Lab report Essay

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Lab report Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1097

  • Pages: 4

Lab report

Preparation is a key to success in this lab. For this reason, you are required to thoroughly read through the experiment information presented in the lab manual, and complete a pre-lab for each experiment you do. The prelab must be completed prior to the day of the experiment. Each Friday I will ask to see your completed prelab before I allow you to enter the lab. If you have not finished the pre-lab, I will not allow you to enter the lab and you will receive a zero. Note: Your prelab/lab report is to be done in your carbon copy lab notebook (sold in FIU bookstore) A complete pre lab has the following sections:

I. Title of the experiment
This is the name of the experiment as written in your lab manual. (ex. Experiment 1: MEASUREMENTS AND DENSITY DETERMINATION)

II. Purpose or Objective (purpose and objective are the same thing) This section should be a couple of sentences SUMMARIZING why you are doing this experiment. This must be in your own words. (ex. For your first experiment on density determination and measurements your objective would be something like : ” To become familiar with scientific measurements and the importance of recording measurements accurately and precisely. Also, to explore the concept of density, mass , and volume.”)

III. Introduction
In this section, in your own words you should discuss the important concepts of the lab. You should try to make this section flow from one concept to the next. You should make sure to include any important formulas mentioned in your lab manual for that particular experiment. (ex. A good way to organize an introduction for the density determination experiment would be something along the lines of: Experimental sciences such as chemistry, use measurements to quantify information about the physical world. Density, which shows the relationship between the mass of an object and its volume is an example of one such concept. The formula used to calculate the density of an object is D=M/V…. ) **What I want you to pay attention to in the above example is that I have extracted information from the lab manual and condensed it into a logical paragraph that explains some of the important concepts. Notice that I did not include any “fluff” (useless information to make my introduction longer.) Remember that there is no minimum length for any of your sections so you don’t have to worry about adding in anything that is not pertinent to the lab (unless you actually want to include some background info to help develop your ideas.)

IV. Procedure
This section should be concise. List each step of the procedure in either numbered format or you can use bullet points. Remember to always use PASSIVE language when writing lab reports. Never use I placed HCl into a 50mL beaker, instead say 50 mL HCl was placed in a 50 mL beaker. (ex.

1. Wash a 50mL beaker with deionized water
2. Into a 50mL beaker, add 2mL HCl
etc…you get the point. )
Tip! If you look at your lab notebook, you will notice that there is a line down the middle of the page. When writing your procedure it is in your best interest to list your procedure on the left side (leaving a space between each step) so that you can list observations on the right side of the page when you’re performing the experiment, however, this is only a suggestion and not a requirement. V. Data

As part of your pre-lab you must have all data tables already copied into your lab notebook. These tables have already been provided for you in your lab manual, so all you are required to do is copy them (neatly please) directly into your notebook. Recap: In order to be let into the lab you must have completed your pre-lab. Your pre-lab consists of the following five sections listed above (title, purpose, introduction, procedure and all data tables provided for you in the lab manual.) Remember that after you complete the experiment and you have recorded all of your data, you must complete the following sections: calculations (if any), discussion, and results. Check your lab manual for more information on what to include in these sections.

Post lab instructions:
Once you have completed an experiment you must complete a lab report. A complete lab report consists of the sections you completed as part of your prelab and a few additional sections which I will detail below. Lab reports are due exactly one week from the day you complete the lab. If you are making up a lab, your lab report is still due one week from the day YOUR LAB SECTION completed the lab. If you have any questions about this, please ask me ???? All labs must be turned in by 6 pm. If you choose to turn in your lab after class you have to get it time stamped from the stock room before you place it in my mailbox. If you fail to get it time stamped, I will consider it late and points will be deducted accordingly. Post lab sections to be completed after you have done the lab: VI. Calculations

You will have to do calculations for some if not all of your experiments. If they are required, your lab manual will let you know. VII. Discussion (a.k.a conclusion)

This is the most important section of your lab report. In this section you should discuss and tie together the concepts and theory discussed in the introduction. This section should include the results of your experiment, a brief discussion of any graphs you had to generate, identity of your unknown (if applicable) etc. Make sure to explain if these were the results you expected and why. If not, list possible sources of error. REMEMBER there is no minimum length required so you can make this section as long or short as you find necessary to cover all the important aspects of your experiment. If you need help with any part of your lab report please email me or come see me during help hour. I’m here to help you and I want you all to do well in this lab!

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Lab Report Essay

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Lab Report Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 986

  • Pages: 4

Lab Report

As part of my module Nip1002 I was required to perform a set of observational skills which included; pulse, blood pressure, respirations, hand washing and urinalysis and then compare them to previous results. In this lab report I am going to discuss blood pressure in detail.

Procedure

* Explain the procedure to the patient and gain consent * Wash hands thoroughly following the hand wash technique to prevent the transfer of bacteria * Clean equipment e.g. blood pressure cuff and stethoscope using antibacterial wipes * Ensure the patient is comfortable and has been resting for 10 minutes * Remove tight clothing and support the arm at heart level, overestimation or underestimation can occur if it is not at the appropriate level * Ensure you have the correct cuff size for the patient or this could give an inaccurate reading * Locate the brachial artery and apply the cuff

* Estimate the systolic pressure by using the radial pulse and inflate the cuff until the pulse cannot be felt. This is important to provide an estimation and avoids error in reading. * To take the patient’s blood pressure use a stethoscope and place on the brachial artery pulse and inflate 20-30 mmHg higher than the estimated systolic pulse * Immediately release the pressure using the thumb valve at approximately 2mmHg per second. If it is deflated too rapidly you may not hear the sounds accurately * The systolic pressure is the level when clear tapping sounds first appear and the diastolic pressure is the level when the sounds disappear * Record the measurements on an observation chart and compare the previous results as this will allow changes in the patient’s condition to be monitored appropriately (see appendix 3) * Remove the cuff and explain the reading to the patient

* Clean all equipment and wash hands again to prevent cross infection (Glasper, Richardson; McEwing, 2009, p.168 & 169) Discussion

The heart is located in the centre of the chest and is protected by the rib cage. The heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs through the pulmonary veins. It then goes to the left atrium, to the left ventricle, to the ascending aorta and is pumped around the body. The superior and inferior vena cava delivers de-oxygenated blood to the right atrium from the body. (See appendix 1) It then goes to the right ventricle, pumps through to the pulmonary trunk to the right and left arteries and then to the lungs. (Tortora and Derrickson, 2011, Chapter20) Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood on the walls of blood vessels and this should be at a certain level to ensure that the body is functioning correctly. Blood pressure varies from person to person but the normal reading for a healthy adult is around 120/80. (BPA 2008) The top number is called systolic blood pressure and is the highest pressure attained in arteries during systole.

The bottom number is called diastolic blood pressure and is the lowest arterial pressure attained during diastole. (Tortora and Derrickson, 2011, p.814) The blood pressure reading that I got on my patient was 120/90 this was slightly higher from the previous readings which were 90/50 and 90/60. Although this reading is slightly high I would not consider it to be a case of hypertension. Hypertension is when your blood pressure readings consistently show readings of 140/90 mmHg. (NHS, 2010) A persons chances of having hypertension are raised due to a number of factors; age, weight, family history and diet. Hypertension creates a higher risk of heart attacks and strokes. ((Glasper, Richardson; McEwing, 2009, p.170)

Reflection

I am going to use Gibbs (Glasper; Richardson, 2011, p.xix) reflective cycle (see appendix 2) to analyse my reflection. I did a set of observations which included; pulse, respirations, blood pressure, hand washing and urinalysis. When I was doing the observations I was very nervous and I was aware that I was being evaluated which made me feel stressed. Overall I think I did well in the exam because I remembered all the steps and got it done in the time limit. I felt I could have done better if I wasn’t as nervous, as I feel this affected my skills technique. Looking back on the exam I think I was lacking in communication skills as I did not talk to the patient enough. In conclusion it is important that all vital signs are monitored as this can be one of the first indications that a patient is deteriorating. Blood pressure is one of the most important physiological measurements used to diagnose a patient’s condition.

References
BPA (2008) what is normal blood pressure? [online]. BPA. Available from: http://www.bloodpressureuk.org/BloodPressureandyou/Thebasics/Whatisnormal [Accessed 27th July 2012] Glasper, A. Mcewing, G. and Richardson, J., (2009). ‘Introduction’ in Glasper, A, Mcewing G, and Richardson., Foundation studies for caring. Palgrave McMillan, pxix Glasper, A. Mcewing, G. and Richardson, J., (2009). ‘skills for physiological assessment’ in Glasper, A, Mcewing G, and Richardson., Foundation skills for caring. Palgrave McMillan, p168 & p169 Glasper, A. Mcewing, G. and Richardson, J., (2009). ‘skills for physiological assessment’ in Glasper, A, Mcewing G, and Richardson., Foundation skills for caring. Palgrave McMillan, p170 NHS (2011) High blood pressure: hypertension. [online]. NHS. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Blood-pressure-(high)/Pages/Introduction.aspx [Accessed 5th of August 2012) Tortora, G, and Derrickson, B,. (2011). ‘The cardiovascular system: Blood vessels and hemodynamics’. In Tortora, G and Derrickson, B., Principles of Anatomy and Physiology: Maintenance and continuity of the human body’ (13th edit) Wiley. p814. Tortora, G, and Derrickson, B,. (2011). ‘The cardiovascular system: The Heart’. In Tortora, G and Derrickson, B., Principles of Anatomy and Physiology: Maintenance and continuity of the human body’ (13th edit) Wiley. Chapter 20. Appendix 1

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Lab Report Essay

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Lab Report Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1304

  • Pages: 5

Lab Report

Lab Report: Exercise 2: Blood

Purpose: Explain why you did this lab and what if any safety precautions needed to be followed. This lab was done to learn about blood on a micro and macroscopic level. There are safety concerns when using bodily fluids. Gloves were needed and caution with the use of the lancet was important, which included keeping it sterile.

Activity 1: Observing Your Own Blood

Observations: Sketch and describe what you saw on the prepared slide of human blood: White blood cells are a light pinkish color and clearer in the center. The doghnut shape was not easy to see but can be made out. The centers are clearer because there is less mass there. The white blood cells were dark and looked very similar to me.

Sketch and describe what you saw on the blood smear slide using your own blood: There were a lot less white blood cells on my slide of my own blood. The red blood cells also seems to be more grouped into certain sections. I’m curious if I cut my foot if that would increase the amount of white blood cells in circulatory rotation or would the increase in white blood cells only happen around the cut area of my foot. I think I may have to try this experiment next time a scrape something.

Questions:

A.What are the components of blood? The main components include three types of cells (leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets) and plasma.

B.List the five types of leukocytes and describe the function of each. Neutrophils comprise 60-70% of white blood cells. They are the first to respond to infection and move into tissues and phagocytize bacteria and foreign matter. They also secrete enzymes called lysozumes that destroy certain bacteria. Eosinophils comprise 2-4% of white blood cells. They enter tissues undergoing an allergic response. They reduce the inflammatory response by producing enzymes that destroy inflammatory chemicals, such as histamine.

They also release toxic chemicals that attack certain work parasites. Basophils comprise .5-1% of white blood cells. They increase in number during allergic and inflammatory reactions. They release histamine to increase inflammation and heparin to inhibit blood clotting. Lymphocytes comprise 20-25% of white blood cells. They play an important role in immunity and produce antibodies. Monocytes comprise 3-8% of white blood cells. They leave the circulation and become macrophages and phagocytize bacteria, dead cells, cell fragments, and other debris.

C.What did you learn making a blood smear slide? I learned that milking the incision site is not a good idea because it forces tissue fluid out as well as blood. This was not something I considered before. I also learned that you have to wait a while for the Wright’s stain to take hold of the cells. Had I not read closely I may have rushed this step and not got cells that I could see easily. I also learned that in order to get a better look at the cells one needs to look at a thinner area because the thicker areas overlap cells which makes it difficult to observe them.

Activity 2: Blood Typing

Observations: What is your blood and Rh type? Type O+

Questions:

A.Describe how the ABO blood typing system works. In the ABO blood type, there are two main anitgens or agglutinogens, A and B. A type has the A antigen, B type B antigen, O none, and AB both the A and B antigen. O is a universal donor due to its lack of antigens and AB is a univeral reciepient due to the fact that it has both antigens. If the A antibodies find A antigens on red blood cells we say the person’s blood is type A.

B.Why is it important for everyone to know their own blood type? In an emergency situation a person may not have time to have their blood tested. There may not even be a way to test there blood when a situation that requires a blood tansfussion occurs. In this situation the person trying to administer the transfusion needs to know what type of blood the recipient has because transfusing the wrong type of blood is dangerous and will be rejected by receivers body. If I was ship wrecked I would want to know who had what type of blood so that in an emergency situation blood could be transfused. That is assuming that equipment for such a procedure was available. I have a catheter from my nursing classes bag in my car at all times. If natural disaster strikes, I’m slightly prepared.

C.Describe what would happen if type A blood were transfused into a person with type B blood. A transfusion reaction will occur, meaning that a reaction occurs when the antigens on the red blood cells of the donor blood react with the antibodies in the recipient’s plasma. This causes the red blood cells to clump together and plug up blood vessels. Then the cells are destroyed by the body (hemolysis), releasing hemoglobin from the red blood cells into the blood. Hemoglobin is then broken down into bilirubin, which can cause jaundice.

D.What happens in the blood of an Rh-negative individual who is exposed to Rh-positive blood? The Rh negative person develops antibodies that attack Rh positive blood. This can be a serious problem for a pregnant mother with a Rh positive child. The disorder is called HDN.

Activity 3: Review of Blood

1.Log onto the Hands-On Labs Website and click on exercise 2.

2.Click on the link “Get Body Smart”.

3.Click on the “Circulatory System”.

4.Review each of the following modules: Introduction to the blood, Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells, and Coagulation.

5.Explain how the various elements found in blood work together to provide a unified function for the body. The main function of blood is to be a delivery system. It is like the highway of your body. Or actually more like the trucks of your body and the veins and arteries are the roads. The blood transports oxygen and nutrients to tissues. In order to do this many elements work together in the blood. The hemoglobin is responsible for oxygen transportation. Iron acts as a binding agent. White blood cells are the police of the road.

They protect the cargo and destinations it is shipped to. They also clean up any messes that are left around (busted red blood cells, foreign bodies, bacteria). The albumin in the plasma regulates osmotic pressure so that the traffic flows appropriately, The different white blood cells control other problems by increasing macrophages and inflammation or decreasing inflammation. The body is a mini city with eveything working toward homeostasis, and the blood is no exception.

Conclusion: Describe how leukemia affects the functional capacity of the blood. Leukemia results in an increase of blood cells that can clog bone marrow and blood vessels. The thrombosis result in an inability of blood cells to pass and blood count decreases. This result in a decreased ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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