University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Learning Disabilities Why Self esteem
As a child goes through teenage life, he or she is exposed to many different challenges, stressors, and prospects. An imperative factor in handling these challenges is a positive self-concept and high self-esteem. Through teenage life, schools should be preparing students to become a comfy part of the general population, quickly bending to their environs (Saghatoleslami, 2010). A population of students that necessitate closer attention are Learners who have been diagnosed with a learning disability. Learners with learning disabilities are likely to represent 2% to 10% of the student population (Reese, Bird, &Tripp, 2007). Learners with learning disabilities tussle with self-concept and self-esteem, which in tum can lead to amendment difficulties, substance abuse, depression, and suicide ideation. It is, therefore, essential to monitor the self-worth of students and help mend and advance their self-concept and self-esteem.
When bearing in mind students with learning disabilities, it is important to weigh their self-concept and self-esteem in a different way, understanding different social factors that come into play (Moller & Pohlmann, 2009). There are many facets to self-concept and self-esteem, and coping with a learning disability has an influence on a student’s quality of life. For both students with LD and students who have not been diagnosed with LD, active parental involvement can directly influence a student’s self-concept and self-esteem (Saghatoleslami, 2010).
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Public Law, splits 12 types of categorizations of learning disabilities, in which children may be fit for special education and interrelated services. These types are; (a) autism, (b)deafness, (c)deaf-blindness, (d)hearing impairment, (e) mental retardation, (f) multiple disabilities, (g) orthopedic impairment, (h) severe emotional disturbance, (i) visual impairment, (j) speech or language impairment, (k) traumatic brain injury, (l) and specific learning disability (Moller & Pohlmann, 2009). Autism is an age-linked disability significantly affecting verbal and non-verbal communication and social relations, typically evident before age three. Deafness is an earshot impairment that is so austere that the child is lessened in processing linguistic info, with or without augmentation; deaf-blindness is a synchronized visual and hearing impairments. Hearing impairment is of the audible range, whether perpetual or mutable. Mental hindrance relates to suggestively below usual general cerebral functioning, which prevail concurrently with shortfalls in adaptive performance. Multiple disabilities: the exhibition of 2 or more disabilities such as mental retardation-blindness, an amalgamation that involves special accommodation for ultimate learning (Moller & Pohlmann, 2009).
Additionally, there are corporal impairments; orthopedic impairment is physical disabilities, which include congenital impairments, caused by illness, and impairments from further causes (Berdine, 2010). Grave emotional disorder is a disability where a child of typical intellect, has strain over time and to a patent degree, building pleasing interpersonal relationships; (a) retorts inappropriately psychologically or emotionally under ordinary circumstances; (b) exhibits a pervasive mood of unhappiness; (c) or has a propensity to develop physical signs or fears. Detailed learning disability is a malady in one or more of the basic psychosomatic processes convoluted in understanding or in expending language, written or spoken, which may patent itself in an imperfect knack to speak, read spell, think, write, or do mathematical calculations; dialogue or language impairment: a communication (Moller & Pohlmann, 2009). Disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a type of linguistic impairment, or the voice impairment can be considered a detailed learning disability. Traumatic brain injury is an assimilated injury to the brain caused by a marginal physical force, resulting in partial or total functional disability or psychosocial impairment or possibly both (Berdine, 2010). Visual impairment is a pictorial struggle (including blindness) that, even with correction, unfavorably affects a child educational performance.
Learning disabilities can disturb students in diverse manners. As studies designate, self-concept and self-esteem are two vital elements during a student’s foundational years. Throughout this time, students begin to express and realize who they will turn into as grownups. The self-concept that is established during this time canines over into maturity (Elbaum & Vaughn, 2010). For this purpose, it is vital to consider the adverse effects of LD, especially during a teenager life. Dyson points out that children who have proficient denial, disgrace, and disappointment have outlooks of low self-worth and defenselessness (2008).
Both students with LD and students without LD exhibit varying levels of self-concept and self-esteem. These self-concepts adapt and grow as a student develops from childhood, through adolescence, and into adulthood. Students with LD reported that they felt worse about their general intellectual ability than students without LD (Moller & Pohlmann, 2009). This can result in negative self-concept and low self-esteem. By implementing evidence-based interventions, students with LD can develop a positive self-concept and improve their self-esteem. One such response includes positive parental involvement. When parents are involved in the lives of their children in a positive way, the self-concept and self-esteem of their child improves. A challenge of active parental involvement pertains to the difficulties of communicating with a child who has LD (Dyson, 2008). Utilizing parental programs to overcome such adversities positively affects the parent/child relationship. Through this active interaction, adolescents with LD improved academically and emotionally. A lot of children with LD get these emotions more often than students with no LD. This can have a philosophical effect on their educational self-concept as well as their general self-esteem. The importance of this topic is substantial, as the American Psychiatric Association (2007) establish that between 3% and 8% of the learners’ population, especially children are affected by LD.
Utilizing the Self-Perception Profile for teenagers, Moller and (2009) established that high school learners with LD conveyed they felt worse about their general mental ability than did students not diagnosed with LD. Furthermore, using the Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale, it has been shown that students with LD scored significantly lower on the subscale of Intellectual and School Status. This is significant because these students were in separate classes with other students in special education (SPED), including students with emotional disturbances or cognitive impairments. When students are deliberately taken out of the general classroom, it becomes apparent to them that they are different from typically developing students. By separating students, it can have an adverse effect on their self-concept. This can have an adverse consequence on their self-esteem and academic achievement (Ochoa& Emler, 2007).
The response to this unruly is not as easy as moving towards an inclusive system where students with LD learn with typically developing students. In a study shepherded by Barrera, it was revealed that the self-concepts of students with learning disabilities attending comprehensive schools were inferior to those of their classmates devoid of learning disabilities (2009). The discoveries are all too shared, since a meta-analysis prepared by Barrera established the same incongruity (2009). Due to these common judgments, many schools have relocated away from an integrative class. In other situations, the self-concepts of students with learning disabilities may be improved through adapting instruction to the wants of each student (Elbaum & Vaughn, 2010). Constructing the best erudition environment for each student wishes to be a precedence within the overall school system.
Once students with LD associated themselves with others with LD, they conveyed that they felt improved about their recital than children with LD, who likened themselves to their aristocracies without LD (Ochoa & Emler, 2007). This largesse contradictory information. When unraveling students with LD from archetypal students, it can have an undesirable consequence on their self-concept and self-esteem. On the affirmative side, nevertheless, when students with LD are studying with other students with LD, they may incline to compare themselves to their partners with LD. This outcome in a more optimistic self-concept and advanced self-esteem in students with LD. Every school is exclusive in its tactic to students with LD, and it is significant to consider these educations when determining whether or not students with LD should be encompassed in the general classroom or placed in a distinct studying setting. Age is an imperative factor in appreciating what the best intervention is for a student with LD.
While academic interventions were most consistently effective for elementary students, counseling interventions were the most reliably effective for middle and high school students (Elbaum & Vaughn, 2010). These results have an effect on the academic self-concept for the student and do not necessarily hold true for other dimensions of self-concept. Elbaum and Vaughn also pointed out that, overall, counseling and mediated interventions were the only interventions that had a significant effect on general self-concept (2010). These findings complement previous statements regarding the importance of creating an intervention strategy that is malleable, as well as unique to each student who passes through the intervention plan (Reese, Bird, &Tripp, 2007). To create a single intervention strategy, it may be useful for a school to use the interpersonal competence profile. By using the ICS-T and the ICS-S and comparing the two, a unique strategy can be created for each student that best serves his or her learning style. This tool can be useful to determine if an inclusive or separated intervention strategy would best help each student with LD.
The insight provided by Berdine; because self-knowledge emerges from, and is sustained by, our experiences with others, negative self-views have interpersonal as well as personal components (2010). This means that for people to enjoy improvements in their “self-views”, changes must occur not only in the way they think about themselves, but also in the environments that sustain their own self-views (Berdine, 2010). The value of this quote is substantial. Not only is this positive self-concept paramount for students with LD, it is also significant for everyone. Our experiences in life and our perception of who we are define what we eventually become. In Positive Teacher and Parental Involvement, it is important for teachers and parents to affect the self-concept and self-esteem of students with LD by remaining positive and encouraging them to succeed. This is evident, as it was exhibited that there was an incongruity between self-assessments of students with LD and their educators’ verdicts. They discovered that students alleged themselves to be more proficient than their teachers rule on them. Furthermore, Moller and Pohlmann (2009) indicated that teachers were commonly unaware of students’ perceptions of abilities. For better communication between teachers and students, it may be beneficial for tutors to devote time to students to converse their perceived strongholds and weaknesses. When parents were positively involved in the lives of their children, the self-concept of their children was affected in a positive way (Ochoa& Emler, 2007).
The student’s paternities can also petition or appeal to the learning institution, or to the director of distinctive education and complain of their child being gaged. They may sense that the child is not developing as he, or she ought to be, or identify or detect certain glitches in how the child does. If the school believes that the child, undeniably have a disability, then the school must perform a valuation. If conservatory staff do not sustain that the learner has a disability, they may well decline to consider the child, but should apprise the parents in lettering as to their whys and wherefores for rebuffing. If parents believe intensely that their child does, certainly, have a disability that needs special edification, they may entreaty a due process earshot, where they will have the chance to spectate why they believe their juvenile should be appraised. To be assessed, there are numerous of probable assessments that are acknowledged in the IDEA, that is, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Elbaum & Vaughn, 2010).
When parents interacted and maintained, a positive attitude with their children, a more positive self-concept was developed and self-esteem was raised (Berdine, 2010). Conversely, when the interaction between parent and child was minimal, or family communication was poor, negative self-concept and low self-esteem resulted. Dyson (2008) found that children with LD themselves can contribute to a lack of communication between child and parent. In line, child and parental cognitive-behavioral factors reciprocally amplify one another over time. For parents of high school students with LD, communication was often directly related to the nature of the learning disability (Berdine, 2010). When a parent and child were unable to communicate wholly due to the child’s disability, it adversely affected the relationship. This alone is reason enough for parents of children with LD to explore various options for the betterment of communication with their children. When this lack of communication compounds over time, stress can be built up for the child as well as the parent. If the guardian of a child with LD exhibits stress surrounding their child’s disability, that child tends to have problems with social competence as well as display more behavior problems (Dyson,2008). This presents a direct correlation between parental stress regarding a child’s disability and the self-concept and behavior of that child. When parents show a positive environment for their child with LD, it helps to reinforce a sense of positive self-concept and high self-esteem. Children with LD have a strong academic self-concept and high self-esteem when they receive positive feedback from teachers and parents (Dyson, 2008). When children have a healthy self-concept, they are less likely to have a low self-esteem (Reese, Bird, & Tripp, 2007).
To determine if a child is adequate for classification in one of these regions of exceptionality, an individualized appraisal or valuation, of the child must be carried out. This is accomplished through IDEA. The IDEA stipulates a number of requirements regarding estimates of children alleged of having a disability. While a more comprehensive description of these requirements is presented in the Persons with Disabilities Education Act, these rations are briefly summarized as follows: In advance a child is evaluated for the first time, the school district must acquaint parents in writing (Berdine, 2010). Parent’s commitment gives written consent for the school system to carry out this first evaluation also identified as a pre-placement appraisal. Evaluations must be accompanied by a multidisciplinary team such as speech and dialectal pathologist, occupational or physical therapist, medical specialists, and school psychologist. They must include at least one teacher or sentinel who is knowledgeable about the area of the child’s alleged disability. The assessment must carefully investigate all areas related to the child’s suspected impairment (Dyson, 2008).
Indeed not a sole technique may be used as the sole norm for determining a child’s eligibility for special services or for deciding his or her suitable educational placement. Moderately, the evaluation method must utilize a variety of valid evaluation instruments and observational data. All testing must be done independently. Trials and other evaluation materials must be delivered in the child’s primary language or manner of communication, unless it is evidently non-realistic genuine to implement. All tests and other evaluation resources must be authenticated for the particular drive for which they are used. This tells that a test may not be used to evaluate a student in an exact area unless the test has been premeditated and validated through examination as measuring that definite area. Valuations must be conducted in a fair way. This means that the trials and evaluation resources and procedures that are the castoff may not be ethnically or culturally prejudiced against the child (Montgomery, 2011).
The assessment team must guarantee that any test used is administered correctly by a person fitted to do so, that the test is being used for the objectives for which it was meant, and that the child’s disability does not conflict with the child’s ability to take any test measuring specific abilities, the child’s visual impairment changes his or her ability to read and rightly answer the questions on an test. Suitable, comprehensively, and accurately assessing a child with an alleged disability clearly presents a substantial challenge to the assessment team (Dyson, 2008). Valuation in educational locales serves five main purposes: (a) screening and proof of identity: (b) to screen children and recognize those who may be experiencing delays or learning problems; (c) eligibility and diagnosis: to govern whether a child has a disability and is entitled to special education amenities, and to analyze the specific nature of the student’s glitches or disability;(d) IEP growth and placement: to provide comprehensive evidence so that an Individualized Education Program (IEP) can be enhanced and proper decisions may be implemented of the child’s educational placement; (e) instructional scheduling: to develop and plan instruction apt to the child’s individual needs; and evaluation: to assess student development. (Berdine, 2010).
One program that was used to influence parental/child interaction positively was Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP). (Barrera, 2009) Used STEP to deliver parents with training on how to answer more positively to their children. The outcomes displayed that parents had a very strong influence on their children’s self-concept. Additionally, Barrere suggested that classroom interventions to augment self-concept might be enhanced by involving parents in a synergistically designed parent program (2009). As previously mentioned, students with LD are more likely to struggle with social competence (Dyson, 2008). Having active parental involvement in the life of a student with LD helps facilitate improvement in this realm, thus positively influencing a student’s self-concept (Dyson, 2008). Intervention strategies for students with LD within the school setting resulted in underwhelming outcomes at times. To better the chances of success, schools may see benefits by involving parents in their intervention strategies. When parents interacted with their children frequently, positive outcomes generally occurred. As Reese, Bird, and Tripp (2007) found parent-child conversations regarding positive past events contained the highest amount of emotional talk regarding the child. Additionally, during conflict discussions, a moderate amount of positive talk was found. This positive talk can have a profound effect on the self-concept of a child. The link between conversations regarding past positive events and children’s self-esteem was substantial (Brown && Hooper, 2009).
In Critical Analysis, there were three main research questions addressed in this studies: (1) what is the dissimilarity stuck between self-esteem and self-concept? As the constructs of self-concept and self-esteem share similarities, it is important to delineate the two constructs in order to depict their differences clearly. Self-concept is defined as people’s overall composite or collective view of themselves through multidimensional sets of domain-specific perceptions. These judgments are based on self-knowledge and evaluation of value or worth of one’s competences formed through involvements with and understandings of the environment. A person’s self-concept not only comes from internal individual perceptions, but can also be influenced by different experiences and external information from others. People’s self-concept addresses a more factual side of their life, such as knowing what they enjoy or what they tend to think about themselves. Self-esteem, as defined by Ochoa and Emler, is the sense an individual has about himself or herself that affects the way he/she views himself or herself (2007). These opinions include self-observations, perceived feelings of him/herself, and self-knowledge. How the individual feels is addressed within self-esteem, whereas self-concept addresses what the person thinks or sees about himself or herself. Self-concept is a construct that stays relatively constant over time, while self-esteem can vary throughout a person’s lifetime (Berdine, 2010).
(2) How do students with learning disabilities and scholars who have not been established with a learning disability compared in regards to self-concept and self-esteem? Present study endorses that there is an alteration in the levels of self-concept and self-esteem between students who have been detected as having learning disabilities and students who have not been analyzed as having a learning disability. Barrera, (2009) established that high school students with LD reported that they felt worse about their general Intellectual ability than did students who have not been diagnosed with LD. Students with Learning disabilities who were in separate classes with other students in SPED, such as students with emotional disturbances or cognitive impairments, were found to have a lower self-concept on the Intellectual and School Status subscale. This finding suggests that the separation of the individual with a learning disability from the general education classroom can have an adverse effect on the student’s self-concept. Comparatively, Brown and Hooper (2009) showed that students with learning disabilities attending inclusive schools had a lower self-concept than classmates without a learning disability.
Whether students are included in the general education classroom or separated and placed with other students with disabilities, their self-concept was consistently lower than that of students without disabilities (Montgomery, 2011). It is important to note the research that the self-concepts of students with disabilities can be heightened through tailoring instruction to the needs of the individual student. According to Saghatoleslami when students with LD compared themselves to other peers with LD, they felt better about their performance than did children with LD, who associated themselves with their peers without LD (Saghatoleslami, 2010). These findings suggested that pairing students within the general classroom on the basis of instructional level and individual needs positively influenced the self-concept and self-esteem of pupils with learning disabilities.
(3) Does the level of active parental and teacher involvement have an effect on a student’s self-concept and self-esteem? According to the existing research, active parental and teacher involvement has a positive impact on student’s self-concept and self-esteem. Dyson (2008) found that children with LD have a positive academic self-concept and high self-esteem when they receive positive feedback from teachers and parents. The environment the parent provides, as well as the dialog between the guardian and the youth, are both factors that play a role in the student’s development of self-concept and self-esteem. For instance, Dyson (2008) found that if a parent of a child with LD exhibits stress surrounding their learner’s disability, that child tended to have problems with social competence as well as display more behavior problems. When parents presented a positive environment for their child with LD, it helped to reinforce a positive self-concept and a sense of high self-esteem. Additionally, communication was often related to the nature of the learning disability, especially when the parent and the child were not able to communicate due to the child’s disability. This, in turn, adversely affected the relationship between a parent and child (Ochoa && Emler, 2007). It was supported that with positive interaction and a parent’s positive attitude toward their children, a more positive self-concept was developed and self-esteem was raised from the child (Montgomery, 2011). The emphasis is a positive interaction and support from the parent to positively influence self-concept and self-esteem.
Along with a positive stress, there is also a weight on alliance between the home and school to upkeep consistency between the two settings. Saghatoleslami (2010) found that active parental involvement in a wellness-based prevention program in schools was helpful in building positive self-concepts in children and college students. Additionally, Montgomery, (2011) suggested that classroom interventions used to increase self-concept might be enhanced by involving parents. The involvement of parents or other supportive figures, bettered the chances of success across settings, as there were collaboration and communication occurring between parents and teachers.
A limitation of the analysis is the broadness of the subjects. While there is an assortment of LD types, there was no sub-typing of LD in this study. Furthermore, self-concept and self-esteem were measured on a broad scale, with minor sub-typing of self-concept. Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, and physical attractiveness were not taken into consideration when measuring a student’s self-concept or self-esteem(Dyson, 2008). Finally, this studies are not applicable across cultures. The vast majority of research reviewed was conducted in the United States.
Based on the analysis, it is clear that the most complex measure of self-concept and self-esteem is necessary. In future research, obtaining more data regarding self-concept and self-esteem will make additional subtypes available, both for these two domains, as well as subtypes of LD (Reese, Bird, &Tripp, 2007). Further implementations need to be aimed at supporting students with LD. The focus of future support for students with LD should be not only academic, but have emotional and psychological support as well. Many interventions are aimed at improving the grades of students with LD. In addition to this, specific attention should be placed on the betterment of their self-concept, as well as the improvement of their self-esteem. Both teachers and paternities should be included in future studies to promote positive self-concepts and increase self-esteem. Through in future studies, effective evidence-based solutions will be found.
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