Sample Research Paper Essay

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Sample Research Paper Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1150

  • Pages: 5

Sample Research Paper

Introduction
The melamine controversy that erupted during the last quarter of year 2008 brought people’s attention back to the debates between breastfeeding and the use of breast milk substitutes like commercial infant formula. This wasn’t the first time that infant formula had caused illnesses and even deaths to infants worldwide – hence the continuous campaign of World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF along with other breastfeeding advocates, for mothers to breastfeed their children at least until 6 months of age. Infant feeding practices refer generally to meet the nutritional and immunological needs of the baby. A study of infant feeding practices was carried out on a sample of 100 mother and infant pairs.

The results revealed that only 20% of mothers in the study currently exclusively breastfeed their babies. It also shows that socio-economic factors like mother’s work status, marital status and educational attainment had direct bearing on these practices. Employed mothers tend to cease from breastfeeding their babies and eventually stop and just resort to formula feeding as they go back to work. The study also showed that mothers who are married and living with their partners are more likely to breastfeed their infants than single mothers. Those with higher educational attainment resort more to formula feeding and mixed feeding than those with lower educational attainment. Health care professionals influence mothers the most when it comes to infant feeding decisions. Methodology

Type of Research
The type of research that will be used in this study is qualitative research and quantitative research. Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. The discipline investigates the “why” and “how” of decision making. Besides this, the researcher will also examine the phenomenon through observations in numerical representations and through statistical analysis. Along with questionnaires that will be given out to respondents for the statistical representation of the findings in the study, interviews with the respondents and a few experts in this field will also be conducted. Sampling Method

The research sampling method that will be used in this study is random sampling to obtain a more scientific result that could be used to represent the entirety of the population. A list of all health care facilities (maternity and lying-in clinics, public and private hospitals, health centers) was acquired from the Las Piñas City Hall. From 20 barangays, 3 will be picked through random sampling. The health care facilities and institutions in these three barangays will then be the target sources of respondents of the researcher. The health care facilities and institutions will be contacted to obtain a verbal consent to administer the questionnaire to mothers at their places. A letter of consent will also be sent to them along with a sample copy of the questionnaire that will be used, as well as the protocol of the researcher. A letter was also addressed to the City Health Officer to obtain endorsement and consent to conduct a research in selected barangays and distribute questionnaires to the mothers in the vicinity. Data collection was conducted throughout the facilities‟ and health centers‟ operating hours from Mondays through Sundays in order to include both working and non-working mothers. Respondents

The respondents in this research will all be coming from one single location – Las Piñas City, specifically the randomly selected barangays of Pamplona I, CAA/BF International and Pamplona III. The researcher chose Las Piñas City because of the socio-economic conditions present in the area that is relevant to the study and also as it fits the time frame and resources of the researcher. The randomly sampled respondents will be asked by the researcher for consent and approval to answer the questionnaire until the desired number of respondents which is 100 is reached. The opinion of experts will also be sought in this research to provide explanations regarding the respondents‟ infant feeding behaviors and practices. Questionnaire

The questionnaire requires information about the socio-economic and demographic background of the mother. It also has questions related to previous infant feeding practices and the birth of her youngest infant and also regarding the baby’s general health and age. Statements that are perceived to be factors that influence mothers‟ infant feeding decisions were presented. The description of the type of infant formula given by formula and mixed feeding mothers will also be asked in the material. Conclusion

Majority of the mothers formula feed their child and only a minority exclusively breastfeeds their children, especially as per recommendation of the World Health Organization. While majority of the mothers in this study showed a positive attitude towards breastfeeding, most of them decided only to formula feed due to the reasons of insufficient milk supply and work. Based on the results of the study, the educational attainment, work status, marital status, and seminars in the barangay the respondents are part of, about breastfeeding, are the significant factors that affect the infant feeding decision of mothers in Las Piñas City. Majority of the mothers that served as respondents in this study fall under the age range of 17-30 years old. More than half of them were also college graduates while a significant number are undergraduates and have only reached until high school. Most of the mothers are housewives and the others remaining have full-time jobs, part-time jobs and self-employed. A few of them are still students. While majority of them were married, a lot were still in a status of live-in and are single.

More than half of the mothers did not have previous children before the current one. Majority of the respondents also have an annual gross household income that does not exceed P50,000. Among the several information sources namely, media through televisions/radios and printed/published materials, the social support system comprised of the mother’s family, friends and other relatives and health institutions, the mothers who give their babies infant formula are influenced the most by health care institutions through health professionals and other health care personnel. They influence the mothers in deciding to feed the baby with formula and in choosing, as well, which brand of formula is best for their babies. Mothers trust their baby’s doctor because of their expertise in the said field hence this kind of relation is achieved. Mothers were overall not concerned about the possible side effects of breastfeeding as a few were only worried as shown in the data presented. It can be concluded that numerous internal as well as external factors influence a mother in making infant feeding decisions, and a greater fraction of these is socio-economic in nature.

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Sample Research Paper Essay

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Sample Research Paper Essay
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  • University/College:
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  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 2666

  • Pages: 11

Sample Research Paper

Note: Contents and arguments written in this sample research paper are incomplete. Introduction (Ideal number of words for Introduction is 500). One fascinating feature of understanding Asia is its interaction and relations with co-Asians and counterparts in the region. Cultural and historical influences on international decision-making often go unanalyzed because their causal impact is difficult to theorize and define yet they remain crucial for understanding of relations between states (Fox 2003:4). Historical conjunctures and experiences of states are termed core dimensions on how they managed and shaped better the social structural and system of man and its environment. Issues drawn are more on the territorial conflicts and ethnic differences within Asia and its relationship with neighboring states. This is a very common issue between first world and third world countries or developed states between developing states.

The South China Sea for instance, there are numerous Asian states involved, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, and Taiwan. Japan has its own rift also with China, South Korea and Taiwan over the Sendaku Island and India having contention with China on the Tibet and Himalayan Range or also known as Sino-Indian border dispute. It is not enough to compare political institutions economic strengths and weaknesses and military force levels: while these considerations are obviously important they do not themselves determine how states will relate to other states in crisis situations (Fox, 2003:4).

This territorial dispute of countries in Asia causes instability that sometimes affected other actors and relations among nations and states. Peace involves creating new structures and new relationships by presenting sense-far reaching recommendations; it tries to show how these new relationships might be crafted so as to extend the promise of an expanding global community (Schaffer, 2005:46). Structures that would fit and innovatively respond to the needs of the existing environment composed of class-mixed community and government. But what being termed here in this argument is the reality that these conflicts are undoubtedly been an edifying and emerging theme in political discourse as to how policy framework will be framed and crafted by these states.

Statement of the Problem

The problem addressed in this study has specifically focused on the political implications of the Kashmir conflict to Pakistan and India. 1. What are the effects of Kashmir conflict to socio-political conditions of India and Pakistan? 2. How fundamentalist social movements and religious ideologies influenced and played key role in the policy-making mechanisms of India and Pakistan in the context of Kashmir issue?

Review of Related Literature (In writing RLL, you need first to identify the specific topics that you wish to write and argue. It is mandatory to cite sources subscribed from different scholarly articles, journals, and books. Use footnote/endnote or in-text citation) British Colonial Policy in Indian Subcontinent- The Results of Partition After the collapse of the Moghul Empire, British rule in Indian subcontinent has not settled easily the condition of most Indians. It took quite some time for British to transform India from a chartered country to a British colonial establishment. It has drawn policies that propagated and influenced India and Pakistan based on British colonial practices which have similarities with the kind and form of colonial policies implemented in countries that were colonized by Britain as well.

The origin of Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan dates back to the partition of the British colonial empire after World War II. There are five large regions in the State of Jammu and Kashmir that were incorporated under a single administration in the mid-nineteenth century (James and Ozdanar 2005:453). During its rule, the British government employed division policy in the Indian Territory which resulted to classification between Hindu and Muslim communities where Muslim has the majority population. Many Kashmiri youths were persuaded that because all other methods of achieving freedom had failed, violence was their only recourse (Habibullah, 2008: 102) Those who were part of the movement against Indian governments overrule were minority Pakistani that pressing their identity and existence as part of Kashmir’s vibrant history and that they should be recognized on their independence if not Kashmir’s inclusion in the Pakistan’s territory and sovereignty.

The issue of Kashmir as to where its contextual legitimacy be included is a major impediment to the region where once recognized as home of one and unified states of Pakistan, India and Bangladesh. Because of its partition history, India feared its position as a “frontline state” next to Islamic Pakistan, and leaders pushed decision makers in the security world to see local Kashmiri grievances as harbingers of an Islamic thrust (Mahmood, 2012:43). Its particularities are embodied in very complex features of intrastate and interstate sub-issues. Other actors in the issue have been involved in series of roundtable discussion and discourse offering numerous courses of actions to ease the tension and disagreement.

The Role of United Nations in Resolving Kashmir Problem between India and Pakistan

United Nations has played an important role in maintaining peace in Kashmir from the time British ended it rule and gave independence to India and sovereignty to Pakistan. It has even voluntarily offered assistance to both countries in providing security and maintenance of order in the conflicted area. Likewise, United Nations successfully implemented rules that aim to lessen the violence and disturbances which are violently contested among movements demanding the separation and independence of Kashmir and fundamentalist Muslim and Hindus expressing their support to Indian government. UN through Security Council passed resolution for the establishment of United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) to oversee the investigation on the issue. Resolution 39 was adopted on January 17, 1948 calling for restraint on both sides.

Indian officials viewed Kashmir could only be solved by an unambiguous enforcement of United Nations policies that concentrate resolving the issue by peaceful means. The issue is contextually incontestable whether it is an international issue or domestic matter, the core concern is the urgency to lay down solutions to lessen violence, disturbance and threatens States of India and Pakistan

On the other hand, United States is also a key actor in the framing of policies that attempted to best solve the crisis in Kashmir. Just like United Nations, US volunteered for a conflict resolution assistance in the Kashmir problem which was verbally promised by its Former President John F. Kennedy during a campaign period that America would perform an important action in delivering appropriate mechanisms in easing the Kashmir conflict and bringing peace among Indians and Pakistanis. Despite differences between Washington and New Delhi on major political issues, the United States continued to give economic assistance to India.

The Role of Fundamentalist Social Movements in India and Pakistan The fundamentalist social movement experience in India

Analysis of the political environment that spawns fundamentalist movements cannot be limited to just the State. The institutions and organizations of “civil society” are often the most important political context. Any given fundamentalist movement must compete or (perhaps) cooperate with other social groups (Marty 2004:801). Hindu fundamentalism in India is characterized by distinct philosophical points of view. With its vast geographical reach within the entire Indian subcontinent, majority of Hindu fundamentalists are living in India while the rest are to be found in some parts of Bangladesh and Pakistan. The rise of fundamentalism in India threatens security condition across border and its experience with fundamentalism has been bloody and traumatic.

Mahatma Gandhi, before he could fully savor the fresh air of independent India, fell victim to a Hindu fundamentalist’s bullets. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was gunned down by her own Sikh bodyguard in the aftermath of the Sikh fundamentalist movement that swept through the vibrant state of Punjab in the early 1980s.And a female suicide bomber of the Tamil fundamentalist group from Sri Lanka blew up Indira’s son Rajiv Gandhi, who had succeeded her as Prime Minister (Kumar 2002:18).

She adds that the problem of fundamentalism knows no borders, and it is a common enemy of humanity. For many, “fundamentalism conjures up images of mobs shouting ‘death to America,’ embassies in flames, assassins and hijackers threatening innocent lives, hands chopped off, and women oppressed.” The inquisitive observer must ask not only “how effective have fundamentalist movements been in influencing their own adherents,” but also “how much impact have they exercised in the lives of non-fundamentalists?

Fundamentalist social movement experience in Pakistan

Fundamentalists in Pakistan viewed Kashmir in a different dimension and thoughts; Kashmir is an independent State, Pakistan has the rights over the State while the rest think Kashmir is part of India’s past. For Indian and Pakistani Muslim, loyalty to a group and his country is very important. This is a system of leadership that exists within Islamic fundamentalist extremist groups and has been utilized most notably by the al-Qaeda organization. Allegiance could better be referred to as a pledge which is based on the traditional and historic tribal allegiance system (Guidere 2012:27). Party loyalty requires commitments on how to perform based on the given organizational goals operating within India and Pakistan. They are influential in a way that they dictate believers on how to act in accordance with the principles and norms governing the system.

The division of early India to become two states was derived from the religious principles that Muslims should stay in Pakistan where majority of its people are Muslim and India based on the two nation theory suggests that Hindu deserved better to reside and occupy India as considered as holy state for Hindus. Throughout the country, Hindus outnumber other religious communities everywhere except in the State of Jammu and Kashmir and the Union Territory of Lakshadweep, which have Muslim majorities. It is the largest religious minority in Sri Lanka (17 percent) and Bangladesh (12 percent), which adds an additional 3 million and 13 million respectively (Juergensmeyer 2003: 53). Migration is seen as key component in the increasing number of Hindu population not only in India but other countries where they settled. They have crosses borders and some were displaced due to communal unrest in the subcontinent.

Lastly, Indian government challenging the foundations and feasibility of the “Two-Nation Theory” as proposed by Kashmiri local officials, the government of Pakistan and some civil society movements in India. This Two-Nation Theory applies to both states of India and Pakistan in governing the Kashmir territory, Northern part of Kashmir will be administered by Pakistani government while on the Eastern region of Kashmir where western territories of India is located will be administered by Indian government. This initiative tremendously opposed by many Indians. Their thoughts and expressions were based mostly on their political and economic ideologies. Economically, they have projected that Kashmir would be a big loss to the wealth of India.

Significance of the Study

This study would be an additional literature in understanding the dynamics characterizing conflict in Kashmir and its effects to the current political condition of India and Pakistan. This is a domestic issue contested based on differences of ideologies, philosophies and principles in religion and politics however, this as well termed as social phenomenon that seriously affects concerned states in South Asian region envisioning development and transformation from the ruins of colonialism. Furthermore, this essay is important as it would analyze the developments of policies, initiatives and government-led mechanisms and political lines of India and Pakistan in their struggle of delivering appropriate and just solutions to the Kashmir issue.

Conclusion

The wave of fundamentalist movements in India and Pakistan have played vital role in framing policies that is contextually relevant to the prevailing social norms and belief system of both countries. With diverse cultural orientations in both countries, fundamentalism is an issue beyond the parameter of religion and spiritual ideologies among Indians and Pakistanis, it is already a phenomenon and key element that concerned countries should embrace and recognize its being particularly its linkage to national policy-making and security. As pointed out by James and Ozdanar, India has strongly committed to the principles of secularism and fundamentalism strengthening Hindu nationalism in the wake of Kashmir turmoil and political turbulence has, in turn influenced nationalists to take a harder line in Kashmir and against Pakistan.

These people’s principles and philosophies are always regarded with utmost consideration that serves as a blueprint if not a guideline in executing mechanisms to address social ills and disputes in a culturally-rich environment. Shaffer (2005) always pointed out that awareness on the historical path of the conflict should be analyzed and studied carefully and it is worthy to be realistic but equally important not to be imprisoned by the past. Looking back to the history of the conflict is very significant however; there are other factors that should be considered such as addressing the current needs and condition of the crisis and attending the plight of marginalized Kashmiris.

Indeed, these variations of events within the geography of two South Asian countries and its respective governments have shown the dynamism of South Asia. India will always be a critical and central player in the pivot of geopolitics in Central region of the continent while Pakistan will continue its reforms for strong governance with the help of US and allies in the Arab region. Labeling them as prominent and classic instruments of ethnicity and displacement for the last hundred years will forever be part of the evolving biography and history of India and Pakistan.

Bibiliography
Ahmed, Naeem. India’s Changing Policy on Kashmir. Pakistan Institute of International Affairs, Pakistan Horizon, 2000. Antoun, Richard T. Understanding Fundamentalism: Christian, Islamic, and Jewish Movements. Roman Altamira Publishing, 2001 Bahadur, kalim. Regional Implication of the Rise of Islamic Fundamentalism in Pakistan. Institute for Defense Studies and Analysis, 2006. Retrieved from http://idsa.in/sy stem/files/stra tegicanalysis_kbahadur_0306.pdf Bhandari, Mohan C. Solving Kashmir. Lancer Piblishers. 2006.7. Routledge, 2004. Bhonsle, Rahul K. South Asia Security Trends. Atlantic Publishers and Distribution, 2007 Bubandt, Nils de and Van
Beek Martijn. Varieties of Secularism in Asia: Anthropological Explorations of Religion, Politics and Spiritual. Routlege, 2012. Budania, Rajpal. India’s National Security Dilemma: The Pakistan Factor and India’s Policy Response. Indus Publishing, 2001. Das, Surajan. Kashmir and Sindh: Nation- Building, Ethnicity and Regional Politics in South Asia. Anthem Press, 2001 Guidere, Mathieu. Historical Dictionary of Islamic Fundamentalism. Scarecrow. 2012 Habibullah, Wajarat. “My Kashmir: Conflict and the Prospects for Enduring Peace”. Washington DC, United Institute of Peace, 2008. Hussain, M.A. India’s Secular Democracy at Risk: The Challenge of Communalism. Modern South Asian Studies, S.V. University India. 2004 James, Carolyn and Ozdamar, Ozgur. Religion as a Factor in Ethnic Conflict: Kashmir and Indian Foreign Policy. Taylor and Francis Inc. 2005. Retrieved from: http://ozgur.bilkent.edu. tr/download/05Religion%20as%20a%20Factor%20in%20Ethnic%20Conflict%20Kashmir.pdf

Mahmood, Cynthia Kepply. “One More Voice! Perspectives on South Asia”. Xlibris Corporation, 2012. Mahmood, Sohail. Good Governance Reform Agenda in Pakistan: Current Challenges. Nova Publishers. 2007 Pande, Aparna. Explaining Pakistan’s Foreign Policy: Escaping India. Taylor and Francis. 2011. Riesebrodt, Martin. “Religion in Global Perspectives” in Global Religions : An Introduction Edited by. Juergensmeyer, Mark. Oxford University Press, 2003. Singh Bajwa, Kuldip. Jammu and Kashmir War, 1947-1948: Political and Military Perspectives. Har-Anand Publication, 2003. Wellens, Karel C. Resolutions and Statements of the United Nations Security Council: (1946-2000) A Thematic Guide. United Nations Security Council, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2001.

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Sample Research Paper Essay

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Sample Research Paper Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 4023

  • Pages: 16

Sample Research Paper

The world is moving on. Everything has changed and will still continue to change. One of the major contributors of these changes is the unending discovery of new advances such as tools and information technologies worldwide, from conventional Information System (IS) to computer-based IS, even become web-based IS. These advancements have been widely absorbed to improve efficiency of the organization’s operation and effectiveness in providing service to its employees and customers for them to survive in the realm of business world. Organizations such as universities have increasingly adopted advanced technologies to automate their information systems.

It includes tools that are used to create, retrieve, store, change and transmit information. Online services have been offered by universities to provide information and applications for various stakeholders such as students, parents, benefactors and school personnel in timely manner and with greater ease (Lee & Kim, 2010). The Southern Leyte State University- San Juan spent considerable resources and efforts in applying computer-based information system in some transactions in school. The university has a computer-based system for accounting, enrolment and grading. Students, parents and benefactors ask for grades, schedule, statement of 2 account and other relevant information. Though the computerization automates the abovementioned processes but some of the students claimed that sometimes the releasing of requested information took hours or even days for some operations like retrieval of data since it is still done semi-automatically or manually.

Aside from that, the university also collects a processing fee for grade inquiry. Truly, indeed, there is a call for improving student’s information system such as in students academic performance monitoring and billing system to satisfy the information needs of the clients. One of the responsibilities of the university is to inform the parents and/or sponsors about the academic performance of the students and it is usually done by sending grades through the post office. The problem is some of the parents and/or sponsors will not be able to receive the grades in timely manner or will never reach their hands. For any reason and maybe to facilitate decision making purposes, some of the parents and/or sponsors will personally visit the University Registrar to follow up the student’s performance.

Undeniably, it is a burden to the parents to do such. That is why it is necessary for the university to find ways to aid the personnel in the Registrar’s Office in handling the student’s permanent record and to deliver accurate data pertinent to some clients. The academic performance of the university scholars has been also monitored by the school. The scholar’s grade is evaluated manually by the Guidance Counselor every semester if it still meets the qualification standards. Also, reports are to be generated for recognized private sponsors and for institutional purposes. During evaluation, the Guidance Counselor will require the scholars to submit their grades and so the students will also collect their grades from their instructors or at the registrar’s office. The thought of accessing data directly from the centralized database will speed up the evaluation process. The plus factor for university’s financial growth is how committed the sponsor and the parents pay the fees of the students.

But in the present situation, paying bills on time can never be realized for the university fails to issue statement of account to the students every after payment is made. As a result, parents or sponsors are not updated of their dues and no assurance that the students pay the fees religiously. Though the students are required to pay before midterm and final, the parents or sponsors have no idea how much are they going to pay for each term. As part of the university, it is the earnest desire of the researcher to contribute something to address the problems encountered by the clients of the university with regard to academic performance monitoring and generating of an updated statement of account.

Since the problem concerns the delivery of information such as updated report of grades and billing statements to the parents and/or sponsor of the students in the university, the researcher found it helpful to have a Web-based Student Information System. The availability of Internet Service Providers such as Smart and Globe Broadband in Southern Leyte will make the designed system more accessible to the clients especially those students who are from other towns which constitute 66 percent of the total population at SLSU-San Juan. Aside from that, it will give the university personnel-in-charge in Grading, Scholarship, and Billing the capability to organize and present student information that suit the specific needs of the clients.

Theoretical Background

This study is based on the theory of Shelly et al (2005) which states that webbased systems are popular because they offer ease of access, cost effectiveness and worldwide connectivity, all of which are vital to companies that must compete in a global economy. Both personal and organizational processes influence a culture of innovation. In a culture of innovation, people will have a habit of constantly looking for ways to improve things (Denning, 2004). Continuous search for innovative ways has been made to cater the need of the people to access and share information resources worldwide.

As what Newell and Turner (2006) said, “Innovation means change: sometimes radical change and sometimes incremental change”. This incremental change refers to the movement of change from traditional IS to computer-based IS and even now to the recent trend which is the web-based IS that runs through an internet technology. The explosive growth of the Internet is making available radical new means of communication that affect such diverse areas as business, entertainment and education. Network technology supports distributed systems and until today, the most popular system that is currently being used to make such systems possible is the World Wide Web and they even claim that this web technology is “fundamentally a new medium of human communications” (cited in Carstensen & Vogelsang, 2001). True enough that in areas of education, Internet offers a medium that has the potential to be more responsive to students, to encourage greater participation in their own learning, and to give greater access to different sources of information than what traditional methods can offer (Brooks, 1997).

The anchor theory is also supported by Young (1999) who argue that the Internet is the most cost-efficient medium for business-to-consumer dealings (cited in Voiculescu, 2005). Beller and Or (2003) also added that the decreasing costs of internet services, coupled with availability and convenience are likely to accelerate adoption of internet-based technologies. According to Shelly et al. (2005), Internet is a worldwide network that integrates many thousands of other networks, which in turn link millions of government, business, educational and personal users around the globe. Levine (2003) also added that internet technologies can reduce the time burden and provide easy-to-use and helpful information to the end user. These features of internet technology are vital to any organization for them to be globally competitive.

Chae and Poole (cited in Brown & Cooke, 2005) discussed that requirements and accountability have become more stringent and require better reporting for higher education. Additionally, mechanisms for evaluation and reporting have a growing role in university management. Traditionally, information sharing among university members has relied on a range of printed materials. Computer technology created opportunities on university campuses for sharing data and information among the staff and the students, and has been deployed since the late fifties (cited in Semiawan and Middleton, 1999). These information systems range from library systems, registration systems and financial systems, to campus-housing systems and other university service systems.

Student Information System incurs such application software designed for educational establishments to manage student data. It is an application that keeps track of student records such as name, address, teacher, classes, grades and other pertinent information. Once the information is inputted into the database, it will provide the ability to quickly get information related to a particular student and print out their vital records (Freewareseek, 2009). As cited in Ngoma (2009), Barrett also encapsulates the essence of a student management information system (SMIS). He defines SMIS as “an integrated software package that maintains, supports, and provides inquiry, analysis, and communication tools that organize student accountability data into information to support the educational process”.

From this so called student information system (SIS), the idea of developing a student information system specifically in academic performance monitoring and generating of statement of account for SLSU- San Juan was conceived. Student Information System development moved from mainframes to a network or workstation environment and the tools has also been changed from the traditional IS platforms to tools with support such as Gopher, World Wide Web and multimedia systems. Because of these developments, methods and procedures by which users obtain information are changing rapidly. Daily, hundreds of thousands of individuals use the Internet and Web browsers to obtain a much broader range of information than has previously been possible. According to Kitchens (cited in Brown & Cooke, 2005), web-based student information systems have been widely adopted by institution to facilitate a range of operations such as grading, attendance, demographic data and reporting.

Advantages of such a system is that information is accessible anywhere by using a standard internet browser; instructional management such as tracking student performance and monitoring progress can be handled through the online tool; teachers can define each assessment used in their courses and; the system makes individual student data available. A centralized web based system also enables educators to collect, analyze and communicate student information through desktop computers, however good databases also require data integrity so the information is consistent and valid. Many schools have online systems for managing classes, requesting financial aid, and performing other routine tasks. In these institutions, people can access school grades online once they enter the dashboard area where they manage other schoolrelated tasks, and the dashboard is accessed with a username and password.

These types of systems can be very useful for parents who may want to keep a close watch on the progress of their children, and for students who want to keep an eye on their grades. The advantage of viewing school grades online is that it is usually possible to do so as soon as grades are received and posted. By viewing grades immediately, people don’t have to wait for weeks while report cards are generated and mailed, which can relieve stress and tension. There may also be other reasons for wanting to see grades online, like wanting to check midterm grades to monitor progress in a class, or needing to know grades for the purpose of reporting them to colleges as quickly as possible. (Smith, 2008). Academic performance refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers.

The indicator of how well the students perform in the class is the student grades. Grade availability and immediate distribution through the use of SIS, which is called by Knievel (2001) as “full disclosure”, is of importance to concerned party mostly to the students and parents. Liao et al. (2007) asserts that SIS process within such technological sophistication does create precise knowledge edge, that such SIS application can be appealing to students and to the academic faculty as well as the parents. Student data acquired is usually used for effective decision making purposes. It is also an enduring belief in the academy that knowing one’s grade will change student’s negative behaviors or sustain positive ones (Knievel, 2001).

Specifically, web-based student information systems have helped improve student records management, and school improvement plans. According to The Journal (2000), “Administrators no longer need to run from classroom to classroom or search from file to file to get the information they need, as the system (PowerSchool) provides instant access to all student records with a simple point and click”. SchoolWorks (2009) student information systems enable complete tracking and management of student data.

The complete student information system includes student activities, daily attendance, period or classroom attendance, discipline, health and immunizations, grades, schedules, and more! SchoolWorks student information system manages your student data with a browser-based user interface. This allows platform independent student data entry. SchoolWorks student information system includes standard reports and allows custom report creation. The data structure is easily customized to match your state board of education’s requirements for electronic submission of student data.

At Westside Community Schools in Nebraska, Bird (2006) argues that there were significant improvements as a direct result of the adoption of the new SIS. “Since the implementation of the SIS, attendance at Westside is better than ever, discipline reports are down, and, instead of declining test scores that are common in schools with similar demographics, test scores are consistently above the national average and among the highest in the state of Nebraska. School administrators attribute this in good part to the SIS”. Bernhardt (2005) analyzed student demographic and perceptual data of elementary, middle, and high schools of Canyon View School District (an 8,000 student district) and concluded that fact-driven decision making can provide each district, each school, each class and each student with a reliable way to facilitate breakthrough performance and continuous education improvement.

Her findings revealed that effective use of school data leads to more objective education-enhancement decisions. In North Carolina, a vast number of school teachers, administrators, leaders, parents, and students are using NCWISE to access and manage student data. NCWISE is described as a web-based, integrated, and secure tool for effectively managing student information and improving instruction in North Carolina schools. It was designed to provide teachers, principals, counselors, nurses, central office staff, and others with direct and immediate access to a full spectrum of data on a student’s entire career in the North Carolina school system. (Ngoma, 2009) As cited in Ngoma (2009), North Carolina Department of Public Instruction (NCPDI) report lists some of the features of NCWISE which include “the ability to move student transcripts immediately when a student transfers from one school to another; produce progress reports and report cards; share student grades and emergency information with appropriate school employees; and more quickly and accurately report student grades, attendance, and information used to support public school business processes”.

The reason given for the adoption of NCWISE is that SIMS, which was the official public schools’ data collection source for more than 20 years and relied on antiquated technology. Let it be noted that NCWISE replaced SIMS. De La Salle University (DLSU), Manila created a My.LaSalle (MLS) university portal to extend efficient services to its clientele. Students can enroll online, thus, no more lining up at the Registrar’s Office. They can enroll anywhere within their scheduled period, in their preferred course and section, provided it is still open. Students can always view the actual enrollment count per course and section. Students can also inquire through the portal, information about course schedule, account balance, grades for the term, schedules of final exams and course card distribution.

However, transactions could be denied due to unsettled accountabilities such as payables in the accounting or registrar’s offices, or library dues. These records will be reflected in a student’s personal account and they are updated as frequently as needed. On the other hand, faculty members can submit final grades and request for change of grade online even in the comforts of their own homes. (DLSU, 2010) University of the East, Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center, Inc., Manila developed a UERM portal for their students and employees. The portal contains Faculty Portal and Student Portal. Faculty Portal is an exclusive gateway for UERM faculty members for online information, faculty evaluation, faculty load, uploading lectures, quizzes and other materials for dissemination to their classes.

It also provides access to profound discussions among faculty about lesson and other topics for the creation of knowledge. The Student Portal is for online student information, lectures, discussions, resources and other services exclusive to UERM students. It aims to enhance and extend the student’s learning experience through information technology beyond the bound of the classroom. (UERMMMC, 2010) The University of Baguio (UB) E-Reservation System is an extended feature of the UB enrollment System wherein transactions are done via the internet. The student is allowed to reserve schedules and be evaluated by the college dean. Grades are available for viewing online using UB-Online Information Service. Final grades for a given term may be viewed in a Final Grade Report or in an Unofficial Academic Transcript (UB, 2010).

All business transactions revolve around one thing- payments. Many ecommerce websites integrate all the possible payment gateway modes for customer’s choice so that payments never get delayed. Through technologies the organization business operations have become easier and fast. Billing is the process of sending bills for payment (Macmillan English Dictionary, 2010). The term E-billing is the electronic delivery of financial documents to the customer, that represents and replaces the conventional paper based document (Email connection, 2001). Universities adopt this so called on-line billing for its perceived advantages than traditional billing system.

Southern’s eBill offers both students and parents a number of advantages over traditional paper bills, including: students can authorize others (parents, spouse, etc.) to view and pay bills; easy to read online history of past statements and payments; ability to schedule future payments; ease of use and convenience (Southern Connecticut State University, 2009). The Students Accounts Office at Macalester College implemented a new billing process. This change in process has taken place for several reasons.

One reason and advantage of the change in process is that students and authorized users may view information relating to billing accounts, statements, and account activity at their convenience. The change in process correlates directly with the leadership role Macalester College has taken in sustainability for higher education. This change also will not only save paper by not having to print statements but will also reduce the need for other paper products such as two forms of envelopes. For students monthly billing, the student and authorized users will receive email notification announcing that the newest electronic eBill statement is ready to view. All students and authorized users must go online to view the statements. If a paper statement is required, the student or authorized user must print it at their convenience (Macalester College, 2009)

In San Diego State University, they used a billing system wherein student billing statements are sent out on a monthly basis when money is due to the University. Student statements will be delivered in electronic format. Students are sent an email directing them to a secure website to review their bill, so it is important that their email address be kept up to date in their Portal account. Another feature is that the student may set up a parent PIN so that in addition to the student receiving the email, the parent may also receive an email (San Diego State University, 2009). Another motivation for online technologies as emphasized by Kemelgor, Johnson and Srinivasan (2000) is that “to attract good students, educational institutions must continue to innovate.”

Technology is a tool recognized by many institutions that can be utilized to improve levels of service while aiming to personalize and extend the relationship with students (as cited in Savarese, 2004). Therefore effective student systems need to be student oriented and designed so administrative requirements don’t negatively impact on the student. It is in the light of these theories and related literature that inspired the researcher to develop web-based student information system specifically on student performance monitoring and generating statement of account in Southern Leyte State University-San Juan to keep pace with the above-mentioned innovations and of course to be able to cater the information needs of the stakeholders.

14 THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem This study aimed to analyze, design and develop a prototype Web-Based Student Information System for Southern Leyte State University- San Juan, Southern Leyte. Specifically, it sought to: 1. analyze the services provided by the university as they relate to 1.1 1.2 student academic performance monitoring and; generating statement of account;

2. determine the status of the present student information system in terms of 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 relevance; accessibility; reliability and; timeliness;

3. identify the problems encountered by the students, parents, benefactors and personnel-in-charge in the present student information system; 4. determine the features of a good Student Information System; and 5. design and develop a prototype of a Web-Based Student Information System.

Significance of the Study The results of the study would benefit the following entities: Commission on Higher Education (CHED). This study will help CHED, as a governing body to all education institutions, to encourage colleges and universities to implement research and development for the purpose of delivering quality service to each of its clients. SLSU. This study would enable the university to improve their student information system. It will give them the opportunity to give quality service to their clients. Students. The developed system would benefit the students for they can inquire their information needs with regard to their academic performance and billing statements at their convenient time and place. Parents. The output of this study would allow the parents to monitor the academic status and billing account of their child by accessing the records through the internet. Benefactors.

The student information such as grades and statement of account that is extracted from the system would facilitate the sponsors for their decision making purposes. Also, they would be guided constantly with their bills. Student Affairs Office. The output of this study would significantly give ease to the Guidance Counselor in performing his tasks especially in monitoring, record keeping and generating reports. Registrar’s Office. Through the system, the work of the personnel in the Registrar’s office in disseminating grades to the students will be lessened for the records are now available online. Accounting Office. The staff in Accounting Office will not be disrupted with students who constantly inquire their statement of account.

This study would give an opportunity for the researcher to gain more knowledge in programming and enhance his/her skill in designing and solving analytical problems. Aside from that he/she will gain confidence from her experiences in the making of this research. Future Researchers. The future researchers would greatly benefit from this study for the findings of this study would encourage them to design an improved system. Other HEI’s. The output of this provides insights to other higher education on how to disseminate information to their clients in a better way. This study may also assist them in achieving successful outcomes in similar projects.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The study will utilize the descriptive research method using a researcherconstructed questionnaire to gather data from various stakeholders such as students, parents, benefactors and some personnel in charge in Scholarship, Registrar, and Accounting at SLSU- San Juan. The questionnaire simply asked the respondents to examine the current information system in the university and suggest some good features of a good student information system. The data that will be collected from identified respondents will be presented, analyzed and interpreted. The results and findings of the research study will serve as the basis for the design and development of the Web-based Information System for SLSU- San Juan.

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