University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Managing Paediatric Illness and Injury
1. Describe the common types of fractures and how to manage them. Broken bone.
Based on the location and severity of the fracture, a broken bone usually must be set into position and supported until it is strong enough to bear weight. Your physician will recommend the most proven treatment approach, usually casting or surgery
2. Describe how to manage a dislocation
Relieve pain around the dislocation by applying a cold pack to the area; this will also reduce swelling that can add to discomfort injury. Keep joint immobile and do not try to push the bone back in place. Offer ibuprofens if in severe pain, monitor the patient until the professionals arrive.
3. Describe how to recognise and manage the following head injuries: A concussion: you get dizziness, nausea, loss of memory, mild headache, seeing “stars”, double vision, numbness and lack of hand-eye coordination. B skull fracture: you will probably see an external wound or bruise on the head and there may be a depression visible on the scalp. Check behind the ears for swelling or bruising. There may be loss of clear fluid or watery blood through an eye or nostril, blood in the white of the eye, a black-eye, and the symmetry of the head or face may be disrupted. The responsiveness of the victim may deteriorate C cerebral compression: levels of response deteriorate; headaches tend to be intense; noisy, slowed, or irregular breathing; pupil sizes unequal; paralysis or weakness on one side of the body or face; drowsiness; temperature spike, fever, or flushed face; personality changes
4. Describe how to manage an infant and a child with foreign bodies in their eyes, ears and nose. If a child gets sand, dust, or paint in their eyes, then we can try removing it ourselves, firstly wear clean pair of disposable gloves, and gently pull the bottom eye lid down, and with a clean wet tissue try to clean the eye, and if that don’t work, then try to wash the eye out with water, position the child’s head over the sink or bowl with eye open and wash the eye out using plastic cup, try to pour the water for the side of the eye, if this still don’t work then go to the nearest walking centre. There are several things that can get stuck in ears and nose, common ones like batteries, beads, nuts. If a child does get anything small stuck in their nose or ear, unless it can easily be pulled out with a firm grip then go for it, if not don’t try because you may end up pushing it further back and making it difficult, in these kind of situations you need to call a first aider, or take the child to the nearest walking centre to get it removed.
5. Describe how to recognise and manage common eye injuries
Eye injuries can range from relatively trivial, such as irritating the eye with shampoo, to extremely serious, resulting in permanent loss of vision. Common causes of eye injuries include, something like a small particle of grit or a twig damages the transparent front part of the eye known as the cornea – this type of injury is known as a corneal abrasion. A foreign body such as a small piece of wood or metal gets stuck in the eye. A sudden blow to the eye, from a fist or a cricket ball for example, causes the middle section of the eye (the uvea) to become swollen – this type of injury is known as traumatic uveitis. Wash your eyes out for 20 minutes if you think they have been exposed to a chemical. Ideally, you should wash the eye with saline solution, but tap water will be fine if saline is unavailable. Use plenty of water. Water from a garden hose or water fountain is okay if you’re outside. Then go immediately to your nearest A&E department. It’s also important to go to A&E if you cut your eye and it starts bleeding or if you have something stuck in your eye. Never try to remove anything from your eye as you could damage it.
6. Describe how to recognise and manage chronic medical conditions including:a. Sickle cell anaemia.
Sickle cell disease is an inherited disorder in which red blood cells are abnormally shaped. This abnormality can result in painful episodes, serious infections, chronic anaemia, and damage to body organs. These complications can, however, vary from person to person depending on the type of sickle cell disease each has. Some people are relatively healthy and others are hospitalized frequently. But thanks to advancements in early diagnosis and treatment, most kids born with this disorder grow up to live relatively healthy and productive lives.
The main symptoms of diabetes are:
feeling very thirsty
urinating frequently, particularly at night
feeling very tired
weight loss and loss of muscle bulk
Type 1 diabetes can develop quickly, over weeks or even days. Many people have type 2 diabetes for years without realising because early symptoms tend to be general. The amount of sugar in the blood is usually controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is produced by the pancreas (a gland behind the stomach). When food is digested and enters your bloodstream, insulin moves glucose out of the blood and into cells, where it is broken down to produce energy. However, if you have diabetes, your body is unable to break down glucose into energy. This is because there is either not enough insulin to move the glucose, or the insulin produced does not work properly.
Asthma is caused by inflammation of the airways. These are the small tubes, called bronchi, which carry air in and out of the lungs. If you have asthma, the bronchi will be inflamed and more sensitive than normal. When you come into contact with something that irritates your lungs, known as a trigger, your airways become narrow, the muscles around them tighten and there is an increase in the production of sticky mucus. This leads to symptoms including: Difficulty breathing
Wheezing and coughing
A tight chest.
While there is no cure for asthma, there are a number of treatments that can help effectively control the condition. Treatment is based on two important goals: Relieving symptoms
Preventing future symptoms and attacks from developing
Treatment and prevention involves a combination of medicines, lifestyle advice, and identifying and then avoiding potential asthma triggers. Read more about living with asthma.
7. Describe how to recognise and manage serious sudden illnesses including a. Meningitis
Viral meningitis usually gets better within a couple of weeks, with plenty of rest and painkillers for the headache. Bacterial meningitis is treated with antibiotics (medication that treats infections caused by bacteria). Treatment will require admission to hospital, with severe cases treated in an intensive care unit so the body’s vital functions can be supported. The best way to prevent meningitis is by ensuring vaccinations are up-to-date. Children in the UK should receive the available vaccines as part of the childhood vaccination programme. b. Febrile convulsions
Febrile seizures are also sometimes called febrile convulsions. During most seizures the child’s body becomes stiff, they lose consciousness and their arms and legs twitch. Some children may wet themselves. This is what’s known as a tonic colonic seizure. If your child is having a febrile seizure, place them in the recovery position. Lay them on their side, on a soft surface, with their face turned to one side. This will stop them swallowing any vomit. It will keep their airway open and help to prevent injury. Stay with your child and try to make a note of how long it lasts. If it is your child’s first seizure, or it lasts longer than five minutes, take them to the nearest hospital as soon as possible or call 999 for an ambulance. While it is unlikely that there is anything seriously wrong, it is best to be sure. If your child has had febrile seizures before and the seizure lasts for less than five minutes. Try not to put anything, including medication, in your child’s mouth during a seizure as there is a slight chance that they might bite their tongue. Almost all children make a complete recovery, and there is not a single reported case of a child dying as the direct result of a febrile seizure.
8. Describe how to recognise and treat the effects of extreme cold and extreme heat for an infant and a child. When a child has an extreme cold the signs and symptoms are Shivering in the early stages
Cold, pale and dry skin
Low temperature 35 degrees or less
Irrational behaviour, slow shallow breathing
Cold to touch
Refuses to feed
Treatment for this will be to remove and replace wet clothing, wrap in a warm blanket cover their head place in a warm room. Give them a hot drink only if they can hold the cup. If it’s a baby then warm them up slowly and place them in a warm room, use your body heat to warm them, and seek for medical advice. When a infant or child has an extreme heat the signs and symptoms could be Gradual onset
Sweating, cold, clammy skin
Dizziness, confusion, headache
Cramps in limbs and or abdomen
Shallow rapid breathing, nausea
Treatment for this is
Reassure, remove casualty to cool place
Lie down with legs raised
If conscious encourage to sip plenty of fluids
If recovery is rapid advise them to see the doctor
If unconscious put them in recovery and call 999 for ambulance