University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Personality and Ability
1) What determines our individual characteristics? In other words, is personality and ability determined by our genes, our environment, or some combination of both? a. What percentage of our personality is determined by our genes? 35 -49% b. What percentage of our ability is determined by our genes? 60%
2) What are the different taxonomies for classifying an individual’s personality? a. The Big Five – This taxonomy consists of five traits: Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Extraversion. It reliably measures personality traits and validly predicts many job outcomes. b. The Myers-Briggs Type Inventory – This taxonomy is one of the most popular. Unfortunately, it is not very reliable (take it once and you might be classified as an ESTJ, take it again and you might be classified as an ISFP). It also isn’t very valid. Why isn’t it valid? Well, for one, it isn’t reliable. (And remember, reliability is a precursor for validity). For another, it doesn’t really separate well from bad performers. This scale is not commonly used for selection or promotion purposes, but it is commonly used for teambuilding purposes…We both take the test, then we say, “Wow, look at me. I’m an ESTJ…I’m such an extraverted senser. What are you? An ISFJ? Oh that’s so cool. We are both senser and judgers. Let’s be good teammates now.” c. Holland’s RIASEC model (named after a dude, not the region of the Netherlands). This taxonomy is used to guide people into career fields…not much else. So, the main takeaway here is that on the question that asks, “Which taxonomy is best for making selection and promotion decisions?” Choose the Big Five.
3) The Big Five
a. What are the Big Five?
Conscientiousness: dependable, organized, methodical, reliable, persevering, ambitious, NOT careless, sloppy, inefficient, negligent, lazy and irresponsible Agreeableness: kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful, courteous, warm, not critical, not antagonistic, not callous, not selfish, not rude and cold Neuroticism: nervous, moody, emotional, insecure, jealous, unstable NOT calm, steady, relaxed, at ease, secure, contented Openness: curious, imaginative, creative, complex, refined, sophisticated, NOT
uninquisitive, conventional, conforming, simple, inartistic, traditional Extraversion: talkative, sociable, passionate, bold, dominant NOT quiet, shy, inhibited, bashful, reserved, submissive
b. Which two traits predict task performance across nearly all jobs? Conscientious and neuroticism
c. In what types of jobs are the other three traits valid predict of task performance? Agreeableness=service jobs, extraversion=sales or leadership, openness= learning
d. How does the strength of the situation impact the degree to which personality predicts task performance?
4) In class, we talked about personality testing. Each student completed a personality survey under (a) an honest condition and (b) a simulated job application condition.
a. Was there evidence that faking was a problem?
b. What are different techniques for alleviating faking on personality tests? Proactive measures
Use forced-choice inventories where applicants have to decide between equally desirable options (e.g., which adjective best describes you: ambitious or helpful?) Use conditional reasoning tests (rather than ask about your personality, ask questions then infer your personality based on your responses) Warn applicants not to fake
Require applicants to elaborate on their responses
Measure response times
Include items designed to catch fakers
c. Were we able to eliminate faking?
5) In general, what is the best individual characteristic (out of our personality traits and abilities) for predicting task performance?
a. What about if we are trying to predict an individual’s typical task performance? Motivation
b. What about if we are trying to predict an individual’s maximal task performance? Ability
6) What characteristic of the job impacts the relationship between cognitive ability and task performance? When is the relationship stronger and when is the relationship weaker? One of the best predictor of job performance. Gold standard in terms of individual difference predictors. Research evidence for the validity of general mental ability measures for predicting job performance is stronger than for any other method. Significantly undervalued by managers
On average, conscientiousness is a better predictor of employee performance than intelligence. 72% Increase organizational performance/profitability
7) Emotional ability – What are the dimensions of emotional ability? What do they mean? (If I give you an example, you should be able to tell me which dimension is being portrayed.) Self-awareness: Appraisal and expression of emotions in oneself. The ability of an individual to understand the types of she is experiencing, the willingness to acknowledge them and the capability to express them naturally. Other awareness: appraisal and recognition of emotion in others. Ability to recognize and understand the emotions that other people are feeling. Emotion regulation: ability to recover quickly from emotional experiences. Use of emotions: this capability reflects the degree to which people can harness emotions and employ them to improve their chances of being successful in whatever they’re seeking to.
Groups and Teams
1. What is task interdependence?
Team members interact with and rely on other team members for the information, materials, and resources needed to accomplish work for the team.
a. What are the different types of task interdependence?
Pooled interdependence: low task interdependence, easier to manage. Faster Sequential interdependence: different tasks are done in a prescribed order the interaction only occurs between members who perform task that are next to each other in the sequence. The latter part sustain the task after former part. One way interaction. Reciprocal interdependence: same sequential one but this is two way interaction. Comprehensive interdependence: highest level of interaction and coordination among members. High quality output, difficult to manage, more conflict, social loafers or dominant members, more simulate members, more catches errors, i. If I give you an example of a work team, you should be able to tell me what type work team they are (in terms of task interdependence). Work team, management team, parallel team, project team, action team ii. If I give you a type of work team (in terms of task interdependence), you should be able to tell me how their members interact iii. You should also be able to rank the task interdependence types in terms of the degree of coordination required. Comprehensive, reciprocal, sequential, pooled,
b. How does increasing the degree of coordination required (aka increasing task interdependence) affect process gains? Teams have more (and more diverse) knowledge / skills / information than the individuals Teams are able to “divide and conquer” tasks
Teams are better at catching errors than the individual who proposed the idea Teams are better at creating and enforcing production norms
Teams might stimulate individuals to perform better
Teams might stimulate a sense of belongingness
Members might learn knowledge / skills / information from other individuals in the team Members might positively impact others’ moods and emotions (emotional contagion)
c. How does increasing the degree of coordination required (aka increasing task interdependence) affect process losses? Coordination consumes time and energy that could have been devoted to the task Production blocking
Pressure to conform to the team and reluctance to criticize the comments of others Fear of negative evaluations from others may cause members to withhold ideas Some team members may exercise undue influence or monopolize the team’s time Members may exert less effort when working on team tasks (“social loafing”) Members might negatively impact others’ moods and emotions (emotional contagion)
2. What is goal interdependence?
The degree to which team members have a shared goal and align their individual goals with that vision” The more, the merrier.
Increases potential for process gains, decreases potential for process losses
a. How does increasing goal interdependence affect process gains?
b. How does increasing goal interdependence affect process losses?
3. What is outcome independence?
“The degree to which team members share equally in the feedback and rewards that result from the team achieving its goals. a. How does increasing outcome interdependence affect process gains? Answer: It depends on the situation. b. How does increasing outcome interdependence affect process losses? Answer: It depends on the situation. High outcome interdependence: Team members share in the rewards (pay, bonuses, feedback, recognition, etc.) that the team earns Advantages: promotes cooperation
Low outcome interdependence: Individual members receive rewards based on individual performance regardless of team performance Advantages: higher performing members prefer getting more rewards than rest.
4. If task interdependence is high (or low), how should outcome interdependence be designed to maximize the ratio of process gains to process losses? . If task interdependence is high, it is usually better to ensure that outcome interdependence is also high
5. If outcome interdependence is high (or low), how should task interdependence be designed to maximize the ratio of process gains to process losses? If outcome interdependence is low, it is usually better to try to ensure that task interdependence is also low.
6. What are some factors that make up a team’s composition? Member roles, member ability, member personality, team diversity, team size
7. What are the different team roles? If I explain a team role, you should be able to tell me whether it is a team task role, a team building role, or an individualistic role. a. What team roles generally benefit the team? What team role is generally negative? Whereas Task role and team building role benefit the team, individualistic roles are generally negative.
8. What is the relationship between team cognitive ability and team performance? a. When is this relationship stronger?
In general, a team’s cognitive ability is a moderate-to-strong predictor of team performance. As the task becomes more complex, the strength of the relationship between a team’s cognitive ability and its performance increases. 9. What is the best combination of team members in terms of: a. Conscientiousness- variance is important, too much is bad b. Extraversion-variance is important, too little variance can be bad c. Agreeableness- minimum is important, no members are too low.
10. What is the impact of diversity on team outcomes? More specifically:
a. For which types of tasks is diversity generally good?
1. The The task is complex and requires creativity
2. attributes considered are related to knowledge and perspectives (ethnicity, expertise, personality, attitudes, etc.)
b. For which types of tasks is homogeneity (the lack of diversity) good? Regular work, low task complexity, requires efficiency
c. What is surface-level diversity?
Diversity regarding observable attributes such as race, sex, and age. i. How does it impact process losses over time?
These process losses typically disappear over time
d. What is deep-level diversity?
Diversity regarding attributes that are less easy to observe initially, but that can be inferred after more direct experience such as attitudes, values, and personality i. How does it impact process losses over time?
These process losses usually increase over time
11. What are task work processes?
Creative behavior, decision making, boundary spanning
a. In terms of decision making, why do some teams make bad decisions (i.e., what are the components that lead to poor team decisions)? Decision infirmity: reflects whether members possess adequate information about their own task responsibilities. Staff validity: is the degree to which members make a good recommendations to the leader. Team members can possess all the information needed to make a valid recommendation but then fail to do so because of a lack of ability, insight or good judgment. Hierarchical sensitivity: is the degree to which the leader effectively weighs the members’ recommendations.
12. What are teamwork processes?
a. If I describe behaviors and interactions within a team, you should be able to tell me whether these processes are transition, action, or interpersonal processes. Transition processes: teamwork activities that focus on preparation for future work. Action processes: monitoring progress toward goals. Teams that pay attention to goal related information are typically in a good position to realize when they are off track and need to make changes. Interpersonal processes: motivating and confidence building, affect management, conflict management,
b. Also, you should know:
i. When are transition processes most valuable to team success? ii. When are action processes most valuable to team success? iii. When are interpersonal processes most valuable to team success?
13. What are team states?
a. What is cohesion?
Emotional attachment that tends to foster high levels of motivation and commitment to the team. i. How does cohesion affect team outcomes?
Tend to promote higher level of team performance.
ii. What is groupthink?
Feelings of overconfidence about the team capabilities.
b. What is potency?
Is the degree to which members believe that the team can be effective across a variety of situations and tasks. i. How does potency affect team outcomes?
When a team has a high potency, members are confident that their team can perform well. Vice versa. c. What are mental models?
Level of common understanding among team members with regard to importantaspects of the team and its task. 14. How do teams develop over time…
a. …according to the Stage Based Model of Team Development?
b. …according to the Punctuated Equilibrium Model of Team Development?
1. What is power?
The ability to influence the behavior of others and resist unwanted influence in return. a. What are the different types of power? Personal, organizational i. What types are derived from a person’s position within the organization? Legitimate power: is derived from a position of authority inside the organization and is sometimes referred to as formal authority. Reward power, coercive power
ii. What types are derived from factors other than formal authority? Personal power: expert power, referent power
b. What are some contingency factors that influence whether or not a person has power? (If I describe a situation, you should be able to tell me what contingency is responsible for the person’s power or lack of power). Power contingency factors: situations in organizations that are likely to increase or decrease the degree to which leaders can use their power to influence others. These include substitutability: there are no substitutes for the rewards or resources the leader controls. Discretion: the leader has the freedom to make his or her own decisions without being restrained by organizational rules. Centrality: the leader’s role is important and interdependent with others in the organization Visibility: others know about the leader and the resources he or she can provide.
2. What are the different influence tactics? If I describe a situation, you should be able to tell me what influence tactic is being used. a. Which tactics are most effective? Rational persuasion, consultation, inspirational appeals, collaboration b. Which tactics are least effective? Pressure, coalitions
c. When trying to influence a superior, which tactic is most effective? Engagement
3. What are the different responses to influence tactics?
a. What influence tactics often lead to internalization/engagement vs. compliance vs. resistance? Engagement occurs when the target of influence agrees with and becomes committed to the influence request Compliance: occurs when targets of influence are willing to do what the leaders asks but they do it with a degree of ambivalence. Resistance: target refuses to perform the influence request. Influencer’ power is low relative to the target or request itself is unreasonable.
4. What are the different conflict resolution techniques? a. What types of outcomes do we expect from the different techniques? Competing: high assertiveness, low cooperation (win-lose)
Avoiding: low assertiveness, low cooperation (lose-lose)
Accommodating: low assertiveness, high cooperation (lose-win) Collaboration: high assertiveness, high cooperation (win-win) the best outcome Compromise: moderate assertiveness, moderate cooperation (win-lose) easy and common 5. Trait theories of leadership:
a. Out of the Big Five and cognitive ability, which two traits are the strongest predictors of leader emergence? Conscientiousness and extraversion b. Out of the Big Five and cognitive ability, which trait is the strongest predictor of leader effectiveness? Cognitive ability c. According to the trait theories of leadership:
i. What leadership outcome is best predicted by personality? leader emergence ii. What leadership outcome is best predicted by cognitive ability? Leader effectiveness
d. Basic premise of trait vs. behavior theories: If traits predict leadership, then organizations should invest in hiring people with general dispositions to be leaders. If not, then organizations should not focus on hiring the right people, but instead, should focus on training people to be good leaders. Research shows that both traits and behaviors predict leadership. So, organizations should focus on hiring people that are predisposed to be better leaders and then training these people how to be the best leaders they can be.
6. Behavior theories of leadership:
a. What are the two general categories of leader behaviors? If I describe a particular behavior, you should be able to tell me whether it is an example of “Consideration” or “Initiating Structure”. Initiating Structure: the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his/her roles and those of employees in the search for goal attainment Consideration: the extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships that are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their feelings b. What outcomes do these leader behaviors predict? (You don’t need to know which behaviors “moderately” are vs. “strongly” related to which outcomes…just that these two behaviors are both pretty good predictors of the set of outcomes.)
7. Contingency theories of leadership:
a. According to the Life Cycle Theory of Leadership:
i. When followers are unable, initiating structure is important ii. When followers are unwilling, consideration is important iii. Followers usually progress through 4 stages:
1. Unable but Willing
2. Unable and Unwilling
3. Able but Unwilling
4. Able and Willing
iv. So, in Stage 1 (Unable but Willing), initiating structure behaviors are required. In Stage 2, both initiating structure and consideration behaviors are required. In Stage 3, consideration behaviors are required. And in Stage 4, since the group is both willing and able, neither initiating structure nor consideration behaviors are necessarily required…the team will excel on its own. b. According to the Time-Driven Model of Leader Decision-Making Styles i. What are the different decision-making styles and how do they differ in terms of who is responsible for what?
ii. I am not going to ask you to memorize the “decision-tree”. But you need to know that the effectiveness of the decision-making style is contingent upon the situation. In some situations, an autocratic style is most important, in others, a facilitative style, etc.
iii. What might happen if leaders use inappropriate styles?
You may end up making an incorrect decision
The decision-making process may be inefficient (take more time or cost more money) The subordinates may not buy in to the decision
c. According to Leader-Member Exchange Theory:
Leaders treat different subordinates differently and the effectiveness of a leader is contingent on the relationship between the leader and the particular member(s) i. Who gets invited into the “in-group”?
Those who are competent, likeable, and more similar to the leader in terms of attitudes and values. ii. What are the advantages of being in the “in-group”?
More trusted, receive a disproportionate amount of the leader’s attention, receive special privileges iii. What are the disadvantages of being in the “in-group”? Rise and fall with the success of the leader.
iv. How do people in the “in-group” differ from people in the “out-group” in terms of performance, turnover, and satisfaction? Higher performance, less turnover, greater job satisfaction
Rate the leader as more effective.
d. According to Critical Theories of Leadership:
i. If substitutes or neutralizers are present, is it best to spend a lot of money hiring, training, and developing leaders? If neutralizers are present, then spending time and money hiring, training, and developing leaders might not be worth it because they will have little impact on the success of their subordinates Have to consider whether it will be more effective to hire, train, and develop leaders or to focus on leader substitutes instead Good leaders often try to build substitutes so that the unit can run itself When evaluating leader performance, it is important to determine whether success (or failure) is due to the leader or to substitutes and neutralizers. e. What are the different leadership styles? If I explain a leader, you should be able to tell me whether the leader is using a laissez-faire, passive management-by-exception, active management-by-exception, contingent reward, transformational, etc. Laissez-faire: Hands off style of leadership, Leader avoids getting involved
Management by exception (passive): Leader only gets involved when mistakes are made
Management by exception (active): Leader monitors group, looking for mistakes and gets involved only when mistakes are made. Contingent reward: Leader makes rewards contingent on favorable performance.
What helps leaders “transform” followers so that they are willing to work beyond expectations to benefit the collective good? Idealized influence: provides a vision and a sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust Inspirational motivation: fosters enthusiasm for and commitment to a shared vision of the future Intellectual stimulation: challenges followers to be innovative and creative Individualized consideration: helps followers achieve their potential through coaching, development, and mentoring f. What are the factors that separate transformational leaders from other leaders? Followers of transformational leaders work harder and are more committed to the group and organization Transformational leadership is strongly related to leader emergence and leader effectiveness Leaders can be trained in transformational leadership styles
Dark side: Followers can be convinced to act unethically or immorally.
A good leader has desirable leadership traits
A good leader exhibits effective leadership behaviors
A good leader matches the leadership behavior to the situation A good leader guides individuals and motivates them to perform at a high level
A great leader transforms followers so that they are willing to work beyond expectations to benefit the collective good