Managing and developing people Essay

Managing and developing people Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 4067

  • Pages: 16

Managing and developing people

Executive Summary:
Procter and Gamble (P&G) is a business idea developed by William Procter and James Gamble. The company was established in the year 1837. Initially the company, engaged in making candles and soaps. However, later the company started producing consumer goods such as beauty care, health care, baby products, food and beverages etc. The company suffered with several organizational and cultural issues between 1999 and 2000. The case study on P&G, suggests that the period of 1999 and 2000 has been headed by two different CEOs i.e. Durk Jager and Alan Lafley. Both of them managed the company in their own style and presented a good example of leadership skills. Therefore, the aim objective of this report is to highlight the challenges faced by P&G. The organizational challenges under this report will be evaluated on the basis of strategic development, HR practices and leadership styles under the two different CEOs. Although, each of the CEOs had there own individual personality, management style, leadership style and functioning but both of them evidently contributed towards the success of P&G. Additionally, strategic recommendations will be provided in the form of 5 year strategic plan which will be helpful in improving the HR performance, organizational culture and the overall financial performance of the organization.


This report is solely positioned on the assessment of the organizational issues. These issues are present in Procter and Gamble under the leadership of two different individuals, Durk Jager who headed the organization in July 1999 and under the regime of Alan Lafley who ruled in June 2000. Both the styles of leadership and actions taken will be critically evaluated with reference to strategic development, leadership skills and HR practices. During mid- late 1990s, Durk Jager launched the organizational restructuring exercise, which included refurbishment of P&G’s organizational culture, retrenchment of employees along with reduction in hierarchies.

Strategic development basically involves the changes and plans that were initiated within the organization by each of the leaders separately. Further, this report will be evaluating the consequences of these changes on the performance of the company. Secondly, Leadership styles will be explained on the basis of leading methods of both the CEOs and these methods will be analyzed using the transactional and transformational theories of leadership. Additionally, this report will analyze how employees overall performs due to different leadership styles. Thirdly, HR operations will determine the practices and rules that supervise personnel management, organizational behavior and employee relations. However, all these activities will be seen under both leader’s authority. Finally, this report will demonstrate behavioral aspects of employees and their individual needs. In the last, the report will consist of strategic recommendations in regards to all the issues described. This will be carried out through a SWOT analysis on the existing HR rules and policies. Moreover, the plan in the report will address both best-fit and best practice concepts.

Strategic Development:

Durk Jager Vs Lafley:
It may be defined as strategy that is adopted by the business to grow its business (CIPD 2012). However, Durk Jager at his time of presidency introduced various changes. He used Information Technology (IT) as catalyst for change, his vision was to influence innovative approach. According to Jager, the only way to increase the growth, sale , volume and earning is to remain constant throughout. Along with these changes, reorganization of company’s corporate structure was done; P&G increased its business unit from four to five under Jager’s supervision. Jager believed that his step would help to speed up decision-making power within the organization and additionally it helps in eradicating bureaucracy (Bryson 1988). The strategic development has various benefits such as it helps organization to think strategically, helps in clarifying future directions clearly, improves performance of both employees and organizations and most importantly it effectively deals with the speedily changing conditions. However, Jager did not predicted hassle this brought to the employees of the organization by increasing the gap in the communication. For example line manager of one country is liable to report to the line manager in another country. Moreover, employees did not seem to be happy about the acquired changes (Bradutan and Sarbu nd). Employee of the P&G were not satisfied and suggested that the system have a loophole. The culture of the organization went through many other changes like they discarded old dressing code, the employees were given opportunity to decide their own dress.

While some of the things changed for bad, the others were good too. For instance, due to new changes all employees were treated equally by serving coffee in the same cups. Hence, after these changes the organization is aligned on common goals, high level of team collaboration, leaders were able to take up more challenging tasks. Therefore as a result of implemented change, Jager’s measures to change were not successful. The changes faced several problems, consequently the net profit declined to 18%. Whereas, again in the history of P&G another president named Lafley made various efforts to improve the declining conditions of the organization. He made the initial change by transferring 15 seniors most officers and gave all the high level of job roles to women. According to him this effort will help in promoting competition in the top-level hierarchies amongst the organization (Reid, Flin and Mearns 2008). Furthermore, Herzberg’s two-factor model also suggest that nature of work, recognition, job satisfaction level also helps in increasing motivation of the employees. Therefore, Lafley suggested that people on the top level management tends to be motivated by the suggested factors by Herzberg (Hyun 2009). Just like Jager, Lafley too emphasized on IT however, his action plan was mainly focused on customers. This is however a good point because it adds on a competitive advantage other competitors. While Jager practiced inflexible, inward and constant approach. On the opposite hand, Lafley wanted P&G to more open to challenges, flexible and outwardly.

Leadership :
Durk Jager Vs Lafley :
The two leaders Jager and Lafley both demonstrated two different kinds of leadership skills namely, transformational leaders and transactional leaders. However, both depict different personality; the transactional leader addresses the worldly necessity of the employee whereas, the transformational leader focuses on the individual-concept of the employee and the employee’s consciousness of self-worth. The transformational leader motivates the follower to habitus a self-concept that identifies with the leader’s self-idea and mission. To endeavor for consistency, the follower is motivated to apply extra effort to match the follower’s personal self-concept and operation with the leader and thereby increases his or her own sense of self-quality as a result. In 1978 Burnes, explained that transformational leadership represents a leadership style that is signified by shared vision and charisma between followers and the leaders. The potential of transformational leaders comes from their power to impact and animate others to originate exceptional piece of work. In comparison, transactional leadership explains more of a “give and take”on the job relationship – close relationship between leader and follower is constituted through transaction, such as a remuneration system for achieving any particular target or goal (Lai 2011). According to this case study, Jager tried implementing too many changes in a short interval of time therefore he represents an autocratic leadership quality.

Whereas, Lafley demonstrated democratic leadership skills and style, hence represents a democratic leader, who tries to convince all his employees (Bakhtari 1995). Jager’s leadership style was conservative, and very methodical whereas, Lafley took more pragmatic approach and a gradual approach. Lafley was considered to be transformational leader. Bass in 1985 suggested. Transformational leaders widen and promote the interests of masses, create awareness and acceptance among the people of the purposes and operation of the group and propel followers to go on the far side of their self-interests for the benefit of others (Hartog, Van Muijen and Koopman 1997). Therefore, demonstrating the transformational leadership skills, Lafley deeply inspired their employees. He always inspired his subordinates to perform beyond the expectation. As a transformational leader, Lafley gently communicated to employees stating the need to cultural change. Whereas, Jager do not believe in communicating the change process to its employees. Role of communication is really vital in the process of change. Postmes in 2001, suggests that employees will be actively committed if they attain adequate information to execute their task, and this message was presented to them via formal official channels rather than casual channels. Social communication with peer group and direct superiors foreseen commitment less than communication with more superior management did, and communication with a social emotional content was little predictive of loyalty than formal communication (Elving 2006).

Human Resource (HR) Practice:

Human Resource is the most crucial asset for any organization and it is the root of achieving competitive advantage. Managing human resources is very difficult as compared to managing technology or capital and for its effectual management, administration requires effective HRM scheme. HRM system should always be backed up by safe HRM practices. HRM practices refer to business activities oriented at managing the reserve of human resources and ensuring that the resources are employed towards the satisfaction of organizational goals. Procter and Gamble (P&G) always treated employees of the organization as its own family members. The vision of the organization is to focus on the company’s principles, core values and purpose. The organization gives pay off on Saturday of every week. The organization offered a sickness, life insurance plan, and disability benefits. They moreover, granted forty-eight weeks of employment to the employees in a year. P&G’s recruitment process is comprehensive in manner, the HR department scans resume for the most promising candidate. The company selects its candidates on the basis of applicant’s aptitude test for problem solving and leadership skills. P&G’s HR policies focused on delegating responsibility and accountability to the new recruits in order to develop and build the long lasting careers with in the company. The unique feature of P&G is amongst the best features, i.e. the new recruits are supposed to spend the first year of their employment in the P&G’s college. In this college different types of courses are taught so that the new comer can gain a deep insight as to what to expect and how to deal with the situation that might erupt in future during the time of employment. However, P&G followed several code of conducts for the benefits of the employees and to encourage dedicate working environment. For instance; employees were reminded not to disturb other workers or to visit other sector or department, except in case of extreme urgency. All these rules and regulation changed slightly during the regime of two different leaders.


Due to its transactional leadership nature, P&G was popularly known for its narrow – minded, and conservative image. Therefore, the HR policies under Jager’s regime were not people- centered. This Change, from people – centric to target – centric came as a surprise to the employees. This shock created an outrage within the employees. This outrage further leads to resistance to change. The literature suggests that resistance occurs in situation when the goal, ideas, reason and targets of change is unclear and not wisely communicated to the employees. The employee resistance towards change, also occurred due to uncertainty, threat to skills and inconvenience etc. Schein in 1999 proposed, that the culture of organization is very difficult to change (Maurer 2006). In the very starting Jager, introduced an extended goal plans and therefore resulted in setting up the unrealistic targets for the employees. However on analyzing the situation, it seemed to be a good move, as it will help in uplifting those employees who are not performing or who are under performing. Whereas on the other hand, unachievable targets can also demotivate employees and further the employees may become unproductive in terms of work.

From the situation, it can be analyzed that Locke’s goal setting theory is not used in this organization, under the regime of Jager. According to the theory of Locke, goals should always be specific, must be attainable in nature, must be accepted by the organizational members and most importantly the leader should provide feedback on the goal attained. All these are necessary to keep people motivated and aligned towards attaining the goal (Lunenburg 2011). In contrast with this theory, Jager proposed all things in contrast du to which employee’s resisted change. Secondly, he introduced a new remuneration system that was meant for only those employees that contributed extraordinary. This is both good and bad for employees, it is considered to be good because it gave recognition to the employees who performed well. While in a team-based achievement, rewarding an individual seems biased decision. This may further lead to different perception, employees will believe that reward will be given to only those who perform extraordinary rather than to those who completes the job on time. This outcome can be related to Adam’s equity theory, wherein people compare themselves with others on the basis of time, efforts, sacrifices and outputs received (Al- Zawahreh and Al- Madi nd). The environment became informal under the regime of Jager that created equality amongst each other within the organization. Lastly, Jager made significant amount of job cuts while doing restructuring of the organization. This came as a huge shock to the employees as all these actions were taken without their consent. Lafley:

Lafley’s approach was more flexible and outwardly. He believed that the targets are unachievable and not realistic therefore, he decided that conservative goal plan would be a good option. Lafley joined P&G at the time when the organization was in loss hence, he wanted to save cost. In order to save cost he started cost- cutting. For this purpose, he disallowed employees of every department to work from home. This method definitely saved a of cost for the company.

Recommendations and Conclusion:

This report widely examined the organizational issues that were present in P&G under the leadership of Jager and Lafley. Both Jager and Lafley, undergone through changes in the context of leadership, HR practice and strategic development. It is therefore clear that both the leaders had very different styles of leadership and way of operating things. Moreover, throughout the case study it is evident that their different style of doing the job has affected the organization both negatively and positively. However, the next section will focus on the plan of action that P&G needs. Additionally, the report will have a five year plan and the main objective is to improvise its HR practices and culture of the organization. In order to craft this plan a SWOT analysis will be done on P&G’s existing HR rules and processors.

SWOT of existing HR activities:

SWOT Analysis is the most famous means for audit and analysis to know the total strategic position of the commercial enterprise and its environment. Its central aim is to determine the strategies that will create a firm constricted business model that will best adjust an organization’s resources and the environment in which the business functions (Johnson and Scholes 2010). Strengths: Under SWOT analysis strength deals with what benefit does your organization have over the rivals? What do you do better than anyone else in the same field? What specific or lowest-cost resources can you show upon that others can’t? What do people in your industry see as your strengths?. The core strength of P&G is their Policy that focuses entirely on the people. The organization’s policy is lined up according to the needs of the employees. Therefore, P&G is often called as People Company. Another strength consists of its effective and efficient global processes such as training, recruitment, training and highly motivated staff. Procter and Gamble also have sustainable competitive advantage. Weaknesses: SWOT analyses under this determine things like what could you amend? What should you avert? What are masses in your market likely to perceive as weaknesses? What factors lose you gross revenue?. In the case of Procter and Gamble it can be analyzed that the company definitely lacked direction. It is evident that both leaders at there time had excellent aspirations for the organization but was poorly implemented. The second and the real weaknesses was that employees were not fully convinced with the idea of change, this could have been due to lack of communication within the organization. Lack of product offering was amongst other weaknesses. Opportunities: In this questions such as what good opportunities can you spot? What interesting trends are you aware of? . There were several opportunities open to P&G such as innovation of their products and brands. P&G would have tried exploring new market through expanding its business in other parts of the world. They need to be risk takers therefore should think of adopting growth and diversification Strategies.

Threats: Under threats questions like what hurdles do you face? What are your rivals doing? Are quality specifications for your job, products or services dynamic?. Some of the threats affects P&G as a whole. For instance, intense competition changes in demographics and customer power. Another threat for this organization is economic downturn and global recession.

Strategic Recommendations:

This section will be based on the SWOT analysis that is done above, the following recommendations will be helpful in improving its HR performance, the profit of the organization and the culture of the organization. The foremost recommendation for P&G is to formulate an effective talent management. The process Involved in the talent management include workforce planning, development, retention, talent review and evaluation (Lewis and Heckman 2006). Talent management plays an important role in the HR department and the strategy should focus on business as a whole. The process of talent management must be unified within the business strategies of the P&G. The organization needs to realize that to survive in the market it has to match the pace of the changing environment.

Talent Planning:

The HR professional employed in this field ensures that the organization is able to determine and pull in key people with the ability to create competitive advantage and that it actively manages an proper scale of resource to meet dynamic needs, fulfilling the brief and long-term ambitions of the administration strategy (CIPD 2013). P&G should encourage recruitment and selection of individuals who have the ability to add competitive value to its organization. This needs to be done across all the levels within the organization. Moreover, P&G must try to engage all the hired staff in training and Development as it will be good for people to enhance the right skills. Additionally, employees must be taught about cultural change so that they do not resist change.

Learning and Development for employees:

Employees along with rest of the staff need to enhance and develop the skills and capabilities required to stand out on the job with the help of organizational and individual training programs. This process will help in encouraging employee retention. The process of learning and development includes 3 main steps i.e.

1. Plan; where training need is gathered.

2. Do; in this step plan is implemented
3. Review; the last step, learning and development activities are monitored and evaluated. Performance Management in the organization:
Performance Management is a process for setting up a common understanding about what is to be attained and how it is to be attained. It is a technique of managing people that expand the chance of achieving success (CIPD 2013). This generally deals with appraisals, performance etc. P&G as an organization needs to select the quality oriented view of the performance management that is related to the enhancing strong performance, regular improvement and coaching of workers by senior level of managers that helps to improve motivation of the job.

Reward Management in Procter and Gamble:
Reward management may merely defined as the joint actions an employer may take to stipulate at what levels worker wages will be offered, based on what standard and data, how the substance will be ordered over time, and how both the deliberate links between organizational goals and belief should be interpreted and acted on by the parties to the occupation kinship (Parkins and White 2011). It is amongst one of the ways when P&G can keep employee retention. This should cover pay structures, grade, and contingent pay and employee benefits as well. This overall suggests those employees efforts are accepted and this motivates workers to work better, hence ensures retention.

Concluding this report by suggesting the strategic plan for P&G to improve its HR practices. This plan is focused for five years that will include the strategies they have to adopt and they people who will implement the strategies for the people who will be affected by these strategies. Talent Planning is a strategy that will be implemented by the Chief Executive Officer and other senior executives for all the employees of P&G. The duration for this strategy is 2 years. The Learning and Development will be executed by the senior level managers for the mid and entry lever employees and this will take 3 years. Performance management will be perform by the senior executive and CEO that will be effective for all employees of P&G and its will be executed quarterly. CEO will do reward management strategy for all the employees of the company and it will be for 1 year.

List of References

Bradutan, S. and Sarbu, A. (ND) ‘ Advantages and Disadvantages of the Strategic Management in the Current Economic Context ‘. Journal of Management [online] 1-4. Available from [1 June 2013]

Bryson, M.J. (1988) ‘A Strategic Planning Process for Public and Non-profit organizations’. The Journal Of Long Range Planning [online] 21 (1), 73-81. Available from [28 May 2013]

CIPD (2012) ‘Development strategy’ [online] available from [1 June 2013]

CIPD (2013) ‘ Performance Management: an overview’ [Online] available from [2 June 2013]

Dr. Zawahreh, A.A and Dr. Madi, A.F (ND) ‘The Utility of Equity Theory in Enhancing Organizational Effectiveness ‘. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences [online] 1-31. Available from [31 May 2013]

Hartog, D.N.D. , Muijen, V.J.J. and Koopman, L.P. (1997) ‘Transactional Versus Transformational Leadership: An Analysis of the MLQ’. Journal of occupational and organizational Psychology [online] 70, 19-34. Available from [4 June 2013]

Hyun, S. (2009) ‘ Re-examination of Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory of Motivation’. Available from [5 June 2013]

Jones, B.B. and Brazzel, M. (2006) Handbook of Organization Development and Change Principles, Practices and Perspectives San Francisco: Pfeiffer

Lai, A. (2011) ‘Transformational-Transaction Leadership Theory’. Journal of Leadership Theory [online] 1-34. Available from [2 June 2013]

Lewis, E.R. and Heckman, J.R. (2006) ‘Talent Management: A Critical Review’. Journal of Human Resource Management Review [online] 16, 139-154. Available from [28 May 2013]

Lumenburg, C.F. (2011) ‘Goal Setting Theory of Motivation’. International Journal of Management, Business and Administration [online] 15 (1), 1-6. Available from [30 May 2013]

Perkins, J.S and White, G. (2011) ‘ Introducing the Reward Management System’ (2 edition), UK; CIPD


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Managing and developing people Essay

Managing and developing people Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 3823

  • Pages: 15

Managing and developing people


In this part of my coursework, I will be explaining a group activity or teal working in our business which is the high school musical stalls which is all about selling merchandise product. In this team I’m the one participating of this team and I hope that I will work correctly my responsibility in my team. In our group activity in our team will be working on team structure which is defining our duties and responsibility inside the business and the leadership style will also be discussed – means that what types of leadership style we used to managing our people at work. Also I must evaluate the team theorist which is applicable in our team and discussing the other factors that affect the performance level of team work means what kind of skills or qualities of our team members inside the business.

On the group activity with my team, we are working on the type of planning, technique and preparation of our merchandise business. Our business will be selling High School Musical merchandise inside from the College of Archbishop where they have a high school musical concert. Our business will provide and selling different kinds of High school musical merchandise items and we selling sweet food as well. In our preparation we arrange the tables within two parts so that when the peoples coming, they see our selling products.

Team Working

About the team working – it is important to consider my own job in team in the business. Team working for me is to encourage my other team workers to create good communicate each other so that can lead a wide range of good team working as a group which can lead to high motivated. The Diagram below shows our team structure in our business, which also belbin team working role:

In this structure of our team, its shows that our team have a different duties and responsibilities to run a business, including making objectives with the business. Our team leader which Sean helps us to improved our decision and giving guidelines on making aims and objectives inside from the business.

In my idea, I will decide to working in Resources investigator for the chosen role within the business which is High School musical Product – which is all about responsible for all resources within the business. As the Resources investigator, I will ensuring as a team a good communication with my other team workers in the business, gives a team a rush of enthusiasm at the start of the project within the business. In my role as a Resources Investigator – I will be probably the most immediately likeable members of the team. My job is to keep good at communicating with people both inside and outside the company. This job is natural negotiators and adept at exploring new opportunities and developing contacts. As the role of the team, I will be bringing new ideas, information and development as a team. This may be physical, financial or human resources, political support, information or ideas. Being highly driven to make connections with people, the Resource Investigator may appear to be flighty and inconstant, but their ability to call on their connections is highly useful to the team.

My team had the role of being the coordinator (which is Sean) – His Function is coordinator as a team which is organiser and good communication. The Sharper (Sean role) – which is taking charge in all staff performance like their absences etc, On our HSM stall team group, we decided to take Sean as a Manager price because we know that he can handle on organising the prices of the product we sell. The plant (Claudia Role) – which the innovator of the group and planning the different ideas, suggestion and proposal on how to success the business we made. Also Claudia working as a budgeting of the business which handling all profit making in the business and buying all stock to sell. The monitor evaluator (Thom role) – which is to analysing all idea and plan within the business, also they must step into makes a contribution before the final decisions are made from the other team in the business.

Thom also organising selling our product in different location or area, at this task Thom must make sure that the place for selling to the customer is being appropriate and where more customers coming in that area. The implementer (Kevin Role) – which provides a good organiser and administrator with planning and scheduling the entire task needed in the business. The team worker (Drew Role) – which supporting and encourage from the team, his job is also the problem solver within the group. The completer (Kyle Role) – His job is to ensure the group meets its targets, both terms on time and quality. Also Kyle must usually checking all the details about the task doing on time, to ensure if there is something wrong with the task, it can be prevent quickly. The specialist (Claudia Role) – the last role of the team where must have knowledge and skills of the required the entire task needed to the business.

We figured out which roles we both fit into once we had started working together as a team in the business. Here on, we fell into our roles automatically and took it further from there. We found it easier that splitting up our roles shared out the responsibility. My team group both still be working on the same task but we would take different parts of the task as our skills would be different. We found that this gave the best output as the best of our skills were put to use.

The benefits of making own task and responsibilities as a team for the business is where I getting experience on how to deal with the customers, its likely when I was selling HSM folders for our product which is quite hard to sell because its expensive and the product is quite not popular to the people – means poor varieties and people don’t like it, however I have experience and idea on how to improve on selling product the customers. This means that I identify the different methods and strategies to improved selling from the customers; it’s like giving more information about the product, proving good pricing strategies and other types of customer services. These can be increasing our range of product selling to the customers because we will provide a very good strategy of customer satisfaction.

Each team will have its own unique limitations, based on the skills and characteristics of the team members, resource and time constraints, and length of time together. In my contribution as a team, it will face limitations resulting from common factors, such as the human tendencies that can be results of absence of trust, fear of conflict, lack of commitment, avoidance of accountability, and inattention to the team which can be lead not supporting with others which can be poor range of productivity and can be risky for our organisation.

So that I must aware that I will ensure that I understand what my common goal in the business we made, attending and helping any kind of work, and helping on the member of the team to avoid and problems coming in our business.

The hardest part of working with my team is where I will provide a high performance level to recognise out team as a first place. It can challenge for me to increase our productivity and quality in the business. So that in members of the team must contribute different skills and express the individual interest and opinions to achieve the common goal in the business. However there is also limitation for me to working as a team within the business.

For my own limitation in the team, I think I’m very shy to talk for the team on what information I need to talk about which can be lead a poor communication each other and I did not sharing my other information within the team which also cause of unprepared and misleading work. In this case, as a team member of this business, I need to share my knowledge to my group and talk what other information I know to create a good impact of motivation and creating good communication with my team. Also as a member of the team, I showing that I hard working and doing my role correctly so that they can trust on me as a resources investigator in the business. For me working on the team must always share and corporate with each other to planning and organising work.

The benefits of good team working in the our business is team working is efficient, means that our team gets the work done faster because of our desire to improved the customer satisfaction in our product and increasing our profit and growth in the business. Its like when have a large task, it can be broken down and getting into the smaller task which is easier for my team to work. Another benefit of team working in the business is that have a unique skills which can be combined and used to benefits within the business to making better product which can lead increasing the creativity in our team inside from the business.

This can be done if our team have a desire to improve the customer services and high growth in the business. In the relationship within the team is like important to our business as well because they can help people communicate better with one another, and friendships contribute to the job satisfaction. In that case our team will be comfortable relying each other and individual can be developing their own skills which can be future success in the business. We are more motivated working as a team because we felt that there is a loyalty and respect means that we tried our best to improved the future growth for our business is the future. The last thing is we also benefits for being to able to learn a new skills from each other which means that we sharing skills and qualities each other for making successful business growth in the business.

The limitation of our company is like if one of our member of the team didn’t corporate or sharing information on running a business, Its possible that our business going down and going to saturation and decline stage because people inside from the business haven’t don’t care on cooperating and running a business, Or even if one members of the team have a mistake for making a decision within the business, it can be lead a poor quality product and services or misleading. Another limitation for our company is the merchandise product we sell has not well enough profit because of the bad quality to the eye of customers and selling a very high price each product which leads a poor profit within the business.

Its is because we have not using a pricing strategies in the business, my team has responsibility to talk each other and comment what pricing strategies we using so that people encouraging to buy our merchandise product. But opportunely in the second day and third day selling a merchandise product to the customers is gaining a profit and the level of the product we selling to our customers is high which means that people like our services and the amount of prices we sell from them. And the last limitation for our company is we buy many stocks for our merchandise product which did not consume a higher profit that we expect to be. But hopefully we have our money back that we spent for all our stock in the business which is kind of successful in the team.

Leadership Style

There are numbers of different style of leadership that can used when organising and motivating peoples inside from the business. There are many types of leadership that can be found in the organisation which can be big impact to the employee or employees in the business. It can be affect the morale, and affecting in their work. Obviously, any businesses want to get the best performance on the workplace. The effective leadership must have a good knowledge on how maintaining the good performance people in the business. These can be lead to make greater good performance level, high motivated and good environmental and happy working in the organisation.

However, bad leadership in the company while be occur that can lead staff laziness, absenteeism, misconduct and it could be one of the future risk in the business. One of this is Dictator/Autocratic are leaders that tell their teams on what kind of job they do rather than just asking what kind of role they like, in this kind of style is that decisions can be lead very quickly and no wasting time for discussing for the business. This leadership is strict to their employees or workers. However, this will discipline the workers and that could lead to a high production. Employees working on an Autocratic leadership I think are not motivated as much as democratic, because being strict on your employees will not motivate them, instead they will have bad feelings towards on the boss.

Democratic leadership means a leader allows all employees to work and taking responsibility within the business, and making their own decisions within their framework. I think that democratic style of leadership has a good effect especially for the employees. They will feel motivated because their leaders have trust on them and this will encourage their employees to make decisions. This is employees or workers are motivated because they felt that they are important in the company. In other words, more efficient is done, and people tend to have a little more respect to each other since everyone seems to be equal. Employees or workers might get slightly less work and more productive and proactive.

However Businesses can’t afford any mistakes from the decision making process and not all members giving their ideas to use. Laissez Fair means leaders who just giving work and responsibilities to take task, deadlines and allowing them to complete the task. Also they feel that they empowered employees allowed to work they own. The benefits of this style are the team getting more creative and bring more ideas within the business. However there is a problem that the leaders from the business did not like the employees produce the production or the services which can be poor production, and poor communication in the business.

Sean which is the team leader of our team used a democratic leadership style which providing organising, and monitoring the team to our merchandise business. Sean make decision for all members of the team on what members doing, technique on what type of what type of pricing strategies we going to used to sell our product and what kind of presentation we going to used to impress our customers to buy. But our leader giving framework of what type of merchandised we had to provide to sell and when we had to sell it. Sean making this type of leadership style its because we were able to make our team decision each other and deciding on what duties and responsibility we going to decided when the events is going to start.

A leadership is also can be a proactive and reactive leaders; proactive leadership – leaders are responsibility on business prediction on what might happen in the daily bases or in the future, also they work with the member of the staff to determine potential problems and opportunities. On the other hand reactive leadership is where leaders are one that just deals with the situations as they arise.

They are not innovative, preferring to follow the example of the other managers. So for leader of our business, Sean was a reactive leader because he did not predict what might be happen if our business is going to expand, but Sean demonstrates the pricing technique to sell our product to make more customers, also Sean planning how to do them before the day of our selling merchandise. This kind of work we doing in the team is allowed to not waste time before the selling day and some things might be wrong, but we must have time to ready and prepared for the day that we sell to make sure that no future risk are happen with us.

Team Theorists


Dr Meredith Belbin is a British researcher and management theorist, best known for his work on management teams for nine years from his team which is based in Henley Management College in UK. Belbin study on how to create a successful team working with 9 different types of behaviors which is known as “team roles” – “”.

Also he is best known for his team-role theory enabling better understanding of the roles played by team members and how team interactions can be adjusted to increase team effectiveness. Belbin identified that sometimes people have their own strength and weaknesses to each roles. The basic premise of the Belbin team roles theory is quite simple. When individuals become aware of their own strengths and abilities, and understand the role that he or she is capable of playing within a team, it helps them to deal better with the demands of the team environment. “”

Belbin theory is divided into 3 roles which are Action Oriented Role – include shaper, implementer, completer/fisher. People skills Oriented Roles – the coordinator, team worker and resources investigator. Cerebral/Intellectual Role – Planter, Monitor/Evaluator and specialist. I draw the table and it shows each Belbin team role’s what the strength and weaknesses each roles:

Team Role




Improving the team working (Motivated), can handle work pressures and has the courage to overcome obstacles.

Argumentative, and those they may offend people’s feelings.


Conservative, disciplined people who work systematically, efficiently and are very well organised.

Implementers may be inflexible and somewhat resistant to change.

Completer Finisher

The completer/finisher’s strength lies in meticulousness, attention to detail and the ability to meet deadlines.

However, a Completer-Finisher may worry unnecessarily and find it hard to delegate.


They are often excellent listeners and they are naturally able to recognise the value that each team members brings to the table. They are calm and good-natured and delegate tasks very effectively.

Their potential weaknesses are that they may delegate away too much personal responsibility, and may tend to be manipulative.

Team worker

Good listener, being collaborative, co-operative, easy going and tactful.

Their weaknesses may be a tendency to be indecisive, and maintain uncommitted positions during discussions and decision-making.

Resources Investigator

Develop contacts, communicate well, explore new ideas and opportunities, and bring enthusiasm and drive to the team effort.

On the downside, they may lose enthusiasm quickly, and are often overly optimistic.


Problem solver, Original and making new ideas and creative

Poor communicators and can tend to ignore given parameters and constraints.

Monitor Evaluator

Good judgment, good strategic thinking ability and very strategic

Poor motivators who react to events rather than instigating them


Provide knowledge and skills

who can contribute information and knowledge in a team situation.

Limitation for their contribution

I think the strength and weaknesses to our team is based when we work together for out business. Its like when one member want to change a job, obviously they do not want that roles but I think our sharper in the team which is Sean is they provide a good motivator for our team which can be driven to complete our task with no complaining happen. I was the resources investigator of our team which bringing new ideas and opportunities for my team.

The implementer who is my brother Kevin was able to discipline with us during our work and being able to help new ideas as well to complete the work. Kyle is the completer for our time which making sure that all work must be done on time. The coordinator and specialist which is role of Sean and Claudia which means coordinating and organising our team and specialist which teaching us what we do next session. The team worker and monitor evaluator role of drew and Thom is where help us to communicate clearly and the last one is Claudia role which is plant which she bringing new ideas and one of our problem solver making in our team.

For our team I see that all Belbin’s team working responsibilities are covered and hopefully that we successful our team in future making. If there is any problem with our team, we make sure that we solved the problem immediately.


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