University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Osteoporosis and Bone
Calcium helps to keep bones strong but just drinking milk doesn’t mean that you won’t get osteoporosis. You may be genetically inclined to get it even though you drink milk every day. There are also many other things that contribute to getting osteoporosis, like not eating enough calcium, doing steroids causes bones to become weak and look like sponges when looking at it under a microscope. Scenarios A,B, and C help to explain that it’s not just the calcium that can cause osteoporosis Scenario A:
1. The skeleton is a metabolically active organ that undergoes continuous remodeling throughout life. Bone remodeling involves the removal of mineralized bone by osteoclasts followed by formation of bone matrix through the osteoblasts that subsequently become mineralized. The remodeling cycle consists of three constructive phases resorption, during which osteoclasts digest bone; reversal, when mononuclear cells appear on bone surface; and formation, when osteoclasts lay down new bone until the reabsorbed bone is completely replaced. Bone remodeling serves to adjust bone architecture to meet changing mechanical needs and helps to repair micro damages in bone matrix preventing the accumulation of old bone. It also plays an important role in maintaining plasma calcium homeostasis. 2. Calcium is essential for maintaining the necessary level of bone to support the structures of the body. The body is constantly using calcium fir the heart, blood, muscles, and nerves.
Calcium is also lost through normal bodily process such as waste and the shedding of hair, finger nails, sweat and skin. If a patient’s diet doesn’t include enough calcium to replace what it used, the body will take calcium away from the bone, which weakens them and makes them more likely to fracture. 3. Parathyroid hormone enhances as the release of calcium from large reservoirs contained in the bones. Bone resorption is the normal destruction of bone by osteoclasts; which are indirectly stimulated by PTH. Calcitonin, which is produced by your thyroid gland, serves to lower blood calcium levels. It counters the actions of the PTH. Calcitonin inhibits osteoclast function, slowing the breakdown of bone. By opposing the action of PTH on the kidneys it also increases excretion of calcium in the urine. A high level of calcitonin, which may be caused by a thyroid tumor generally doesn’t result in elevated blood calcium. 4. In osteoporosis, the osteoclast are breaking down bone faster than the osteoblasts are building it up – which results in bone porosity(they begin to look like sponge on a microscope level) which results in increased risk of fractures from stress and trauma.
5. In a ground breaking international study, which led partially from the Sahlgerska Academy, researchers have now succeeded in identifying a total of 56 genetic regions that control bone density in human beings. Fourteen of these genetic variants increase the risk of fractures, th study, which has been published in the world leading journal Nature Genetics had shown. “We can prove that women who have a large number of genetic variants associated with low bone density have up to a 56% higher risk of osteoporosis as compared with women who have a normal set-ups of the same genetic variants” comments Claes Ohlsson.
The results have led to several findings in bone density that can be targets for new treatment methods and therapies. 6. Sex(male of female), Age, Race, Family history, frame size, sex hormones, thyroid hormones, other glands, low calcium intake, eating disorders, gastrointestinal surgery, steroids , prednisone, cortisone, medications, sedentary lifestyle, excessive alcohol consumption and tobacco use. 7. There are typically are no symptoms in the early stages of bone loss. But once bones have been weakened by osteoporosis, you may have signs and symptoms that include: back pain, caused by fracture or collapsed vertebra, loss of height over time, a stooped posture, a bone fracture that occurs much more easily than expected. Scenario B:
1. It is essential for muscle contraction, but also essential to the structure and health of bones. Bones are continually remodeling and reforming and calcium is a vital part of this process. Without calcium bones can become very thin. Bones are structured to provide strength, protection, and movement. In addition the structure allows the bones to serve as a reservoir for several minerals including calcium because calcium can quickly move between the bone and the blood. 2. Foods high in calcium consist of spinach, kale, okra, collards, soybeans, white beans, some fish (such as sardines, salmon, perch, and rainbow trout), some orange juice, oatmeal and breakfast cereal.
3. Vitamin D promotes calcium absorption in the gut and maintains serum calcium and phosphate concentrations to enable normal mineralization of bone and to prevent hypocalcemia tetany. It is also needed for bone growth and bone remodeling by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Without significant vitamin D bones can become brittle, thin, or misshapen. Vitamin D sufficiency rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Together with calcium and vitamin D also helps protect older adults form osteoporosis. 4. Men and women have different allowances such as men :
71- older 1,200mg
And there are also supplements
Calcium carbonate (40% of elemental calcium)
Calcium citrate (21% elemental calcium)
Calcium gluconate (19% elemental calcium)
Calcium lactate (13% elemental calcium)
5. Heavy drinking can lead to bone loss. Coffee, tea, and some soft drinks containing caffeine which may decrease calcium absorption and contribute to bone loss. Eating salty foods that have a lot of salt (sodium) cause your body to lose calcium and can lead to bone loss. 6. During childhood and adolescence, much more bone is deposited than withdrawn, so the skeleton grows in both size and density. Up to 90% of peak bone mass is acquired by age 18 in of girls and 20 in boys which makes youth the best to invest in your bone health. The amount of bone tissue in the skeleton, known as bone mass can keep growing until around age 30. At the point, bones have reached their maximum strength and density known as peak bone mass. 7. There are 3 types of exercises
Weight bearing – walking, hiking, dancing, and stair climbing
Resistance – free weights, weight machines, water exercises
Flexibility – regular stretches, Thai chi, yoga
To maintain the amount of thickness of your bones.
8. Any of a large class of organic compound with a characteristic molecular structure containing far rings is carbon atoms. They include many hormones, alkaloids and vitamins. Steroids medicines are manmade but are similar to these natural hormones. The type of steroid used to treat disease is called corticosteroids. They are different to the anabolic steroids which some athletes and body builders use. Anabolic steroids have very different effects. 9. The often harsh organic compounds that make up steroids accelerate this deterioration of your bone, therefor increasing the risk of osteoporosis. Scenario C
1. The psysiogical stage menstating women go through when approaching menopause, due to hormone changes. 2. Menopause causes estrogen and progesterone levels to decrease, which is why menstruation and ovulation cease. Also estrogen helps the bones absorb calcium. 3. Maintaining an appropriate level of calcium and is important not only for bone growth over time but also for protecting bone strength. Estrogen supports this activity by aiding in intestinal absorption of calcium. Having low estrogen levels negatively impacts your body’s ability to make use of calcium you consume. This, in part explains why you are more at risk for osteoporosis if you’re a female.
4. The toxins upset the balance of hormones that bones need to stay strong. Your liver produces more estrogen destroying enzymes, which also lead to bone loss. Smoking triggers bone- damaging changes such as increased levels of hormone cortisol which leads to bone breakdown. Nicotine and free radicals also kill osteoblasts. The longer you smoke and the more cigarettes you consume the greater risk for fracture in old age. Smoking lowers level of estrogen and smoking also slows calcium absorption.
5. HRT is given to some women whose estrogen and progesterone levels drop significantly because of menopause. Women with low estrogen, oestrogen, and progesterone. 6. Cons of HRT- increases the risk of breast cancer, heart disease, stroke, blood clots, and gallbladder disease. The pros of HRT- prevents bone loss that can lead to osteoporosis, relieves symptoms of menopause, decrease the risk of colon cancer, and decrease the risk of macular degeneration.