Research Essay

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 3439

  • Pages: 14

Research

Throughout this assignment I intend to demonstrate an understanding and knowledge of research methodology. I will examine how research is used to support practice and policy. I will address research terminology and the roles and responsibilities of the researcher. Our group research project will be critically analysed. Kumar (2001) implies research is more than a set of skills. Research is a way of thinking and examining the various aspects of your day-to-day professional work, understanding and formulating guiding principles that govern a particular procedure. Research helps us to understand why things behave the way they do and why people act in a certain way. If carried out effectively, research can be imperative as it brings about change in policy and practice Burns (1972). The two predominant methods of research are Quantitative and Qualitative research (Kumar,2001). These methods differ primarily in their analytical objective, the type of questions they pose and the different methods of data collection. The following definition, taken from Aliaga and Gunderson (2000,pg1), describes what we mean by quantitative research methods: Quantitative research is ‘Explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analysed using mathematically based methods in particular statistics.’ (Muijs,2011) Quantitative research is also described as traditional or empirical research, meaning that it is based upon observation, experimentation and measurement (Lambert). Qualitative research is usually a more detailed form of research and cannot usually be expressed in terms of numbers. It often takes in to account people’s values, attitudes and opinions. The three most common qualitative research methods, are participant observation, in-depth interviews, and focus groups. Each method is particularly suited for obtaining a specific type of data. Lambert (2010, pg 256) infers that both qualitative and quantitative approaches can be combined in a single study to improve depth and breadth.

For the purpose of our small scale research project we used a research question as opposed to a hypothesis. A hypothesis is a statement of assumption which will be tested in the research (Muijs,2011). A research question is an initial statement to set the scene for exploratory research within an interpretivist framework. A questionnaire was used to gather data for our research project. Newby (2010) states questionnaires are amongst the most popular. The advantage of using a questionnaire in date collection is they are practical. A large amount of information can be collected from a group of people in a short period of time. The data can be expressed statistically. It is thus possible to make comparisons with other studies. The results of a questionnaire can be easily evaluated, analysed and quantified by the researcher (Barlette & Burton, 2012). The disadvantages for this type of research is people may not be honest when filling out the questionnaire this could lead to the data provided being false and therefore invalid (ibid).

The interview is the most prominent data collection tool in qualitative research(Muijs,2011).When data has been quantified, it can be used to compare and contrast other research and may be used to measure change. Positivists believe that quantitative data can be used to create new theories and / or test existing hypotheses (ibid).

Researchers are required to consider ethics in every aspect of their conduct. The Belmont Report states the three fundamental ethical principles for using any human subjects for research are Respect for Persons, Beneficence and Justice (U.S Department of Health & Human Services,1979.) The first of these principles meant that the researcher should treat the participant as an independent person who should be kept fully informed at all times. The researcher should also ensure that persons with reduced independence such as a child should be protected at all times. Beneficence is included to ensure the benefits of being included in the research should outweigh any negative impact to the participant. Justice implies that selection of the participants must be fair and those who are asked to participate should also benefit (Macfarlane & Bruce, 2009). Personal values and also professional values that researchers should use when carrying out a study, will be analysed. A code of ethics is a framework to help and advise us but ultimately it remains the responsibility of the individual (Early Childhood Australia,2010). Research ethics are a set of principles on how researchers should conduct themselves when dealing with research participants. Denscombe (2007) states we must respect the rights and dignity of the participants, avoid harm to research participants and carry out the research with honesty and integrity. According to Stonehouse (1991) a code of ethics is ‘a statement about practice, or what we will strive to do. It is based on core values, or what we believe’. There are a number of reasons it is important to conduct research in line with ethical standards; it is a sign of respect for participants, other researchers and those who will use the research. A code of ethics is not enforced but it is something that we should adhere to.

The Impact of Distance Learning on a Student’s Work and Home Life

Introduction

In order to better understand what affect distance learning has on the work and home life of a student, students from the Education Department at Anglia Ruskin University in the second year of their Foundation Degree in Early Years collated data from a research module seeking to answer the following question: Does combining distance learning and working have a negative impact on a student’s work and home life? The chosen method of data collection was via a questionnaire with the answers offering an explanation and understanding as to why students look to improve their early years education skills by going back to study and what challenges they faced.

Method

The research was a 10 minute questionnaire, asking a mixture of both closed and open questions. A combination of closed and open questions were used so allowing students to answer in a more efficient and accurate manner. Opinions from each of the surveyed students were as important as were the answers to the multiple choice questions. The questions asked related to a work and life balance, and sought to understand how students deal with the work and study balance.

Sample

The results are a snap shot outlining the sort of pressure s placed on students in terms of time, commitments and everyday lives. The results covered how many hours a week were worked, where was the work undertaken, where did the students live and the time pressures on completing course work. It outlines the key challenges facing mature students who are looking to further their early years education and teaching careers.

Ethics

To ensure that all University protacals were observed, an introduction was provided outlining the aim of the research and confirming what research the surveyed students were being asked to contribute. Confidentially was important so was the opportunity if needed to withdraw from the research at any time.

Results

The results of the survey outline the time constraints and challenges faced by the students as they look to progress their education and their career

Figure 1 – Gender of students.

The above results showed that 100% of the surveyed students were female. Though we are unable to draw any direct conclusions from this, perhaps females are more likely to return to early years education than their male counter parts. All were involved with early years education and so found the early years course additional help to their working lives.

Figure 2 – Age of Students

The above outlines the age of the students. 75% of those surveyed were in the age range of 25 – 34. Though we cannot draw any direct conclusions from this, it would suggest that the 25 – 34 age range has the propensity to undertake further education whist working and looking after their children. The younger age groups perhaps are more interested in their social lives where the 44+ are perhaps to well established to go back to further education.

Figure 3 – Hours worked per week

The above outlines the number of hours worked per week. This shows that the early years students are having to work quite long weeks whilst undertaking and finishing course work.

Figure 4 –Who do you live with?

The above research shows that out of the surveyed students none currently reside at home with their parents. As 75% of them are from the 25 to 34 age demographic, they have all moved out from the parental home and are either residing with their partner, or with friends.

Figure 5 – How many children do you have?

The above shows that the students have a real cross section of the number of children they currently have. The older students are more likely to have had children, so making their daily working lives even harder to undertake the required course work.

Reasons for embarking on this foundation course

The students were asked why they were embarking on the foundation course, all respondents cited the need to gain further qualification in order to improve their chances of career progression.

Some cited the need to complete their EYPS by 2015 allowing the student to move with an improvement in their career prospects. Those with children were looking at the opportunity of also progressing their career but at a slightly older age. Some students were encouraged by the in house management to undertake the course so improving their knowledge and skills.

Figure 6 – how much research is undertaken?

The above outlines how much research was undertaken before the students undertook the course. 25% admitted they had done very little research and had relied on word of month from friends and past students. 25% admitted attending an open day so they were better able to understand the course and the time requirements. The reminder was either advised by their managers to undertake the course or had done minimal research and joined the course anyway.

Figure 7 – Choice of learning.

The majority said they did have a choice in how to study, but elected to undertake distance study. The remaining 25% who did not have a choice said that their working hours meant they were unable to take anytime out to attend face to face courses. If they had a choice, would they have attended face to face courses as opposed to opt for distance learning?

Out of the total sample, 75% said that work commitments were an influence in making the decision to undertake distance learning with the remaining 25% stated this was the only option for undertaking and completing the course.

All the students agreed that distance was more flexible and was a cheaper option.

Figure 8 – Effectiveness of distance learning

The research indicates that when the students were asked to compare distance learning having previously undertaken face to face learning, they all agreed that distance learning was worse. The students found it more difficult to express opinions over distance learning and missed the one to one question opportunity. Better communication via face to face because information was taken in and understood more easily. The speed of response was thought to be quicker and better via face to face with greater accuracy and clarity in the answers.

The students were asked if distance learning allowed discussions to take on a greater degree of thought and reflections, with 50% saying yes it did, and 50% saying no it did not.

Figure 9 – How many hours per week do you study?

The total number of hours per week given over to studying is split, with 50% of the surveyed saying 5 to 10 hours, whilst the remaining 50% saying 10 plus hours per week.

The difference could be down to level of experience, age, ease of distance learning or just the time it takes to undertake assignments. Each individual will have key skill bases that will allow then to complete the projects in different timelines, hence the difference in hours per week worked.

Using the Likert scale (Newby,2010) the results were conclusive that students felt 1 module per half term would improve the balance between study and home.

In completing the modules, 75% either agreed or strongly agreed that completing one module per half term as opposed to two over a term certainly improved the study/home life balance, with 25% saying they did not agree nor disagree.

This comes back to being able to prioritize their workload more successfully as they have a clear goal in a defined timeline, as opposed to a longer timeline where better time management could well be needed.

Figure 10 – When do you study?

The survey group had different work patterns, with 50% working at weekend, 25% in the week and 25% working across both. This would probably be driven by their respective home life, their career, if they have children and where they lived. Studying time would have to fit in around many other external factors.

All the surveyed agreed that the study time affected their home or social life. The younger individuals lost out on time meeting friends and going out and all agreed that weekend life with its need to undertake family and home jobs meant that their time was really squeezed. Time management was a key to getting all of the modules finished and in on time.

In terms of hobbies, all agreed that they had and enjoyed taking part in their hobbies, whether it was in the week or at weekends. Out of the survey, 50% stated that these were severely affected and the remaining 50% said that they were affected. Hobby time spent was certainly reduced with 50% saying that the distance learning had a significant affect on how much time they could send pursuing their hobbies over a given week.

The surveyed also found that their employers had very different reactions to their distance learning, with 75% being given no extra time off to help with their studies, and 25% being helped by their employer. The 25% who were helped were allowed on average one study day off per week.

Figure 11 – Is the study having a positive effect in your workplace?

Interestingly 50% said that the learning experience was having a positive effect on their work place, with 50% being unsure.

The positive impact allowed the newly gained knowledge to be used in the work place with positive effects, helping day to day running of work, cascading more information down to other staff members, additional responsibility being enjoyed and the general acceptance that the new learning was having a positive impact of the workplace and fellow colleagues.

In terms of dealing with the pressure of distance learning, all of those surveyed said they felt that the support they received as part of the online group did not help them deal with the added pressure and workload from the extra learning.

This could be down to the whole new experience of distance learning where previously they had the face to face time, where issues could be discussed and solutions found. Now if there are any issues, then the individual must try to find a solution themselves and so are potentially feeling more isolated and pressured.

75% did feel that having a mentor aided them in their day to day studies, where 25% were unsure. Again this could be down to the new experience of undertaking distance learning with the individuals taking to time to understand how to best use the mentor. As this process develops so the mentor could well be used more in a way to help find solutions to ongoing issues and problems. The mentor when asked had a great deal of knowledge, but the issue was still how best to use them.

All of the surveyed felt that having a mentor in no way helped them in reducing the number of hours they had to work. The mentor was there to help with specific questions, not to help with larger problem solving hence reducing the number of hours that had to be worked.

All of the surveyed felt with the advent of modern technology development, distance learning will play an important part for our future generations.

It was felt that individuals could go back and study without having to give up their jobs, the studying would be more convenient for them and their families, older students would not have to sit in a classroom with younger students so having perhaps a confidence issue and generally the feeling was being able to study at a time and in an environment that was more suited to the individual.

Reflection

The undertaken research and related results were indeed a very worthwhile process that yielded some frank and interesting points of view. With any form of research, hindsight plays an important part when reviewing the questions, the questionnaire, the sample size and the overall results. The information allowed the survey to demonstrate a view that distance learning on the home/work life balance is truly a challenge particularly when looking at the relative age and social position of the surveyed. The questionnaire included a number of dichotomous questions giving clear unequivocal responses (Cohen,Manion & Morrison,2011). Open questions gave participants an opportunity to write down their opinions generating qualitative data(Kumar,2001).

Research ethics as described by Blaxter et al. cited in Bell (2005) is about being clear about the nature of the agreement with the research participants. Clear instructions and the overarching ethics of the research meant there was no poor interpretation.

Sample sizes are always important and so the larger the sample size the more accurate and more believable the results become. Quality of the samples then becomes of paramount importance so though the sample size is small, the results are accurate and are a true reflection on what was reported within the questionnaire.

All data collection and results interpretation proved to be fairly straight forward mainly as the sample size was small and the surveyed students were willing to share their views and spend time accurately filling out the questionnaire.

References:
Barlette & Burton , S & D (2012) Researching education . London: Sage.

Bell, J (2005) Doing your Research Project . 4th ed. Berkshire: Open University Press.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011) Research Methods in Education . 7th ed. Oxon: Routledge.

Early Childhood Australia (2010) Code of Ethics literature review [Online]
Available at http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au [Accessed 25 November 2013]

Kumar, R (2011) Research Methodology. 3rd ed. Great Britain: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Lambert, E.B (2003) Introducing Research to Early Childhood Students. Australia : Social Science Press.

Sage (2010) Introduction to quantitative research [Online] Available at http://www.sagepub.com [Accessed 27 November 2013]

U.S Department of Health & Human Services (1979) The Belmont Report [Online] Available at http://www.hhs.gov [Accessed 1 December 2013]

Weatherall, S. (2013) Research terms, MOD001251 Research 1 . [Print] Anglia Ruskin University, Unpublished.

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Research Essay

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Research Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 2029

  • Pages: 8

Research

Research I

I. The effectiveness of Malunggay (Moringa Oleifera) as a soap…

II. The Feasibility of Paper to become Furniture…

III. The capability of Talahib (Saccharum spotaneum) to become a rope…

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The Effectiveness of Malunggay (Moringa Oleifera) as a Cleaning Agent (Biologically- Based Research)

Chapter 1

Introduction

A. Background of the Study

In our world, the taste of the chili was not famous to some people because it is spicy, hot, and very less aroma when eaten but because of its taste it is later on found out that chili was a good mosquito killer because of its pesticidal property while kamias was also used as spice but it was discovered that it has properties such as astringent, stomachic, refrigerant and anti scorbutic. Other researchers use kamias as wine but in this research the proponents was to test the properties of kamias fruit with chili as a mosquito killer.

B. Statement of the Problem
* The researchers aim to study the effect of Malunggay leaves as a cleaning agent of common household stains. * The researchers also aim to study how Malunggay (Moringa Oleifera) will be turned into a cleaning agent.

Essential Questions
* Can the Malunggay leaves be effective of being a Cleaning Agent? * Is there many or few differences between the Malunggay leaves or commercials? * Are the Malunggay leaves capable of replacing commerciality?

C. Hypotheses
* The Malunggay leaves will be effective when cleaning different kinds of stains, dirt, clutters, and bad odors * The Malunggay Cleaning Agent will be a great alternative in cleaning different kinds of surfaces.

D. Significance and Importance of the Research Study
This particular and specific research study can easily contribute to the youth generation, for them to be capable of deriving cleaning agents from different kinds of plants, fruits, vegetables and other great alternatives. It is again for the Youth to develop their resourcefulness by using alternative plants as different functions in life. Research studies like this also develops the value of open-mindedness to young researchers and if landed to the right plant, this will serve as an everyday use to clean common household stains.

E. Scope and Limitations
Our research study is only limited to the Malunggay plant and just the leaves of the Malunggay. This only occurs when the Malunggay leaves are pounded and scrubbed on common and everyday household stains.

F. Definition of Terms
* Cleaning Agent – a fragrant substance, liquid, is used to remove dirt, dusts, stains, bad smells and molds in different kinds of solid surfaces * Malunggay (Moringa Oleifera) – a native plant from India. But rapidly and immediately spread to tropical regions. Malunggay was considered medicinal food, because it is rich in vitamins, nutrients and different kinds of minerals. It is really helpful to those people who are suffering coughs and other diseases.

The Feasibility of Paper to become Furniture
(School- Based Research)

Chapter 1

Introduction

A. Background of the Study

Paper refers to a flexible material made from pulped rags, woods, and other related things, which is used to write on, wrap in or cover walls; a single sheet of this, an official document, newspaper, essay or lecture, a set of examination questions, personal documents are made of paper.

Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing, printing, drawing or packaging. It is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose from woods.

Paper is a versatile material with many uses. Whilst the common is for writing and printing. It is also seldomly used as food ingredient in Asian Cultures.

The oldest known archaeological fragments of the immediate precursor to modern paper date to 2nd century BC in China. The pulp papermaking process is ascribed to Cai Lun, a 2nd-century AD Han court eunuch. With paper an effective substitute for silk in many applications, China could export silk in greater quantity, contributing to a Golden Age.

Paper spread from China through the Middle East to medieval Europe in the 13th century, where the first water-powered paper mills were built. In the 19th century, industrial manufacture greatly lowered its cost, enabling mass exchange of information and contributing to significant cultural shifts. In 1844, Canadian inventor Charles Fenerty and German F.G. Keller independently developed processes for pulping wood fibers.

Furniture refers to the basic things, objects, and materials often used in everyday life such as chairs, tables, desks and other related things. These things are often made from wood, plastics, glass, steel and other sources. It refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as sitting and sleeping. Furniture is also used to hold objects at a convenient height for work.

B. Statement of the Problem
* The researchers aim to use paper from Sta. Clara Parish School (SCPS) and use waste papers to create different kinds of furniture. * The researchers also aim to study the factor of Reusing, Reducing and Recycling and helping Schools to make use of Waste Papers to become useful for people.

Essential Questions
* Can Paper be effective on making or creating different kinds of furniture? * Is there many or few differences between furniture made from paper and wood? * Can we make furniture out of paper and make it sturdy enough even when paper is used? * Is Paper capable of replacing furniture made from wood?

C. Hypotheses
* The researchers can say that Paper will be effective; it can be turned into furniture. * The Paper Furniture will be a great alternative and it can be sturdy furniture.

D. Significance and Importance of the Research Study
This particular and specific research study can easily contribute to the youth generation, for them to be capable of deriving furniture from different kinds of things, objects, and materials. It is again for the Youth to develop their resourcefulness by using alternative things as different functions in life. Research studies like this also develops the value of open-mindedness to young researchers and if landed to the right object, this will serve as an everyday furniture in many people’s houses.

E. Scope and Limitations
Our research study is only limited at Sta. Clara Parish School Pasay. And only the used papers or waste papers that can help a program of the school called Waste Minimization Program that is facilitated by the Student Coordinating Body (SCB). Waste Paper only occurs when a certain paper was already used and surely cannot be used again.

F. Definition of Terms
* Paper – A Thin material made from wood mainly used for writing, drawing, graphing, printing, packaging and other uses. * Furniture – These are the movable things that are made from wood. And commonly used for everyday activities such as sitting, eating in, sleeping, and other human activities for everyday. These examples are chairs tables, desks, bed and other.

The Capability of Talahib (Saccharum Spotaneum) as a Cleaning Agent (Physically- Based Research)

Chapter 1

Introduction

A. Background of the Study

Rope is a linear collection of plies, yarns or strands which are twisted or braided together in order to combine them into a larger and stronger form. Ropes have tensile strength and so can be used for dragging and lifting, but are far too flexible to provide compressive strength. As a result, they cannot be used for pushing or similar compressive applications. Rope is thicker and stronger than similarly constructed cord, line, string, and twine.

Rope may be constructed of any long, stringy, fibrous material, but generally is constructed of certain natural or synthetic fibres. Synthetic fibre ropes are significantly stronger than their natural fibre counterparts, but also possess certain disadvantages, including slipperiness. Rope is of paramount importance in fields as diverse as construction, seafaring, exploration, sports, hangings, theatre, and communications; and has been used since prehistoric times. In order to fasten rope, a large number of knots have been invented for countless uses.

Talahib (Saccharum Spotaneum) is a grass native to South Asia. It is a coarse, erect and perennial grass, growing up to three meters in height, with spreading rhizomatous roots Panicles are white and erect, measuring 15 to 30 centimetres long, with slender and whole branches, the joints covered with soft white hair. Spikelet are about 3.5 millimetres long, much shorter than the copious, long, white hairs at the base. In the Terai-Duar savannah and grasslands, a lowland eco-region at the base of the Himalaya range in Nepal, India, Bangladesh and Bhutan, Talahib grass quickly colonises exposed silt plains created each year by the retreating monsoon floods, forming almost pure stands on the lowest portions of the floodplain. It is also said that Talahib can be a great alternative medicine as well. In Siddha, the whole plant is used for diseases of vatam and pittam, vomiting and various abdominal disorders, mental diseases, dyspnoea, anemia and obesity. In Uttar Pradesh, paste prepared from equal quantities of fresh roots of Cynodon dactylon and Saccharum spotaneum is given with cow’s milk and sugar for leucorrhea, early morning for one month.

B. Statement of the Problem
* The researchers aim to study the effect of Talahib when used as a bundled, strengthened and tightened rope. * The researchers also aim to study how Talahib (Saccharum Spotaneum) will become or be bundled together as a rope.

Essential Questions
* Can the Talahib be used in making a strong rope?
* How strong is the Talahib rope if bundled and tightened together? * Is the Talahib rope capable of replacing the Synthetic Ropes?

C. Hypotheses
* The Talahib Rope will be strong, tightened and the researchers can make a bundle out of the Talahib Strands. * The Talahib Rope will be effective, efficient, useful and can be easily made.

D. Significance and Importance of the Research Study
This particular and specific research study can easily contribute to the youth generation, for them to be capable of deriving ropes from different kinds of plants and materials. It is again for the Youth to develop their resourcefulness by using alternative plants as different functions in life. Research studies like this also develops the value of open-mindedness to young researchers and if landed to the right plant, this will serve as an effective use in climbing, rescuing people and other activities that ropes are involved.

E. Scope and Limitations
Our research study is only limited to the Talahib plant and just the strands of the Talahib that is harvested. This only occurs when Talahib strands are thin-like structures and can undergo the process of bundling or combining together as one.

F. Definition of Terms
* Rope – Rope is a linear collection of plies, yarns or strands which are twisted or braided together in order to combine them into a larger and stronger form * Talahib (Saccharum Spotaneum) – is a grass native to South Asia. It is a coarse, erect and perennial grass, growing up to three meters in height, with spreading rhizomatous roots

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Research Essay

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Research Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 633

  • Pages: 3

Research

1. Dadaism- was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century. Many claim Dada began in Zurich, Switzerland in 1916, spreading to Berlin shortly thereafter but the height of New York Dada was the year before in 1915. To quote Dona Budd’s The Language of Art Knowledge. Dada was born out of negative reaction to the horrors of World War I. This international movement was begun by a group of artist and poets associated with the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich. Dada rejected reason and logic, prizing nonsense, irrationality and intuition.

The origin of the name Dada is unclear; some believe that it is a nonsensical word. Others maintain that it originates from the Romanian artists Tristan Tzara’s and Marcel Janco’s frequent use of the words da, da, meaning yes, yes in the Romanian language. Another theory says that the name “Dada” came during a meeting of the group when a paper knife stuck into a French-German dictionary happened to point to ‘dada’, a French word for ‘hobbyhorse’.

2. Cubism- is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, joined by Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, Fernand Léger and Juan Gris that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century. The term is broadly used in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris (Montmartre, Montparnasse and Puteaux) during the 1910s and extending through the 1920s.

Variants such as Futurism and Constructivism developed in other countries. A primary influence that led to Cubism was the representation of three-dimensional form in the late works of Paul Cézanne, which were displayed in a retrospective at the 1907 Salon d’Automne. In Cubist artwork, objects are analyzed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context.

3. Impressionism- is a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists. Their independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s, in spite of harsh opposition from the conventional art community in France. The name of the style derives from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, soleil levant(Impression, Sunrise), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satirical review published in the Parisian newspaper Le Charivari. Impressionist painting characteristics include relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles. The development of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed by analogous styles in other media that became known as impressionist music and impressionist literature.

4. Expressionism- was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas. Expressionist artists sought to express meaning or emotional experience rather than physical reality. Expressionism was developed as an avant-garde style before the First World War. It remained popular during the Weimar Republic, particularly in Berlin. The style extended to a wide range of the arts, including painting, literature, theatre, dance, film, architecture and music.

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