Sarojini Naidu Essay

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Sarojini Naidu Essay
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  • University/College:
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  • Pages: 3

Sarojini Naidu

Introduction

Naidu, Sarojini 1879-1949
Indian poet, lecturer, and politician.

Naidu is remembered as a virtuoso of English metrical forms and romantic imagery in her poetry, which she wrote in English. Her mastery of such difficult poetic constructs as the dactylic prompted the English writers Edmund Gosse and Arthur Symons to praise her work widely and develop friendships with her. Equally concerned with India’s freedom movement and women’s rights as with writing poetry, Naidu became a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi and lectured on behalf of Indian independence throughout India, Africa, the United States, and Canada. Her political career reached its peak when she was elected the first woman governor of the United Provinces in 1947.

Biographical Information

Naidu was born into a high-caste Bengali family in 1879. Her father, Aghorenath Chattopadhyaya, became, after obtaining his doctorate from the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, a distinguished scholar and linguist who founded two Indian colleges, one for women. Naidu’s mother, Varada Sundari, was a minor poet and noted singer. Naidu began writing poetry as a child and at the age of twelve passed the matriculation examination for the University of Madras. As a teenager, Naidu fell in love with Govindarajulu Naidu, a doctor who was neither Bengali nor of the Brahmin caste. Hoping to prevent their daughter from marrying outside her social group, her parents sent her to England in 1895. There Naidu attended King’s College, London, and Girton College, Cambridge, where she further developed her poetic style and became friends with such well-known English critics and writers as Edmund Gosse and Arthur Symons, who helped her to refine her work. In 1898 Naidu returned to India and married Govindarajulu Naidu despite her family’s disapproval. Because of her family’s high status, Naidu had access to many of the most prominent thinkers, writers, and political figures of India’s modern intellectual renaissance. Her first volume of poetry, The Golden Threshold, was published in England in 1905; with an introduction by Arthur Symons. The book was well-received, and Naidu was encouraged to continue publishing her work until 1917, when she abruptly stopped. At this point, Naidu became active in Indian politics. She had met Gandhi in 1914 and soon decided to join him in the struggle for Indian independence. Naidu’s first cause as a political activist was women’s rights; she traveled throughout India lecturing on women’s educational needs and promoting suffrage, and became the first woman to hold several prominent positions in the Indian government. In 1925 she was elected President of the Indian National Congress, and during the 1920s traveled throughout Africa and North America campaigning for Indian independence. Naidu was arrested and imprisoned for revolutionary activities several times during her career. In 1947-when independence was achieved-Naidu was elected acting governor of the United Provinces. She died in 1949.

Major Works

Naidu’s early poetry evidences the strong Western influence of her Brahmin upbringing. Crafting poems in traditional English metrical forms, she concentrated primarily on Western themes and images. Edmund Gosse, upon reading her work when he met her in London, recognized Naidu’s potential but encouraged her to incorporate Indian subjects into her work. Naidu followed Gosse’s advice, and her first volume, The Golden Threshold, combines traditional poetic forms with lush images of India. The book achieved popular and critical success in England, where Edwardian readers admired Naidu’s deft handling of the English language as well as the native view of Indian exotica it offered them. Naidu’s second collection of poems, The Bird of Time (1912), confronted more serious themes such as death and grief as well as containing poems expressing Naidu’s patriotism and religious convictions. Gosse provided the forward to this volume, noting Naidu’s rich exploration of complex issues in delicate, romantic language. In her third volume, The Broken Wing (1917), Naidu included more poems of patriotism and description of Indian culture. More important, The Broken Wing contains the work many critics consider Naidu’s greatest poetic achievement, “The Temple: A Pilgrimage of Love.” A series of twenty-four poems, “The Temple” explores the joys, pain, and vagaries of a mature love relationship in graphic, sometimes violent, imagery, and concludes in a meditation on death. The Broken Wing was the last volume of poetry published in Naidu’s lifetime.

Many critics have wondered about the reason for her apparently sudden departure from literary pursuits to political involvement. Some speculate that her popularity dwindled, particularly in England, when she moved away from the flowery, romantic style of her early poetry to a comparatively morbid and contemplative tone in her later work. Others contend that her preoccupation with patriotic themes caused readers to lose interest. In 1961 Naidu’s daughter published a collection of her previously unpublished poems, The Feather of the Dawn, but it met with little critical interest. Her poetry has since undergone reevaluation by Indian critics, many of whom regard her as one of India’s greatest twentieth-century poets.

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  • University/College:
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  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 960

  • Pages: 4

Sarojini Naidu

Sarojini Naidu, (born as Sarojini Chattopadhyaya/ সরোজিনী চট্টোপাধ্যায় ) also known by the sobriquet as The Nightingale of India,[1] was a child prodigy, Indian independence activist and poet. Naidu was one of the formers of the Indian Constitution. Naidu was the first Indian woman to become the President of the Indian National Congress[2] and the first woman to become the Governor of Uttar Pradesh state. Her birthday is celebrated as women’s day all over India. Early life

Sarojini Naidu was born in Hyderabad to a Bengali Hindu Kulin Brahmin family to Aghore Nath Chattopadhyay and Barada Sundari Debi on 13 February 1879. Her father was a doctor of Science from Edinburgh University, settled in Hyderabad State, where he founded and administered the Hyderabad College, which later became the Nizam’s College in Hyderabad. Her mother was a poetess and used to write poetry in Bengali. Sarojini Naidu was the eldest among the eight siblings. One of her brothers Birendranath was a revolutionary and her other brother, Harindranath was a poet, dramatist, and actor.[3] Education

Sarojini Naidu passed her Matriculation examination from the University of Madras. She took four years’ break from her studies and concentrated upon studying various subjects. In 1895, she travelled to England to study first at King’s College London and later at Girton College, Cambridge. Career

Indian Freedom Fighter

Sarojini Naidu (extreme right) with Mahatma Gandhi during Salt Satyagraha, 1930 Sarojini Naidu joined the Indian national movement in the wake of partition of Bengal in 1905. She came into contact with Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Rabindranath Tagore, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Annie Besant, C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.[4] During 1915-1918, she travelled to different regions in India delivering lectures on social welfare, women empowerment and nationalism. She awakened the women of India and brought them out of the kitchen. She also helped to establish the Women’s Indian Association (WIA) in 1917.[5] She was sent to London along with Annie Besant, President of WIA, to present the case for the women’s vote to the Joint Select Committee. President of the Congress

In 1925, Naidu presided over the annual session of Indian National Congress at Cawnpore. In 1929, she presided over East African Indian Congress in South Africa. She was awarded the hind a kesari medal by the British government for her work during the plague epidemic in India.[6] In 1931, she participated in the Round table conference with Gandhiji and Madan Mohan Malaviya.[7] She played a leading role during the Civil Disobedience Movement and was jailed along with Gandhiji and other leaders. In 1942, she was arrested during the “Quit India” movement. Literary career

Naidu began writing at the age of 13. Her Persian play, Maher Muneer, impressed the Nawab of Hyderabad. In 1905, her collection of poems, named “The Broken Exes” was published.[8] Her poems were admired by many prominent Indian politicians like Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Golden Threshold

Named “Golden Threshold” after Sarojini Naidu’s much celebrated collection of poems, this premise has a long and wider history. This was the residence of her father, Dr. Aghornath Chattopadhyay, the first Principal of Hyderabad College, later named Nizam College. This was the home of many reformist ideas in Hyderabad – in areas ranging from marriage, education, women’s empowerment, literature and nationalism –apart from being the home of brilliant, radical and creative members of the Chattopadhyay family, which included the anti-imperialist revolutionary Birendranath; maverick poet, actor and connoisseur of music and dance Harindranath; dancer and film actress Sunalini Devi; communist leader Suhasini Devi –and of course the poet, crusader for women’s rights, nationalist leader and ‘Nightingale of India’ Sarojini Devi.

Harindranath Chattopadhyay said about this house, where anyone and any ideas were welcome for discussion, “a museum of wisdom and culture,a zoo crowded with a medley of strange types – some even verging on the mystique”. Golden Threshold now houses Theatre Outreach Unit an initiative of University of Hyderabad started in August 2012. Marriage

During her stay in England, Sarojini met Dr. Govindarajulu Naidu, a non-Brahmin and a doctor by profession, and fell in love with him. After finishing her studies at the age of 19, she got married to him during the time when inter-caste marriages were not allowed. Her father approved of the marriage and her marriage was a very happy one.[3] The couple had five children. Jayasurya, Padmaja, Randheer, Nilawar and Leelamani. Her daughter Padmaja followed in to her footprints and became the Governor of West Bengal. In 1961, she published a collection of poems entitled The Feather of The Dawn.[9] Death

In 1949 she fell ill. Her physician arrived quickly and gave her a sleeping pill to reduce her pain. As he gave the pill, she smiled and said “Not eternal sleep, I hope”. But that night (on March 2, 1949) she died in her sleep becoming a “Nightingale of Heaven and God”- Noble Works

Each year links to its corresponding “year in poetry” article: •1905: The Golden Threshold, published in the United Kingdom[10] (text available online) •1912: The Bird of Time: Songs of Life, Death & the Spring, published in London[11] •1917: The Broken Wing: Songs of Love, Death and the Spring, including “The Gift of India” (first read in public in 1915)[11][12] •1916: Muhammad Jinnah: An Ambassador of Unity[13]

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Sarojini Naidu Essay

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Sarojini Naidu Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1564

  • Pages: 6

Sarojini Naidu

Sarojini Naidu, also known by the sobriquet as The Nightingale of India, Naidu was born in 13 February 1879 in Hyderabad to a Bengali Hindu Kulin Brahmin family of Agorenath Chattopadhyay and Barada Sundari Devi. Her father was a doctor of science from Edinburgh University, settled in Hyderabad State, where he founded and administered the Ahmadabad College, which later became the Nizam’s College in Ahmadabad. Her mother was a poetess baji and used to write poetry in Bengali. Sarojini Naidu was the eldest among the eight siblings. Education Sarojini Naidu passed her Matriculation examination from the University of Madras.

She took four years’ break from her studies and concentrated upon studying various subjects. In 1895, she travelled to England to study first at King’s College London and later at Girton College, Cambridge. Marriage During her stay in England, Sarojini met Dr. Muthyala Govindarajulu Naidu, a non-Brahmin and a doctor by profession, and fell in love with him. After finishing her studies at the age of 19, she got married to him in 1898 during the time when inter-caste marriages were not allowed. Her father approved the marriage and her marriage was a very happy one. The couple had five children.

Jayasurya, Padmaja, Randheer, Nilawar and Leelamani. Qualities of Sarojini Naidu Sarojini Naidu was truly one of the gems of the 20th century, a child prodigy, Indian independence activist and poet. Naidu was one of the framers of the Indian Constitution. Sarojini came through as a fragile woman, but an indomitable spirit, forward-minded and always open to new ideas, self-disciplined, optimistic, forward-looking and utterly free from prejudice of caste, creed, race, gender, nationality and religion, determined to fight for the cause of Indian women but above all for Hindu-Muslim unity.

She was famous for her wit and humour, for her capacity to laugh at herself and such was her closeness to Mahatma Gandhi that she could call him Micky Mouse and a man on whom riches had to be spent to keep him poor. Sarojini was a “die-hard bourgeois liberal”, a “faithful espouser of her party line” but and events. Indian Freedom Fighter Sarojini Naidu (extreme right) with Mahatma Gandhi during Salt Satyagraha, 1930 Sarojini Naidu joined the Indian national movement in the wake of partition of Bengal in 1905.

She briefed the struggles of freedom for independence to the political stalwarts of European nations, she had visited. She came into contact with Gopal Krishna Gokhale, who later introduced her to the stalwarts of the Indian freedom movement. She met Mahatma Gandhi, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Annie Beasant, C. P. Ram swami Iyer and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. With such an encouraging environment, Sarojini later moved on to become leader of the Indian National Congress.

She traveled extensively to the United States of America and many European countries as the flag-bearer of the Indian Nationalist struggle. During 1915-1918, she travelled to different regions in India delivering lectures on social welfare, women empowerment and nationalism. She awakened the women of India and brought them out of the kitchen. In 1916, she took up the cause of the indigo workers of Champaran in the western district of Bihar. She also helped to establish the Women’s Indian Association (WIA) in 1917.

She was sent to London along with Annie Besant, President of WIA, to present the case for the women’s vote to the Joint Select Committee. In March 1919, the British government passed the Rowlatt Act by which the possession of seditious documents was deemed illegal. Mahatma Gandhi organized the Non-Cooperation Movement to protest and Naidu was the first to join the movement. Besides, Sarojini Naidu also actively campaigned for the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms, the Khilafat issue, the Sabarmati Pact, the Satyagraha Pledge and the Civil Disobedience Movement.

In 1919, she went to England as a member of the all-India Home Rule Deputation. In January 1924, she was one of the two delegates of the Indian National Congress Party to attend the East African Indian Congress. President of the Congress In 1925, she was elected as the President of the Indian National Congress Party and presided over the annual session of Indian National Congress at Cawnpore (now Kanpur). In 1929, she presided over East African Indian congress in South Africa. In 1931, she attended the round table conference with Mahatma Gandhi and Madan Mohan Malaviya.

Sarojini Naidu played a leading role in the civil disobedience movement. In 1942, Sarojini Naidu was arrested during the “Quit India” movement and was jailed for more than a year. Sarojini Naidu was the first woman Governor of Uttar Pradesh. Her chairmanship of the Asian Relations Conference in 1947 was highly-appraised. Poem hunter Sarojini Naidu was a brilliant student. She was proficient in Urdu, Telugu, English, Bengali, and Persian. At the age of twelve, Sarojini Naidu attained national fame when she topped the matriculation examination at Madras University.

Her father wanted her to become a mathematician or scientist but Sarojini Naidu was interested in poetry. Once she was working on an algebra problem, and when she couldn’t find the solution she decided to take a break, and in the same book she wrote her first inspired poetry. She got so enthused by this that she wrote “The Lady of the Lake”, a poem 1300 lines long. When her father saw that she was more interested in poetry than mathematics or science, he decided to encourage her. With her father’s support, she wrote the play “Maher Muneer” in the Persian language.

Dr. Chattopadhyaya distributed some copies among his friends and sent one copy to the Nawab of Hyderabad. Reading a beautiful play written by a young girl, the Nizam was very impressed. The college gave her a scholarship to study abroad. At the age of 16 she got admitted to King’s College of England and later at Girton College, Cambridge. There she met famous laureates of her time such as Arthur Symons and Edmond Gosse. It was Gosse who convinced Sarojini to stick to Indian themes-India’s great mountains, rivers, temples, social milieu, to express her poetry.

She depicted contemporary Indian life. Sarojini’s prose compares poorly with her poetry, but both are recognised for their emotional warmth and extravagant and high-faulting vocabulary. Her collections “The golden threshold (1905)”, “The bird of time (1912)”, and “The broken wing (1912)”, the sceptred flute (1943), the feather of the dawn (1961)”, the Indian weavers (1971)” attracted huge Indian and English readership. Her poems were admired by many prominent Indian politicians like Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

Her poems were lyrical with a “heightening of sensuality in the imagery, until every sense is stimulated to excess”. In the Bazaars of Hyderabad is a 19th-century poem. The poem is written in five paragraphs and it was published in her collection of poems “The Bird of Time (1912)” published from London, where she was attending higher studies. Naidu has described the beauty of a traditional Hyderabadi Bazaar. In this poem Sarojini Naidu describes the magnificent things of life along with common scenes in the Bazaars of Hyderabad; the poem is set in the form of conversation between customers and vendors.

The variety of activities and its colorfulness is vividly represented by the poetess to present an awesome picture of Indian culture. Each line of the poem contains rhythm and a beat, and the sequence What do you and O ye mark the rhyme scheme of the poem, and the poet often repeat these words, phrases, lines to create a musical effect to emphasize a point to draw attention to a point and to lend unity to a piece. To present the pictorial scene of the bazaar, Naidu has used rich sensory images-feel of touch, sense of sound, smell, sight and taste vibrantly.

Naidu presented the lively pictorial scenes of merchants, vendors, peddlers, goldsmiths, fruit men and flower girls selling their goods, they all similarly answer to the questions of purchaser who buy their articles after a detail bargaining. She presented the scene of the music produced by traditional instruments played by the musicians and the chantings of the magicians, the fruits like citron, pomegranate and plum are being sold by the fruit-men, while the vendors are weighing saffron, lentil and rice. The fragrance of sandalwood and henna can be smelt along with the smell of flowers which are woven into chaplets and garlands.

One can see the richness of wares in the bazaar; the poetess has mentioned coloures such as crimson, purple, silver, amber, azure and red. This shows what all goods are sold in a Hyderabadi bazaar. Turbans of crimson and silver, tunics of purple brocade, mirrors with panels of amber, daggers with handle of jade, chessmen, ivory dice, anklets, wristlets, rings, bells for the feet of blue pigeons, girdles of gold, and scabbards for the king are all examples of the expensive wares sold in the bazaars of Hyderabad. Sadly, few textbooks published in India on poetry carry her poems.

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Sarojini Naidu Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 761

  • Pages: 3

Sarojini Naidu

Sarojini Naidu, also known by the sobriquet The Nightingale of India, was a child prodigy, Indian independence activist and poet. Naidu was one of the framers of the Indian Constitution. Naidu is the second Indian woman to become the President of the Indian National Congress and the first woman to become the Governor of Uttar Pradesh state. Her birthday is celebrated as Women’s Day all over India.

Early Life

She was born in Hyderabad to a Bengali Hindu Kulin Brahmin family to Agorenath Chattopadhyay and Barada Sundari Devi on 13th February 1879. Her father was a doctor of science from Edinburgh University, settled in Hyderabad State, where he founded and administered the Hyderabad College, which later became the Nizam’s College in Ahemdabad. Her mother was a poetess baji and used to write poetry in Bengali. Sarojini Naidu was the eldest among the eight siblings. One of her brothers Birendranath was a revolutionary and her other brother, Harindranath was a poet, dramatist, and actor.

Career

Indian Freedom Fighter

Sarojini Naidu (extreme right) with Mahatma Gandhi during Salt Satyagraha, 1930 Sarojini Naidu joined the Indian national movement in the wake of partition of Bengal in 1905. She came into contact with Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Rabindranath Tagore, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Annie Besant, C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.[6] During 1915-1918, she traveled to different regions in India delivering lectures on social welfare, women empowerment and nationalism. She awakened the women of India and brought them out of the kitchen. She also helped to establish the Women’s Indian Association (WIA) in 1917.[7] She was sent to London along with Annie Besant, President of WIA, to present the case for the women’s vote to the Joint Select Committee.

President of the Congress

In 1925, Sarojini Naidu presided over the annual session of Indian National Congress at Cawnpore. In 1929, she presided over East African Indian Congress in South Africa. She was awarded the hind a kesari medal by the British government for her work during the plague epidemic in India. In 1931, she participated in the Round table conference with Gandhiji and Madan Mohan Malaviya. Sarojini Naidu played a leading role during the Civil Disobedience Movement and was jailed along with Gandhiji and other leaders. In 1942, Sarojini Naidu was arrested during the “Quit India” movement and was jailed for 21 months with Gandhiji. She shared a very warm relationship with Gandhiji and used to call him “Mickey Mouse”.

Literary career

Sarojini Naidu began writing at the age of 12. Her play, Maher Muneer, impressed the Nawab of Hyderabad. In 1905, her collection of poems, named “The Broken Exes” was published. Her poems were admired by many prominent Indian politicians like Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

Marriage

During her stay in England, Sarojini met Dr. Govindarajulu Naidu, a non-Brahmin and a doctor by profession, and fell in love with him. After finishing her studies at the age of 19, she got married to him during the time when inter-caste marriages were not allowed. Her father approved the marriage and her marriage was a very happy one. The couple had five children. Jayasurya, Padmaja, Randheer, Nilawar and Leelamani. Her daughter Padmaja followed in to her footprints and became the Governor of West Bengal. In 1961, she published a collection of poems entitled The Feather of The Dawn.

Death

In 1949 she fell ill. Her physician came and gave her a sleeping pill for good sleep. She smiled and said “Not eternal sleep I hope”. But that night on March 2nd 1949 she died in her sleep.

Works
Each year links to its corresponding “[year] in poetry” article: * 1905: The Golden Threshold, published in the United Kingdom[13] (text available online) * 1912: The Bird of Time: Songs of Life, Death & the Spring, published in London[14] * 1917: The Broken Wing: Songs of Love, Death and the Spring, including “The Gift of India” (first read in public in 1915)[14][15] * 1916: Muhammad Jinnah: An Ambassador of Unity[16]

* 1943: The Sceptred Flute: Songs of India, Allahabad: Kitabistan, posthumously published[14] * 1961: The Feather of the Dawn, posthumously published, edited by her daughter, Padmaja Naidu * 1971:The Indian Weavers

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