived health benefit, consumers are currently in a confused state of mind about the actual meaning and implication of “organic”. They are also not clear about the difference offered by products labelled ‘organic’ or ‘natural’. While a select few understand the ‘organic’ category in terms of factors related to its production, farming, packaging etc. , overall there is a huge blank in consumers’ minds about the same.

This gap is even wider for non-users of organic food, i. e. people who have never bought any kind of organic food till date. DATA REQUIRED TO LAUNCH THE PRODUCT The Indian consumer is becoming more and more conscious about their health; the Indian market in offering increasing potential for health friendly food segments such as that of organic food. Organic food serves as a promising alternative for the population concerned about the consequences of high amounts of chemical infusions in food items – both in terms of self – consumption as well as the ill impact on the environment.

The affinity of an individual towards consumption of organic food items is highly dependent on the awareness levels, spending capacity and accessibility available to the individual. Market Size: The market for organic food is extremely nascent in India at present, with very few active brands and low penetration even among urban consumers. Estimated Market size of organic fruits and dairy products at present is US$ 80 million and US$ 20 million respectively.

Organic fruits and dairy products are expected to grow at a CAGR of 13-14% and 10-11% respectively over the next five to six years[pic] [pic] [pic] Buyers – Reasons for Purchase The main reasons stated by consumers for buying both organic fruits and dairy products are similar – health (both personal and family’s), absence of harmful chemicals & pesticides, freshness and taste.

Other factors that play a role in purchasing organic produce and dairy products include word of mouth (including recommendations from friends, relatives and store staff), specific health ailments & recommendations from medical practitioners, and a sense of environmental responsibility (as these are perceived as good for the environment in terms of eco-friendly production methods). [pic] IMPORTANT DATA The market for organic food products in India is growing at 20-22% a year, a top official from Yes Bank has said.

“The market for organic foods is growing at an compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 20-22%,” Yes Bank’s Country Head, Food and Agribusiness, Girish Aivalli told PTI. With rising spending power of the growing middle class in the country and increased awareness towards chemical free food, organic and natural products sector will grow significantly in the coming years, he added.

Yes Bank also released a report ‘Indian Organic Foods Market’ at a one-day conference, Jaivik India, on proliferation of organic and natural products in the Indian market. The report said the global organic food and beverages market is expected to grow from $57. 2 billion in 2010 to $104. 5 billion by 2015 with a CAGR of 12. 8%. Europe contributed to the largest share of the organic foods market in 2010 with revenue of $27. 8 billion, the report added. The Asia-Pacific organic food market had a total revenue of $3. 5 billion in 2010 and had a CAGR of 16.

2% between 2006-2010, it said. On India, the report said that the market for organic food including exports is currently valued at Rs 1,000 crore. The report added that the country produced around 3. 88 million tonne of certified organic products that includes basmati, pulses, tea, coffee, spices and oilseeds. Organic foods industry presently is metro-based, with about 95% of the brands existing in top 10 metros like Delhi (NCR), Kolkata, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Bengaluru and other tier II cities, it said. According to government data, area under organic farming had risen to 1.08 million hectare. In addition, 3. 40 million hectare is wild forest harvest collection area.

The states doing well in organic farming are Madhya Pradesh (4. 40 lakh hectare), Maharashtra (1. 50 lakh hectare) and Orissa (95,000 hectare), the data added. Among crops, cotton is the single largest crop accounting for nearly 40% of total area followed by rice, pulses, oilseeds and spices. India is the largest organic cotton grower in world, and accounts for 50% share of total world organic cotton production, it said.

Government is promoting organic farming under National Project on Organic Farming (NPOF), National Horticulture Mission (NHM) and Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY). Market Size by Product Segments: Apple, Mango, Orange and Banana, together account for the majority share in the overall market size of organic fruits at about 75-80%. Milk and Curd, together account for 45-50% of the overall market size of organic dairy products. These products are expected to continue being the more popular ones within their respective categories, over the next five to six years. Market Size by Geography:

Cities classified as Metro and Mini metro, together are major contributors to both organic fruits and organic dairy products (85-90%). This pattern is expected to continue over the next five to ten years, post which the trend may percolate to smaller cities in India (primarily Tier I cities). Price of Purchase – Organic Fruits and Dairy Products: Overall, consumers pay higher for organic varieties of fruits and dairy products compared to their regular varieties. The high prices do not allow these organic products to become part of regular household consumption as they greatly impact the month food budget.

This consequently results in low purchase frequency among consumers of organic food and low penetration. Place of Purchase – Organic Fruits and Dairy Products: Consumer behavior varies in terms of place of purchase between regular and organic varieties. While regular varieties are commonly purchased from any of the local retail options, the organic varieties on the other hand are purchased from organised stores – this pattern is a likely result of local stores not stocking organic varieties.

Apart from that, consumers themselves prefer to purchase organic varieties from organised stores – they are skeptical about local neighborhood stores selling authentic products. They also enjoy the experience of shopping in organised stores for these organic products. Purchase Process – Organic Fruits and Dairy Products: These categories are characterised by high personal involvement from the consumers in deciding and buying – only a few products such as milk or other daily use dairy products are delivered regularly to the consumers’ doorsteps by milkman or local retailers.

For other products such as fruits, consumers prefer to touch & feel before purchasing them. This behavior is similar across regular and organic varieties of fruits and dairy products. Need Gap Assessment: The organic food market has three key areas of addressable need gaps basis the importance assigned and satisfaction derived by consumers to various parameters that play a role in purchase decision making. Firstly, there are certain critical areas that have a significant impact on consumers’ decision making namely – availability, price points, certifications and information.

This area is currently characterised by ‘high importance and low satisfaction’ for consumers of organic food. Second area of need gap is characterised by certain parameters that are seen as an integral part of the concept of organic food – health benefit, freshness and taste. These are the basic factors that need to be in place to induce purchase or enhance product experience – currently they are placed by consumers at ‘high/ moderate importance and high/ moderate satisfaction’. Third area of need gap is the least significant currently as it is characterised by ‘low importance and low satisfaction’.

These set of factors of – visual appeal and portion size/ quantity – can play an increasingly important role in future to enable multiple brands to differentiate themselves. COMPETITOR ANALYSIS A list of organic food brands available in Delhi NCR, along with their websites. This list is growing at great speed, and we’re trying hard to keep it up to date! 1. Navdanya Navdanya started as a program founded by world-renowned scientist and environmentalist Dr. Vandana Shiva, to provide direction and support to environmental activism.

Its main aim is to support local farmers, rescue and conserve crops and plants that are being pushed to extinction and make them available through direct marketing. This is one of the oldest and most trusted brand of organic food available in India. 2. 24 Letter Mantra This is an organic food brand of Sresta Natural Bioproducts Pvt. Ltd. incorporated in the year 2004. It is headquartered in Hyderabad and has over 300 retail food products. The products are certified for EU 2092/91, NOP (USDA) and NPOP (Government of India) standards. 3. Down to earth.

This is a brand from the Morarka Group, which has moved from being in the back end of the value chain for 10 years, to retailing of certified organic products. Down To Earth is certified by OneCert Asia Agri. Certification Pvt. Ltd. (a subsidiary of One Cert Inc. USA) as per NOP (USDA), NPOP (Government of India) and EU Standards for Organic Certification. Apart from food, they also do organic cotton clothes and bed linen, as well as soaps and other toiletries. 4. Orgavita This is a brand from the Jaipur based company Nature’s Bounty Dairy Ltd.

Apart from pulses, grains & spices, they also do fresh fruits and vegetables. Orgavita products retail at Spencers, Easy Day and Nature’s Basket outlets. 5. Organic India Organic India has a commitment to promote holistic sustainable development through organic agriculture. It is a global leader in promoting organic products and in supporting sustainable farming, wild crafting and village/tribal agricultural communities in India. Their facilities and processing centers have been awarded SQF, HACCP, GMP, ISO-9001 and Kosher certifications, and are EU, Skal, ECO-Cert and USDA certified for organic production.

Their products include organic teas, herbal supplements, syrups, desi ghee and chavanprash. 6. Fabindia Fabindia range includes textile based products, home products, Organic Food Products and personal care products (of which some are organic). In their organic range, they cover several types of cereals, grains, pulses, spices, sugar, tea, coffee, honey, fruit preserves and herbs, at affordable prices. 7. Conscious Foods The company sources most of its products from small organic farms and farming communities all over the country.

Conscious Food targets its products specifically at discerning customers who demand, and are willing to pay for genuinely natural and organic food products. They have an elaborate product range that covers cereals, pulses, spices, oils, seeds, snacks etc. 8. Dubden Greens This was set up to market organic, herbal and eco-friendly products – at retails stores in larger markets and at their own flagship store at Shahpur Jat in Delhi. They cover grains, pulses, spices etc, and even have fresh produce. They also have a small section of organic cotton textiles. 9. The Altitude Store.

This store also has a comprehensive range of natural and organic foods – grains, pulses, spices, oils, snacks etc, and you can also order online from them. 10. Green Fiesta This company started in 2005 out of Sonepat, Haryana, and covers an array of products like cereals, pulses, spices etc. Their farming practices, processing and products are certified by Control Union Certifications, Netherlands. 11. i2cook i2cook sells Homemade Peanut Butter, Mustard, Granola Bars & Pesto made of organic ingredients. i2cook’s main motive is to deliver quality & assure you that their products tastes much better than the factory processed ones.

The products are available in many stores in Mumbai, and they have their own store in Bangalore. 12. Nourish Organics A company that believes in creating the organic ready to make snacks, cereals and trail mixes, their products are available in stores across India. 13. C Greens A small company with a big idea – Consume Green wants to revive and preserve traditional food habits. They incorporate millets, healthy seeds and oils into conveniently packed cookies, laddoos, snacks, seed mixes etc. Their products are available in Delhi, Mumbai, Chandigarh and Himachal. 14.

Soul Tree Skin, hair & bath care range made from Organic herbs & natural origin ingredients, and born out of extensive research firmly rooted in the principles of Ayurveda. No artificial colours, fragrances or harmful preservatives are used. Sold at stores and online on their website. 15. Omved Cosmetics Omved offers over 1,000 organic, non-toxic products handmade by master artisans and tribal craftsmen to ‘heal, purify, rejuvenate and center you’, as per Vedic traditions. These products are chemical free, natural, handcrafted, fair trade, made in India and biodegradable.

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Sustainable agriculture Essay

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Sustainable agriculture Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 4876

  • Pages: 20

Sustainable agriculture

Organic agriculture has been increased rapidly world wide in last few years. The global organic food sale was estimated to be US$26 billion in 2003. Japan has the third largest market for organic foods after EU and the USA. In Asia total area under organic management shared only 0. 33 percent in six continents of the world, however it increased to be 4 percent in 2004 which is a ten-fold increase in 3 years.

According to IFOAM (2003), land area under organic management in Asia was the largest in China (301,295 ha) followed by Indonesia (40,000ha), Sri Lanka (15,215 ha), Japan (5,083 ha), Thailand (3,429 ha), Pakistan (2,009), Taiwan (1,092 ha), Republic of Korea (902 ha) and Malaysia (131 ha). Organic standard law is essential to ensure the quality of organic product. Recently, Japan revised its organic standard regulations into more strict legislated law in which a penalty measure is added to punish the violators of organic labeling regulations.

Other Asian countries (China, India, Israel, Republic of Korea, Taiwan and Thailand) also implemented their own organic regulations but not yet put in legislation to be an official law. Malaysia finalized regulation, but not yet fully implemented, while Indonesia, Malaysia and other Asian countries are either in process of drafting regulations or no action is taken at all. In Taiwan, Council of Agriculture officially accredited three NGOs as the Organic Food Certification Organizations in Taiwan. Until June 2003, a total of 1092.

4 hectares of land were certified by these organizations to be organic farms to produce various organic foods (rice, vegetables, fruits, tea and others). Import of organic foods mainly from Japan and USA is increasing in Taiwan in recent years. The imported and locally produced organic foods are sold through supermarket, organic healthy food stores, and agribusiness scale chain stores and through e-commerce. Although Taiwan has its official version of organic standard promulgated in 2003, however, there is no penalty regulation for the violators of the law for organic labeling.

This will cast doubt of the consumers whether the organic foods on the market are really organically grown. Modern agriculture depends on high input of chemical fertilizer and pesticides for crop production. Although such technology based agricultural practice has increased agricultural productivity and abundance, the resulting ecological and economical impacts have not always been positive. Environmental pollution and food safety due to chemical contamination become the great concern worldwide.

In order to cope with this problem, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) proposed “The World Food Summit Plan of Action (1999)” in recognition with the importance of developing alternative sustainable agriculture such as organic farming. The goal of Action Plan is to reduce environmental degradation while creating income from the farming operation. Organic farming is an integrated farming system which involved technical aspects (soil. agronomy, weed and pest management) and economic aspects (input, output and marketing) as well as human health.

Chemical free safety foods produced from the organic farms are widely welcomed by the consumers around the world today, especially in North America, Europe, South America, Asia and Oceania. Due to the great global market demand, production of organic foods is increasing rapidly in past decades. According to Hanuman (2003) of Organic Trade Association (OTA), US retail sales of organic foods and beverages, which have grown approximately 20-24 % per year for the past 12 years, are estimated to have reached slightly US$ 11 billion during 2002, representing about 2 percent of overall US retail food sales.

The US market is expected to continue to grow, particularly after full implementation of national organic standards. According to estimation, the sale of organic products in North America and Europe will reach US$105 billion in 2006. Organic production is also becoming a booming industry in Asia and Oceania. The area of organic farm in Japan increased to 5,083 hectares which produced organic foods at a value of US$3. 5 million in 2003. In Taiwan the area of certified organic farm increased from 159. 6 hectares in 1996 to 1,092. 4 hectares in 2003. Australia has a total organic area of 10,500,000 hectares which is the largest in the world.

Other Asian countries like China, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia, the area of organic farming is rising from year to year. There are strict organic certification laws in the Unites States, EU, Australia and Japan, and each has its own official organic law which serves the sole guideline for high quality organic production. While other Asian countries like China, India, Israel, Thailand and Taiwan although have their own official version of organic standards and rules, but not yet become the legislated laws to put penalty for the violators.

Most of other Asian countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore even do not have organic standards yet (IFOAM 2003). This paper is to look into the present situation of global organic production and marketing, including that of the Unites States and European countries. The paper is specially focusing on the recent development of organic farming in the Asian countries, including Japan, China, Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam.

Taiwan experience of organic production and marketing system are reviewed in more detail with the most recent available data. The positive and negative factors affecting development of organic production and marketing in Asia such as certification system are discussed. 1. Overview of global organic farming According to SOL-Survey, Oceania has the largest share (48. 51%) of total area under organic management in 2001. The share is reduced to be 42 percent in 2004. This is due to the expansion of organic farming in Asia from 0. 33 percent in 2001 to 4 percent in 2004 which is ten fold increases in three years.

The area of the farm under organic management in Latin America shared 20 percent in 2001 and increased to be 24 percent in 2004 which is the second largest organic area after Oceania. Europe shared 23. 58 percent in 2001 and 23 percent in 2004. Europe remained to be the same rate of shares between the year of 2001 (23. 58 %) and 23 % (2004) which is the third largest continent to grow organic products in the world. North America shared 6 percent in 2004, which is the fourth largest continent to grow organic crops in the world.

It is worth noticing that the natural resource poor African continent is increasing its operation of organic farming in recent years. The total area under organic management in Africa shared a small portion of 0. 14 percent in 2001 and increased to 1 percent in 2004 (Figures 1). Ten countries with the largest land area under organic management in 2003 include Australia (10,500,000 ha), Argentina (3,192,000 ha), Italy (1,230,000 ha), USA (950,000 ha), England (679,631 ha), Uruguay (678,481 ha), Germany (632,165 ha), Spain (485. 079 ha), Canada (430,600 ha) and France (419,750 ha).

The land under organic management in the world increased drastically from 2000 to 2003. The increase of organic farm in Australia contributed greatly to the largest share of organic farm in Oceania (from 654,924 ha in 2000 to10,500, 000 ha in 2003). Uruguay becomes the world sixth largest area of 678,481 hectares in 2004 pushing Austria out the top ten countries( No 9 in 2000) (Figures 2). According to Organic Consumers’ Association (2004), the world markets for organic foods and beverages are the largest in the USA with the retail sales of US$11,000-13,000 million in 2003. The annual growth is expected to be 0. 5 percent.

Europe has a retail sale of US$10,000-11,000 million in 2003 with the expected annual growth of 10-15 percent in 2003-2005. Japan has a retail sale of US$350-450 million in 2003 with the expected annual growth of 5-10 percent. Australia has the largest share of organic farm in the world; the organic products are mainly exported to Europe, USA and Japan. It has US$75-100 million retail sale within the country with the expected annual growth of 10-20 percent in 2003-2005. Global total retail sale in 2003 was estimated to be US$23,000-25,000 (Table 1). Table 1. Overview of world markets for organic foods and beverages in 2003 Markets.

Retail sales 2003 (million US$) Annual growth 2003-2005 (%) USA 11,000-13000 0-5 Europe(Total) 10,000-11,000 10-15 Canada 650-1,000 5-10 Japan 350-450 5-10 Oceania 75-100 10-20 Total 23,000-25,000 Source: Organic Consumers’ Association (2004) Organic agriculture is established worldwide and in many countries and regulated by local governments and non-government certification organizations. The international non-government organization IFORM (International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements) plays an important role in pushing organic agriculture in the scene of world.

IFOAM has 527 member organizations in 92 countries, including 58 in Germany, 22 in the United States, 13 in Argentina, 5 in Austria, 4 in New Zealand, 12 in Israel, 1 in China, 1 in Republic of Korea and 1 in Taiwan. Europe and Japan are the main importers of the organic products. The Japanese market for organics has been more clearly defined, following the introduction of new organic law in 2001. In the emerging economies of East Asia, the market for organic products appears to be not very significant. In most East Asian countries, there are no regulations governing the production and marketing of organic food.

Although there may be some small opportunities for organic market in these countries, the lack of regulation will lead the people to doubt about the reliability of organic products in the markets. (Source: SOL-Survey. 2001) Source: SOL-Survey 2004 Figure 1. A comparison of share of each continent of total area under organic management between 2001 and 2004 Figure 2. Ten countries with the largest land area under organic management in 2003 Source: SOL-Survey, 2003. 2. Organic Production and marketing in the United States.

Organic farming in the United States was first started by the farmers and sold as the organic products as early as in 1940. “The Organic Farming Act of 1982” was first passed by the congress to serve as the guideline for organic production. This law was later revised into more detailed and strict regulation into “The Federal Organic Food Production Act of 1990” . Under this law, National Organic Standard Board was established. The Board is responsible to take measures to assure that food products labeled as “organic foods” or “made with organic ingredients” meet the strict organic standard across the United States.

Because of these measures, organic farming becomes the fastest growing agricultural industry in the United States at an increasing rate of 20-25 % every year since 1990. The sale of organic products in 2000 was US$ 7. 8 billion, organic livestock products amounted US$618 million, and organic processed products amounted US$170. 6 million. According to Foods Merchandiser (NFM), the total amount of sale of the organic products in the Unites States increased to US$10 billion in 2003 (Organic Consumers’ Association estimated to be US$11-13 billion in 2003).

According to Nutrition Business Journal (2000), Fresh vegetables and fruits occupied the largest portion of the sale in an amount of US$2,250 million, followed by non-dairy organic drinks (US$1,000 million), organic bread and cereals (US$850), organic packaged food (US$ 650 million) and organic dairy products (US$ 500 millions) in 2000 (Figure 3). They are sold at premium price of 8-200% over non-organic ordinary products (Table 2). Table 2. Premium of organic over non-organic cereals and soybean price in the USA 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001.

Corn 35 43 73 88 98 89 59 Soybean 114 85 141 202 217 175 177 Wheat 54 59 73 8 87 103 94 Oats 35 59 73 83 77 71 41 *Numbers in the table indicate higher rate of organic over no-organic products (1995-2000) Source: Bertramsen and Dobbs, 2002. A rise in the number of organic processing facilities has increased the variety of organic products available in the market place. Almost every food category had an organic version, vegetable-protein products, cereal, meat, and juices have the largest selection among the processed organic foods.

The main food categories for organic products in the United States are vegetables fruits, cereals, meats and dairy products. Organic dairy belongs to a large-growth category in the organic industry: its sales more than doubles between 1933 and 1994 to reach an estimated at US $24 million. (Dunn 1995). 3. Organic farming in Europe Since the beginnings of the 1990s, organic farming has developed very rapidly in almost all European countries. At the beginning of 2001, in the 25 EU countries as well as Bosnia, Herzegovina, Croatia and Yugoslavia more than 3. 7 million hectares of land were managed organically by more than 130,000 farms.

This constituted almost two percent of the agricultural area. In the European Union, between 1986 and 1996 the land under organic management grew annually by 30 percent. In Central and Eastern Europe, there is a strong increase in the number of organic farms. In Austria almost ten percent of the agricultural land is organic, and in Germany 2. 6 percent. In many countries the market for organic products are still very small. In 1991 the European Union (EU) passed Regulation 2092/91, which lays down in detail how food must be produced and packaged to qualify for the description “organic”.

However, it applied only to organic foods of vegetable origin. Organic husbandly is still in the developmental stage (Wight 1997). All foods labeled “Organic” must come from processors or imported who are registered and subject to regular inspection. According to Article of EU 2092/91, organic food products may be imported from countries administering legislation equivalent to that of EU. In the Europe, Germany has the biggest market of US$1,800 million. A higher percentage of market growth (30-40 %) is seen in Denmark and Sweden (Table 3). The marketing channels differed from country to country.

In Italy, 60 percent of organic foods are sold in organic stores. Forty six percent of organics are sold in organic stores in Germany and France, while 90 percent of organics are sold in conventional stores in Denmark and 74 percent in England. Ninety six percent of organics are sold in organic stores in Netherlands. Price of organics is generally 20-100 percent higher than that of non-organics as indicated in Table 4. EU imported a considerable amount of organics from USA, Canada and Japan to meet the need of the consumers (Table 5). Table 3: The European market for organic products 1997, Estimate for 2000 Country.

US$ million % of total food sales Expected Growth (%) Expected growth (US$ million) Germany 1,800 1. 2 10 2,500 Italy 750 0. 6 20 1,100 France 720 0. 5 20-25 1,250 Belgium 620 – – – England 450 0. 4 25-30 900 Switzerland 350 2 20-30 700 Netherlands 350 1 15-20 600 Spain 320 – – – Denmark 300 2. 5 30-40 600 Finland 260 – – – Austria 225 2 15 400 Sweden 110 0. 6 30-40 400 Europe 6,255 – – 8,450 Source ???? ITC, 1999) Table 4. Price of organic foods in Europe Country Premium of organic food over conventional foods (%) Vegetables Cereals Milk Potato Fruit Sweden 30-100 10-100 15-20 30-100.

100 Denmark 20-50 0-20 20-30 20-50 50-100 Finland 94 64 31 78 – England 30-100 – 20 – – Austria – 20-30 25-30 50-100 – Switzerland 40-80 40-50 10 50 50-60 Luxemburg 60 100 10 50 60 Germany 20-100 20-150 25-80 50-100 20-150 Belgium 40 50 30 40 50 Netherlands 20-50 37 98 33 26 Italy 50-220 125-175 20-50 70-130 50-100 Source: Von Ulrich Hamm and Johannes Micholsen, “Die Vermarktung Von Oekole bensmitteln in Europa”, Oekologie Und Landbau, 2000 (Vol. 28, No. 1): pp. 31-38, Siftung Oecologic Und Landbau. Table 5. Ranking of import authorizations by country into EU (1995) Order of size.

Country No. of authorization Percent 1 United States 109 24 2 Hungary 40 9 3 Turkey 38 8 4 Canada 29 6 5 Mexico 29 6 6 India 21 5 7 Brazil 15 3 8 Dominican Republic 14 3 9 Japan 12 3 10 Bolivia 10 3 Source: USDA (1995) 4. Organic farming in Asia and Oceania According to Sol-Survey (2001), total area under organic management in Asia shared only 0. 33 % in six continents of the world in 2001; however it increased to be 4 percent in 2004, which is ten fold increases in 3 years. Oceania shared the largest portion of 48. 51 percent in 2001 and reduced to be 41. 8 percent (Figure 1).

According to IFORM (2003), land area under organic management was the largest in Australia (10,500,000 ha), followed by China (301,295 ha), New Zealand (63,438 ha), Indonesia (40,000 ha), Sri Lanka (15,215 ha), Japan (5,083 ha), Papua New Guinea (4,265 ha), Thailand (3,429 ha), Pakistan (2,009 ha), Taiwan (1,092 ha) and Republic of Korea (902 ha), Fiji (200 ha), Malaysia (131 ha). Percentage of organic area in total agricultural area in Australia is 2. 08 percent and 1. 93 percent for New Zealand. Other countries is less than 1 percent (China 0, 79 %, Papua New Guinea 0. 49%, Japan 0. 1 % and Taiwan 0. 03 %) (Table 6).

According to Organic Consumers Association (2004), Asian consumers are in line with the global trend of increased use of organic products, but American, European and Australian producers are getting profits. High start up costs, hot climatic difficulties and the shortage of reliable labeling schemes caused the Asian organic farmers struggling to grab a slice of fast growing organic market. According to IFORM (2004), last year the international market for organic food reached US$ 20 billion, with Japan eating up nearly US$ 3 billion which is the third largest market for organic foods in the world after the EU and USA.

Japanese organic farmers worried that cheap “green food” based organic imports from China might drive Japanese organic agriculture to the wall. According to Organic Trade Association (OTA) (2004) Taiwan produced and traded US$ 50 million worth of organic food, and Singapore US$3. 5million. Figures were unavailable for Hong Kong and Thailand, but the OTA has put them on its hot list of emerging organic markets where high start up costs and low yields for local farmers need to be solved. China, Papua New Guinea, India, Sri Lanka and Philippines are catching up the trend of organic farming.

Oceania which accounts for almost one half of global organic farmland had a market for organic foods that is estimated to be worth US$ 190 million. There is a total of 10,500,000 hectares of organic farmland in Australia, and 63,438 hectares in New Zealand, and most of the organic food produced is exported. 4-1. Japan Market size Japan produced a total of 34,000 tons of organic foods in 2001 which increased to be 47,000 tons in 2002. Until September 2003, a total of 4,396 farm’s household engaged in organic farming in Japan (Kijima 2004).

Japan has the biggest market for organic food in Asia. They called “Organic” as “YUKI” in Japanese. “YUKI” includes any products which are produced organically through organic farming,” natural farming” or organically processed. The amount of “YUKI products was estimated to be US$500 million in 1994 (Twyford Jones 1998). Since the mid-1980s it has subsequently grown considerably at an annual rate of 20 percent. It is estimated that more than 300 organic products, including fresh organic fruits and vegetables, are available in the market. Table 6.

Organic farming in Asia and the Pacific* Country Arable and permanent crops land (1000 ha) Number of organic farms reported Land area under organic management (ha) Percent of total agricultural area (%) Year of data DEVELOPING COUNTRIES China 135,557 2,910 301,295 0. 02 2001 Fiji 285 10 200 0. 07 2000 India 169,700 5,661 41,000 0. 03 2001 Indonesia 33,546 45,000 40,000 0. 12 2001 Korea, Rep. of 1,919 1,237 902 0. 05 1998 Lao PDR 958 150 2001 Malaysia 7,605 27 131 2001 Nepal 2,968 26 45 0. 002 Pakistan 21,960 405 2,009 0. 01 2001 Philippines 10,050 500 0. 02.

2001 Sri Lanka 1,910 3,301 15,215 0. 79 2001 Taiwan 3,601 941 1,092 0. 03 2003 Thailand 18,000 940 3,429 0. 02 2001 Viet Nam 7,350 38 2 0. 003 2001 DEVELOPED COUNTRIES Australia 50,600 1,380 10,500,000 2. 08 2001 Japan 4,830 5,083 0. 10 1999 New Zealand 3,280 983 63,438 1. 93 2001 WORLD 1,497,365 398,804 22,811,267 * Rearranged table based on data of organic farms from publication of International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) Te World of Organic Agriculture 2003, 5th, revised edition, February 2003: Minou Yussefi und Helga Willer (Eds.).

Since September 2002, organic supermarkets and restaurants have sprouted across the country, while foreign exporters of organic foods rushed to get their produce certified under the Japanese Standard Law, which came into effect in 2001. (Tim Large, REUTER. Tokyo April 5, 2002, Taipei Times). It is estimated that organic produce imported from the USA totaled US$100 million in 2002, those from Washington state was about US$10mllion (USDA 2002). Organic produce imported into Japan through Sumitomo Company and Nissho Iwai Company is mostly soybeans.

Japan also import some frozen fresh vegetables from USA, New Zealand and Canada. Organic black teas are from Latin America, and organic banana are imported from Mexico and Philippines (Trends in Japan 1996). A part from consumer co-operatives, supermarket chain has been increasing their sales of organic products. The Tokyo-based Citizen’s Association for Recycling Movement in Japan opened the organic stores which attract 1,200 customers a day. Its operation is based on door to door delivery service for estimated 55,000 households across the country (Japan Times 1997).

Retail price for organic products are estimated to be, on average 15-20 percent higher than the similar non-organic products. Competition is increasing between the locally produced products and imported organic products, especially cheap “green food” based organic products from China. Europe and the United States are exporting much cheaper and better quality organic farm products to Japan. Some observers believe that organic import will continue to increase in view of the increasing market demand (Japan Times 1997). Organic law in Japan.

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) launched a program of organic farming for many years. In 1992 MAFF promulgated a regulation called “Standard of Labeling Organic Products and Specially Produced Agricultural Products”. However, the regulation was not welcomed by the consumers, because it did not provide a reliable labeling system and caused a lot of confusion to the consumers. It was then revised into “Regulation for Labeling Standardized Agricultural and Forestry Commodity”. This regulation was further revised two times in 1996 and 1997 to be more suitable one.

It was further revised into four kinds of more strict regulations, and officially promulgated as the latest version of organic law in 2000. They are: (1) Agriculture and Forestry Regulation for Organic Products; (2) Accreditation Standard for Agricultural Production (3) Japanese Standard of Processing Organic Products and (4) Basic Standard for Accreditation of Organic Food Processors. The fourth one was again revised to be “Standard for Organic Products and Specially Produced Agricultural Products”, and was officially promulgated in 2001.

The latest version of organic law is very strict, and the certification organization and inspector must have the official license obtained according to the procedures stipulated in the law. Only officially certified products can be labeled as “JAS Organic” for marketing. There is also a regulation about the labeling of imported organic foods. The law has a penalty regulation for faked organic foods. The producer of faked organic food bearing “JAS Organic” label will be fined with a minimum sum of 500,000 Japanese Yen.

Much higher amount (double amount) of fine will be posted to the certification organization which issued a faked certification to a faked organic product. Because of this strict law comparable to that of USA and EU, organic consumers gained confidence on organic foods in Japanese market. This confidence feeling led to increased organic consumption in Japan, at the present market volume of US$3-4 billion. It is estimated that approximately 3 to 5 million people in Japan buy organic products regularly for health reasons.

Production and marketing of organic products by big companies The case of MOA International The “natural farming” promoter MOA (Mokichi Okada Association International) which has 68 years’ of history established a 60-ha experimental farm at Ohito, Sizuoka Prefecture. The technology of natural farming and “Natural Farming Standard” developed at the experimental farm are transferred to the contracted farmers for application. The contracted “natural farms” serve as “Satellite Farms” to produce natural foods for MOA.

The natural products (organic products) produced from the satellite farms are routinely colleted at MOA Narita Commodity Collection and Distribution Center located near Tokyo. The collected natural products are packed along with the “MOA natural food label”. Some of them are used as the row materials for processing into various types of natural foods, such as natural rice, natural tea, natural Tofu, natural soy source, natural noodle and natural soybean milk etc. The natural foods thus produced are then distributed to the MOA’s health chain stores scattered across the country. The market chain store network of MOA facilitates the exportation and importation of organic foods in Japan.

The case of Mizuho Sinsei Organic Agricultural Institute This Institute is a part of the private Mizuho Food and Grain Company operating in very similar way as MOA to produce and marketing organic foods. This Institute is doing extension work for organic farming through its education program to its 2,000 members of organic farmers. The organic products (rice, vegetables, fruits and tea) produced by these member farmers are collected, labeled and sold as organic foods through the marketing section of Mizuho Company.

The organic products are delivered to the consumers through its 100 chain stores. In the mean time, they distributed the organic foods directly to the special fixed consumers by 140 cars every day. The case of “TEIKEI”system of the producer-consumer co-partnership of organic foods TEKEI system is the producer-consumer co-partnership movement launched by Japan Organic Association. TEkEI is an idea to create an alternative distribution system not to depend on the conventional market. It is basically a direct distribution system of organic products from the farm.

To carry it out, the producers and the consumers should contact each other frequently to get mutual understanding and mutual trust to each other in terms of product quality. Under this system the delivery stations are set up to deliver the products for the nearest consumers. The Japanese organic agriculture movement initiated this TEKEI system to take care of both producers and consumers. Through TEKEI system, friendly and creative relationship between reliable organic producers and consumers is established. Organic foods are produced according to pre-arranged plans between the producers and consumers.

Price of organic products is set in the spirit of mutual benefits. According to Japan Organic Agriculture Association, at present 500-1,000 consumers’ groups are connected with “TEIKEI” system of operation across the country. 4-2. China Green Food In China organic food is known as “Green Food”. Green Food is defined as uncontaminated, safe, high quality healthy food which is produced under a specific scheme of ecological agriculture. It is permitted to be sold under the label of “Green Food” after being certified by designated organizations (Liu 1999).

In China, the greenhouse vegetables that are grown under the soil less condition is also called Green Foods, because they are not exposed to any polluting substance (USDA 1997). According to the China Green Food Development Center, Green Food is similar to organic, natural or ecological food in Western countries (APFI 1997). In 1990, China created the Green Food Development Center (CGFDC) under Ministry of Agriculture. In 1992 it was renamed to be China Green Food Development Center (CGFDC), which was accepted as a member of IFOAM in 1993.

Recently, a regulation entitled “Green Food Grading Standard” has been promulgated by the CGFDC. This regulation divides green food into “A” and “AA” grades. “AA” grade green food is defined as the products which are produced according to international standard. It is targeted for international markets such as United Sates, Europe and Japan, while “A” grade green food, which allows using low level of chemicals, is aimed at selling in the domestic market (Tang 1997). In 1994, the State Environmental Protection Administration of China (SEPA) established the Organic Food Development Center (OFDC).

OFDC then prepared a comprehensive set of “Organic Farming Production and Food Processing Standards and Management Regulations” for labeling of the organic foods. The standards cover crops, eggs and milk products, apiculture, mushrooms sprout products and wild plants collection; processing of organic products; distribution and sale; storage and packaging; inspection and auditing; air, irrigation and water quality used in production; and permissible and prohibited material for production and processing. OFDC is now responsible for inspection, certification, labeling, research, education and training related to development of organic food.

(FAO 2002) Certified products include soybean, buckwheat, sesame, sunflower and pumpkin seeds, rice, walnut, pine nuts tea, medical herbs, milk and a few processed products such fruit juices, noodles (FAO 2002). Before 1999, more than 95% of the certified organic products of China were exported, mainly to Japan, EU and USA (FAO 2002) Production of green foods Green food production which began in China in 1990 has developed rapidly since that time. By the end of 1995 a total of 568 kinds of green foods were developed. The first group of green foods is categorized to be the fresh products without any industrial processing.

They are fresh fruits, vegetables, rice, poultry, meat, eggs, fish and tea. The second group belongs to the processed products from non-polluted raw materials, such as milk power, milk products, and grape wines. In 1995 the amount of green foods produced in China reached 2. 10 million tons, with an output value of RMB 10 million (China Daily 1997). By the end of 1996, a total of 742 kinds of green foods with the total output of 3. 6 million tons at the value of US$ 1. 77 billion were produced. It was 30 percent increase in comparison with that of 1995 (PSPFI 1997).

At the end of 1997, China developed 892 green food products with a total output of 6. 3 million tons (Liu 1999). It is estimated that a total of 135,557 hectares of lands are under organic management in 2002 which is 0. 02 percent of total agricultural area (Table 6). The government is targeting to increase the area of green food production to 1 percent of the cultivated area in the future. According to the China Green Food Development Center, China is planning to build 19 additional green food production bases in 10 major cities including Shanghai, Guanzhjou and Shenntang in the future.

About half of the 40 most popular green foods are produced outside Shanghai. Many of them are delivered from Heilongjang province in China far north-east, which is considered to be unpolluted region. In 2002 the writer (Hsieh) visited Shanghai Suqiao Modern Agricultural Development Area located in Puding New Area. The area is used for experiments in horticulture and aquaculture as well as mass production of vegetables and flowers, fruits and melons.

It is seen as an example of the Yangtze River Valley to develop green food. After seeing the farm, the writer felt that the way of producing green food in that area is quite different from the scheme of organic production used by the Western countries. Markets Chinese consumers began to have initial awareness of green foods that may lead to demand in the future, particularly polluted cities. In these cities, concern about healthy foods is growing and profit for producing green foods is increasing (USDA 1997).

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Sustainable agriculture Essay

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Sustainable agriculture Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1022

  • Pages: 4

Sustainable agriculture

Essay points to concentrate on: – Russian organic market continues to grow, which is indicated by the recent statistics compared from 2011 to 2012 that reached $148 million in 2012. A 7. 8% growth was indicated since 2011. – The lack of Russian certification system seems to pose a challenge on the expansion of organic food demand in Russia. – In 2015, Russian organic food is expected to boom significantly in the future due to the law that is going to be enforced by obtaining the certification form by a third party country such as the United States of America or European Union.

– The use of a third party to import organic food in Russian soil endures a higher cost, which increases the price of organic products. – – In 2012, Russian government and industry collaborated on an outline law on the production of organic food products by the Russian Ministry of Agriculture. – In terms of cultural obstacles, Russians do not trust local system certification due to the lack of information on correct ingredients in organic food products.

60% of Moscow Supermarkets customers are willing to pay more money for products that contain some kind of special organic signs on the products to ensure the quality of organic food with precise ingredients. – The obstacles analyzed for developing exceptional organic products in Russia is the lack of government knowledge of organic product development. The solution identified for this problem is providing knowledge to Russian customers on the structure of producing organic food, which is expected to increase the demand rapidly for consumers of organic food in Russia.

Legislation Sanitary requirements for organic food production came into force in July 2008, issued by Rospotrebnadzor, the Russian consumer safety regulatory and monitoring body. However, there were no clear rules for the labeling of organic products and no official certification system or certifying agency. As a result, Russian producers keen to operate in organic food have to obtain official certification from third parties, e. g. the United States or the EU, in order to label their products as officially certified bio or organic, and be able to export them outside Russia.

In November 2012, as a result of collaboration between the Government of the Russian Federation and organic food suppliers, the Russian Ministry of Agriculture published the draft law “On the Production of Organic Agricultural Products and Amendments to Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation”. A definition of organic products, where its main feature is compliance with the requirements of national or international standards of organic agricultural products, is provided in the draft law. http://gain. fas. usda.

gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Russian%20Organic%20Market%20Continues%20to%20Grow_Moscow%20ATO_Russian%20Federation_2-15-2013. pdf Indonesia Organic is a business based on social and non-profit entrepreneurship. The idea behind it is to centralize agriculture sales for small farmers, so buyers have an easer time finding them. The website also connects stakeholders in the organic value chain and provides information. As of 2010, Indonesia Organic has had up to 500 visits a day from over 136 countries. It also assists farmers who want to convert to organic farming and cannot find information.

It assists businesses that want better exposure. It also gets international inquiries about organic food. Organic Food Production in Indonesia is Growing As of last year there was a 15% increase in exports in organic food from Indonesia. Several organizations have also worked towards raising the profile and benefits of organic food. One of these organizations is The Learning Farm, which was set up three years ago by U. S. -based non-governmental organization World Education and is now run by the Karang Widya Foundation.

It trains street children and vulnerable youth in various skills, including organic farming. In Jakarta, people can order fresh vegetables from distributors including Kandaga Organic, The Learning Farm, and Organic Food Indonesia. The companies all have home delivery services following their harvests. Organic Food Indonesia focuses more on organic rice than vegetables. The demand for organic produce is growing throughout Asia according to a 2006 report by market analyst Organic Monitor. The group estimates the market is expanding by 30-40% annually in places including Singapore, Malaysia and Taiwan.

The global consumption of organic produce and other related products had increased to $52 billion in 2008 from $23 billion in 2002. Currently, Indonesia has seven organic food certification agencies. They have certified 48 organic farmer groups farming areas covering 102,000 hectares. The Indonesian government has announced plans to boost this number. The Future of ‘Indonesia Organic’ For all these reasons, Indonesia Organic is a promising project for the wider context of the organic value chain.

More traffic will attract more sponsors and advertisers, which will help the business concept and marketing plan. PUM in Netherlands has assessed the project and it has found that “the portal will be self-sustainable and even generate a positive cash flow that will be donated in a separate fund to support and to invest in social projects as a kind of revolving fund” if support resources are boosted. It has also found that the project needs urgently initial “acceleration funding” as a preliminary investment to develop an effective portal.

The investment will be returned and the portal will be self-sustainable in 3-4 years to serve the organic world. Initiatives such as these require public support to grow and thrive. Indonesia Organic is currently self-funded and the project is seeking both venture capital and business supporters. What is Indonesia Organic? Think of us as a virtual newspaper. Our news is what is happening in organics, our advertisements are paid by Indonesian organic enterprises. We: * Connect organic buyers and sellers

* Help reduce costs of traditional marketing * Increase marketing effectiveness * Educate consumers about organics and a healthy life Our goal is those farmers, producers and others who advertise here: * Sell more * Grow and produce more * Increase marketing effectiveness.

* Earn higher incomes http://www. organic-world. net/fileadmin/documents/yearbook/2011/ariesusanty-2011-indonesia. pdf http://www. slideshare. net/Adrienna/analysis-of-organic-food-regulation-in-indonesia-2012 http://www. ipedr. com/vol29/32-CEBMM2012-Q10005. pdf.

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Sustainable agriculture Essay

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Sustainable agriculture Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1122

  • Pages: 4

Sustainable agriculture

In today’s world, there are an exorbitant amount of meal choices and food options. We are constantly searching for nutritious foods so that we may live healthy lives. In regard to purchasing healthy foods, organic food is growing in popularity due to an increased concern for food safety and environmental protection. Organic food refers to crops or livestock that are grown on the farm without the application of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, or genetically modified organisms (Darveb and Katz 21).

There are a number of regulations and specific requirements that must be met and maintained for farmers to qualify for organic food production. In order to obtain organic certification in the U. S. , farmers must pay a fee to have their facilities and food annually inspected by certified organic inspectors.

For three consecutive years, the land and crops must not be treated with any synthetic pesticides, insecticides, herbicides or certain fertilizers, such as sewage sludge and most chemical fertilizers (http://www. ams. usda. gov/AMSv1. 0/NOPFAQsHowCertified). Organic food is best choice because it is safer and healthier than conventional food and environmentally clean.

According to consumer surveys, the public is concerned about the safety of the produce purchased in stores due to the danger of pesticide contamination. Authors Marika Alena McCauley and Laura Inouye state, “Over 900 million pounds of pesticides are used annually by U. S. agriculture, posing threats to human health and wildlife. In addition, 24. 6 million pounds of antibiotics (70 percent of total U. S. antibiotic production) are fed to chickens, pigs and cows annually. ” Also, according to Consumers Union study, 27 different foods had high toxicity levels and among 7 had an exceedingly high toxicity level.

The food with the highest toxicity levels were apples, grapes, green beans, peaches, pears, spinach and winter squash (“Environment: High Pesticide Levels Found in Produce. ” Facts On File World News Digest). These findings concern public health authorities that an antibiotic-resistant bacterium is infecting consumers. In contrast, organic foods exclude the use of synthetic chemicals and provide a variety of benefits. Certain studies show that organic foods have more beneficial nutrients, such as antioxidants, than their conventionally grown counterparts. Additionally, organic produce contains fewer pesticides which significantly benefits children, fetuses, and pregnant women.

At an early age, exposure to pesticides can cause developmental delays, behavioral disorders and motor dysfunction. Plus, pesticides can be passed from mother to child in womb, as well as through breast milk (http://www. helpguide. org/life/organic_foods_pesticides_gmo. htm). Moreover, organic food often tastes fresher because it does not contain preservatives, and it is typically grown locally so there is minimal time between the picking to the selling. Organic farming is also advantageous to the environment.

America’s industrial-style farms are the number one source of water pollution in the country and characteristically contaminate surface waters and municipal water supplies. Every year conventional farmers dump 1 billion pounds of pesticides and herbicides and 22 million tons of chemical fertilizers onto their crops, tapping any of the 9000 chemicals at their disposal (Harris, 74). Chemical intensive farms and long distance food transportation not only use up enormous amounts of non-renewable fossil fuel but also pollute the air and destroy the ozone layer.

Pesticides such as methyl bromide can generate up to 20-25% of climate disrupting greenhouse gases (Cummins, 17). On the other hand, organic farming practices reduce pollution (air, water, soil), conserve water, reduce soil erosion, increase soil fertility, and use less energy. Farming without pesticides is environmentally safer for birds and small animals as well as farmers. Organic farming also fights against the effects of global warming. According to the Rodale Institute, a nonprofit organic research institution, a healthy, organic agricultural system actually reduces carbon dioxide and slows climate change.

The institute reveals that if only 10,000 medium sized farms in the U.S. converted to organic production, they would reduce carbon storage in the soil in an amount comparable to taking 1,174,400 cars off the road or reducing car miles driven by 14. 62 billion miles.

Today, organic agriculture is practiced in almost every country in the world. Although many people primarily associate organic agriculture with fruits and vegetables, organic agricultural practices apply to crops such as grains, citrus, nuts, herbs, beans, and grass for pastureland. Because of the benefits of organic food, more hospitals have integrated organic food into staff and patient menus. According to the Organic.

Trade Associate, U. S. families are increasingly embracing organic products with 81% of U. S. families buying certain at least one type of organic product. As a result, sale of organic foods in the U. S. have increased by more than 20% every year since 1996, reaching $13. 8 billion 2005 and projected or reach $32 billion in 2009 (McCauley and Inouye, 86). Rodale Institute also found that organic systems are nearly three times as profitable as a chemically induced agricultural system. Organic systems see an average of $558. 00 in net returns per acre per year, versus $190 per acre per year for chemical systems.

There are much broader benefits to choosing organic food. The food protects your family from toxic pesticide residues commonly found on fruit and vegetable skins. Pesticides cause numerous health problems depending on the chemical makeup. Organic food also gives increased nutritional value when compared to conventional food. By going organic, consumers not only reap health benefits but also help improve biodiversity, producing less greenhouse gases, cleaner water sources, soil preservation and sustainability for future farming.

By choosing organic products, you are choosing to reduce environmental pollution and ensure that farming will be stable and sustainable for years to come.

WORKS CITED Cummins, Ronnie. “Industrial Farming Is Harming Farmers, the Environment, and Public Health. ” Is factory farming harming America? , Ed. Stuart A. Kallen. Farmington Hills: Christine Nasso, 2006. 11-19. Print. Derven, Daphne L. “Organic Agriculture. ” Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. Ed. Solomon H. Katz. Vol. 3. New York: Charles Scribner’s sons, 2003. 14-19. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 26 Feb. 2014. “Environment: High Pesticide Levels Found in Produce. ” Facts on File World News Digest: n. pag. World News Digest. Facts on File News Services, 25 Feb. 1999. Web. 26 Feb. 2014. <http://www. 2facts. com/article/1999127620>.

Harris, Mark. “Organic FUTURES. ” Vegetarian Times 283 (2001): 74. Academic Search Complete. Web. 5 Mar. 2014. McCauley, Marika Alena, and Inouye, Laura. “Organic Farming Should Be Pursued. ” Food opposing viewpoints. Ed. Laura K. Egendorf. Farmington Hills: Bonnie Szumski, 2006. 85-88. Print. Non Profite Resource. “Organic Foods. ” Understanding Organic Food Labels, Benefits, and Claims. N. p. , Dec. 2013. Web. 04 Apr. 2014. United States Department. “Agricultural Marketing Service – Home. ” National Organic Program, 28 Jan. 2014. Web. 05 Apr. 2014.

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Sustainable agriculture Essay

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Sustainable agriculture Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 778

  • Pages: 3

Sustainable agriculture

Specific purpose: Organic food advocates claim that organically grown foods are safer and more nutritious than foods raised with non-organic methods such as pesticide and non-organic fertilizer use, or antibiotic and hormone use. Thesis statement: Many people just don’t trust these chemicals and don’t want to put them into their bodies. Since virtually all non-organically produced foods contain residues of pesticides, fertilizers and other chemicals, the only way to avoid them is to buy organic foods. Introduction Organic foods are grown without using most conventional pesticides and fertilizers.

A product that is identified as being organic is not produced by genetic engineering. Ionizing radiation and sewage sludge cannot be used in organic production or handling. Organic farming practices include soil and water conservation measures. Crop rotation, manure, and compost are used to improve the soil in place of using conventional fertilizers. Instead of using commercial insecticides or herbicides, organic farmers might use companion planting to discourage insects and mulch and hand weeding to control weeds.

To be certified as organic, food products need to come from farms and processing plants that are certified as organic. This means that they are inspected by certified government officials to ensure that organic farms are up to USDA organic standards. The USDA is responsible for the organic labeling program and allows one of three possible labels: Products labeled “100 percent organic” must contain only organically produced ingredients. Products labeled “organic” must have at least 95 percent of their ingredients organically produced.

Products labeled “made with organic ingredients” must contain at least 70 percent organic ingredients. Products that contain less than 70 percent organic ingredients can list individual ingredients as organic but cannot say that the product is organic. Need Not cheaper: Expect to pay more for organic food, since it requires more labor to bring to market. Not local: Organic produce can come from miles away, and may require lots of energy to transport.

Not clean: You should still wash organic produce to remove dirt and bacteria, and take all normal food-handling precautions when preparing organic meats and other foods. Satisfaction Organics Are Good for Your Baby’s Body A variety of wholesome, nutritious foods is what your baby needs to develop in both body and mind. Chemicals, in the form of added artificial flavorings, dyes, pesticide and herbicide residues, and hydrogenated fats, do nothing to promote good health, and can even detract from it. Organically grown and produced food is free of these chemicals, leaving only the good taste and nutrition that nature intended.

Babies and children who are fed an organic diet are not overexposed to antibiotic residue in their food, either. Animals are healthier when farmed organically, because they have adequate access to fresh air, appropriate diet, and outdoor space. Therefore, the need for antibiotic overuse is eliminated. (According to USDA rules, organic meat must be antibiotic-free. ) Organics Are Better for the Planet Taking care of the world that your baby will inherit is also good parenting.

Organic farming is based on keeping the soil healthy through natural means like rotating crops, letting fields lie fallow, and using natural fertilizing methods rather than spraying on toxic pesticides and herbicides that can run off into water supplies and contaminate the soil. Visualization Action How to Create a Healthy Organic Table As with most everything, in feeding your family variety is the spice of life. Serving seasonal produce in a variety of colors with a wide range of whole grains and protein sources ensures that your family receives the full spectrum of nutrients that bodies need to function at their best.

These recommendations Eating a variety of fruits, vegetables, and legumes in a variety of colors Eating a variety of whole-grain products Consuming low-fat or fat-free dairy products or equivalent milk products Limiting added sugar, salt, and saturated fat, and avoiding trans fats Work cited National Organic Program, United States Department of Agriculture, Organic Foods Standards and Labels: The Facts Updated: January 2007. Magkos F, Arvaniti F, Zampelas A. “Organic food: buying more safety or just peace of mind?

A critical review of the literature. ” 1: Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2006;46(1):23-56. Colborn, T. “A Case for Revisiting the Safety of Pesticides: A Closer Look at Neurodevelopment. ” Environ Health Perspect. 2006 January; 114(1):10-17. Magkos F, Arvaniti F, Zampelas A. “Organic food: nutritious food or food for thought? A review of the evidence. ” Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2003 Sep;54(5):357-71. Kopke U. “Organic foods: do they have a role? ” Forum Nutr. 2005;(57):62-72.

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Sustainable agriculture Essay

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Sustainable agriculture Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 889

  • Pages: 4

Sustainable agriculture

Organic foods are defined as foods without pesticides, antibiotics,or gefetically altered organisms. Organic farming began in the late 1940’s in the united states, and in recents years it has grown into a multi-billion dollaer industry. Sales for organis foods in the past decade have increased annually by 20%. Its 20% growth is ten times as much as non-organic food’s growth. Organic food makes up only a fraction of the food market even though there are over ten million consumers. The sales of organic foods are expected to climb to over 6 billion dollars within the upcoming years.

Soil is also a crucial component of the organic process. Soil is said to be organic when it has been deemed ‘clean’ for three years. Making a commitment to healthy eating is a great start towards a healthier life. Beyond eating more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and good fats, however, there is the question of food safety, nutrition, and sustainability. How foods are grown or raised can impact both your health and the environment. This brings up the questions: What is the difference between organic foods and conventionally grown foods? Is “organic” always best? What about locally grown foods?

Organic food, natural cleaners, green businesses, even organic clothing; natural and organic products continue to be the centre of attention for those seeking a healthier lifestyle, but just what is organic food, is this organic trend long-lasting, and what organic food facts provide compelling reasons to grow, shop, cook and eat organic food. Today, organic food accounts for 2% of global food sales and is growing at an average rate of 20% each year. Today, you can have your organic food delivered, buy it online, at your local grocery store, grow it yourself and order organic food at many restaurants.

This continuing rise in demand creates a need for regulations to protect both consumers and farmers. Organic food is not the same thing as natural food. Natural refers to the way a food is processed rather than the ingredients. A food that is free of additives and preservatives, but contains commercially-produced ingredients, is considered natural. Organic food contains primarily organic ingredients, while natural foods may be made with items grown with the aid of chemicals as well as genetically modified ingredient and it is not just apples and bananas. Nearly every food available also has an organic version in today’s market.

Organic milk, chicken, and even pasta can be found right on the shelves of your neighbourhood supermarket. Many leading food manufacturers are creating organic food in convenience packaging to fit into modern lifestyles. Canned organic tomatoes and frozen organic peas are among many options. Organic food is not bland and tasteless. In fact, most people claim organic ingredients are fresher and more flavourful than conventionally grown foods. Chemical residues, added ingredients, and hurried, mass production detract from the natural juices within fruits and vegetables. Organic food is free of chemicals, leaving nothing but pure, fresh flavour.

Regulations and procedures for organic certification are still relatively new but organic farming and cultivation are not. Farmers were using natural, chemical-free methods of growing long before pesticides and fertilizers were available. As more research continues to reveal the dangers of these chemicals to both humans and the planet, consumers continue to explore the benefits of organic food. The advantages of arganic food are that you can choose to grow and/or buy food that is healthier for you, and the environment; cooking and eating organically also often offers more flavor and better tasting foods.

Use organic farming methods and organic gardening tactics such as organic garden fertilizer and compost to grow your food; the organic food advantages and organic food benefits are significant for you, your family and the planet. Organic food benefits have been a hot topic for more than a decade now but it wasn’t until relatively recently that these advantages were supported by more than just hearsay. Extensive research conducted over a number of years has proven that organic food not only tastes better than commercial foods, but it is also better for us and our children, as well as our animals, wildlife, and the environment as a whole.

Care and maintenance of soil, and preventive farming methods like crop rotation create fruits and vegetables that contain up to 50% more vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients than intensively farmed foods. Encouraging natural and organic farming methods and gardening practices, will allow organic soil to rebuild and contribute healthy vitamins and minerals to feed the crops, and you. Organic foods have higher levels of many disease-fighting antioxidants and essential vitamins, including Vitamin C.

Industrial pesticides and fertilizers used in intensive farming contain synthetic, toxic chemicals, residues of which remain in the food they are involved in producing. Organic farming uses natural, synthetic-chemical-free methods that produce foods much safer for the humans, as well as the animals, that consume them. And if you grow your own fruits and vegetables, using organic garden fertilizer, natural pesticide methods, and organic soil Such chemicals are responsible for a number of common allergies and have also been linked to serious diseases like cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. An organic diet significantly lowers these risks.

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