University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Suburbs and the use of space
A suburb is a residential place or a district that is situated a round a city, a central business district or a town (Kruse & Sugrue, 2006). Also the suburbs can be defined as the communities that live around the cities and town centers with time the urban centers and cities have been experiencing rapid growth and this has led to development of new modern residential places around the cities and towns. The suburbs offer a bigger space for living at a lower cost than it would be in towns. The availability of residential space at a lower cost makes many people opt go live in the suburbs (Newman, 1991). In regard to this the suburbs have been found to accommodate a higher population of the people unlike the neighboring cities and town centers. Suburbs are seen to spread over a large geographical area than any other living environments.
A good transport system and infrastructure and the clean environment makes people to avoid living in the city centers so that they can avoid the untidy conditions and the high density (Jahn & Frances, 2006). Living in a suburb offers the resident with the freedom and independence as people are able to decide for themselves what rules to govern them and how to live. The people in suburbs are able to even come up with bodies that govern their welfare. These bodies include those that deal with matters concerning the housing among other things (Head and Pat, 2007). Suburbs have become popular because the research shows that most people in a given suburb come from the same ethnic group or same community. This makes people feel more secure as they will always have a common way of life (García, 2003). The suburbs developed due to the development of transport system. Good transport system and infrastructure is one of the key factors that leads to development and establishment of the suburbs around the cities and towns. The evolution of transport technology for the ancient time where animal were used an a means of transport up to today where we have better automobiles such as busses ,cars ,ships and even airplanes which offer the people with the fast and convenient way of transport.(Kruse and Sugrue, 2006).
Transportation in urban center and cities defined the size of the geographical area where people worked from. The growth of urban centers for the ancient time has directly influenced the development of the suburbs. In New York the establishment of the Levittown after the First World War in 1944 was the first suburbs in United States. The development of the Levittown was due to high number of people and this caused the shortage of houses. Due to high demand of housing facilities Gl bill in 1944 gave people money to start building houses for the soldiers who were returning form the war. It was at this time where a man named William Levitt decided to buy thousands of acres of land outside cities such Philadelphia and New York. He then constructed houses and living areas which were fully fabricated. Later in 1946 the first Levittown community was started in a town known as Hempstead. The firm owned by the Levitt sons funded this town by providing a lot of housing facilities. On top they offered and rented the homes at an affordable and low cost. The homes in this town had a lot of shopping centers, the playground for the families and even swimming pools. This developed to a bigger suburb.
Suburbs have led to the sustainability of the towns. The high demand for good housing at an affordable cost has geared the and promoted the establishment of businesses that offer this services most entrepreneur take this chance to invest in housing industries among other ventures. Due to this the construction of better houses and homes has taken place. This leads to overall development in the suburbs. Through this the cities and town are gain the capability to hold the high population of the people around. This is one of the facts that we can say that through the suburbs the cities sustainable in terms of holding the population living there without constrains.
The transport and infrastructure have been developed to meet the high demand of the people living in the suburbs. The automobiles have played a very crucial role in the transport system (Newman, 1991). The easiness of the movement of people to the places of work and other places is one of the reasons the suburbs are sustainable. In suburbs also one can easily transport his goods in and out due to better road and transport system. The issue of security also makes the suburbs to be termed as the most sustainable places. This is due to the fact that most suburbs are occupied by the communities of the same ethnic groups and the people living there have a common factor that unites those (Mees, 2010). The good measures taken in maintaining the clean environment in the suburbs makes them more sustainable. Policies that regulate environment have been used .for instance proper mechanisms to regulate the greenhouse gases and maintaining general cleanliness of the suburbs. Another factor that makes most suburbs more sustainable is the good health systems. The quick access to medical care and heath surfaces is usually available. Good medication ensures that people are prevented from the dangerous diseases. Education of the public for proper health activities and protective measures vacillates this (Bridgman et al., 1995). On the other hand some suburbs can be seen as the limiting factor toward the country achieving sustainability. For instance some suburbs may suffer economic problems due to increased number of unemployed people in the society. This lead to poor living standards due to lack of sufficient funds to sustain the living requirement of the people.
The architectural view of space is quite different to other peoples’ perception and understanding about the space. In architecture the great concern when we talk about the space is how the design of a house should be. Considering the environmental factors and social-cultural factors is put in place by most architects in viewing the space of a building. In design space is used in programming that is architects conduct the space survey and planning. This is a very important task in architectural planning (Newman, 1999). The architects also collect data and information from the clients and decides on the proper space allocation standards to be used (Jahn and Frances, 2006). In the house the family space is necessary. These are rooms in a house that are used by the family members this includes the bed rooms and kitchen. During the design the architect must include this space (Newman, 1991). The suburban houses are usually big than those in the city or the central business districts. This house are characterized with a large size which include a garden in them. However it is important to note that space is an important aspect in every design. Space utilization and management need to be observed in order to ensure that there is maximum utilization of space without wastage. Space in homes inside the suburbs is managed in various ways. So many people around the cities reside in suburbs so we find that the suburbs become densely populated. To accommodate the large population the house are designed in apartments therefore saving on space (Head and Pat, 2007). The suburbs also develop gardens cities to ensure that the space is profitably used. The gardens cities offer quality and sustainable places. The new garden cities are the places where one can get facilities that provide good transport low air pollution due to carbon energy, leisure and cultural services and also the green infrastructure and network. All this facilities are available at place near the homes.
With time the space of the house in Australia has evolved and changed abundantly. Most houses in the Australian suburbs were consisted of a three bedroom, a bathroom and separate living area. This has transformed so much where you find the modern houses have extra rooms such a kitchen, walk-in wardrobes among others. This is due to the increased sizes of new residential building and houses. The use of space in the houses in Australia has been of great concern. The floor space of a house, is designed in respect to the amount of space available. When a lot of space is available the floor space may include a walking path in the house. However when there is limited space such a design cannot be implemented (Bamford, 2009). The space inside the house can be used for several purposes. In a story building some space can be used for stairs and even the lift to take people from one floor to the other.
In broad spectrum, questions about the realism of space in the fields the fields of engineering, physicality and architecture have been raised since time immemorial. Essentially, this happens because the human diversity is basically surrounded by space and matter in all spheres (Brayn, 2004). As a matter of fact, space in architectural terms is a flexible and ubiquitous aspect that creates the flow of architectural activities that include the designs and the real structuring. In housing, space is defined by different phenomena that range from walls, column as well as windows among many other features which conceive space. It is worth noting that space in the built environment language refers to what cannot be seen. In other words, space refers to the neutral and the subjective part of the built environment and is what human beings conceive in the event when spaces are created for specific purposes. For instance, a staircase is a good example of the most used space in the built environment as it is commonly used for moving up and down in storey buildings (Bamford, 2007).Since this research paper focuses on the architectural space, it is worth noting that only thorough use and not design that space becomes architectural space not only in how the space is used but how the structures are designed. In practical terms, space in the built environment is most not given the required concern in most of the architectural designs hence posing the greatest problem of how some pieces of designs in the architectural field are viewed as artistic while others are viewed as social objects (Head and Pat, 2007).
The greatest aspect that leads to such an issue with respect to space in the built environment is the connection between people and the realism of the desired architectural space as well as the relations of space themselves. To create reliable spaces in regards to structures in the environment, individuals should focus on majoring on the intuitional aspects of space by focusing on the natural strategies as well as respecting the cultural and environmental factors. Most importantly, human beings tend to divide most of their time into sections as well as dividing space into locations an endeavor that separates activities in similar architectural spheres into physical diversities in the similar environment. The locations created after dividing space in the built environment are what human beings use as a means of spontaneously allocating the necessary space for a particular activity thus easing the daily human life (Brayn, 2004). In architecture, structural designers should work towards designing the most sustainable built environment through allocating each space activity as a means of differentiating space into many pieces thus making the final product fit for human use. In this way, it is therefore significant to acknowledge the importance of space with respect to the benefits that result from architectural and planning space in the housing units, neighborhoods as well as in the suburbs in general. When this is acknowledged the critical role played by architectural space in all built environment dimensions will be cognizable to all.
Structural designs in the suburbs are essential in that they create a bio directional dialogue in any design off architecture in recognition of location of the particular space, the desired movements, the utility created as well as the incorporated symbols. This allows for proper planning and design of suburbs within the context of providing the best architectural plans for the benefits of the targeted population (Hayden, 2004).
In the case of the Australian suburbs, the general economic, cultural and social significance of the suburb built environment in the space perspective. Irrespective of the radical changes of the suburb life over the last few years, little changes have been realized in the structuring of the space in suburbs by the professionals in the field of planning and architecture. As a matter of fact, the role of the public spaces in the suburbs has been ignored (Ellegood et al., 2002). If these professionals can be briefed of the importance of the inclusion of the most important dimensions of social open spaces in suburbs environment as well as considering spatial architectural characteristics. According to Bently (1993), spaces in suburb gardens acts as a potential center of the entire community life as well as serving a sustainability maintenance role in its own. In addition, the spatial planning for the suburb spaces is a critical aspect as it brings people together by encouraging a social interaction. Therefore, the responsible bodies should be advised to work towards creating more spaces for the as a means to serve the economic, social, cultural and environmental purpose. Creation of more effective policies in the Australian suburb environments can serve as basic foundation for the effective inclusion of the spaces in architectural and planning designs hence serves as a key catalyst in ensuring economic and environmental sustainability (Bentley et al., 1993).
The philosophy of the privacy of the Australians life’s can be greatly dealt with through the creation of more public spaces in neighborhoods, gardens and housing structures in the Australian background. To sum up, the efforts in leaving major spaces in the suburb areas has suffered a major blow as a result of the recent changes in road network expansion approaches in planning, changes in housing structuring designs as well as the diversity in housing units development. The major issue is the difference between the architectural designs adopted in the suburbs to those adopted in the high and the medium density areas an aspect that brings in confusion in relation to planning and architectural variance.
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