University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Intercultural Communication and Negotiation in Indochina (Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam)
Under this chapter, explores three main sub-topic which is firstly is barriers to effective communication, secondly is approaches to successful international negotiations, and thirdly is being culturally intelligent in Indochina. The discussion of differences in communicative goals in an intercultural negotiation setting. Every country have their own cultural whether Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam in communication also negotiation. The processes by which they do so are different, and this difference makes it hard and face some difficulties in process of communication and to conclude an agreement which is, of course, the big differences in the process of intercultural communication and negotiation are reflected in the differences in communication goals that are follow by parties that involved. CONTENT
Barriers to Affective Communication
As kineberg (1965) highlight that “we find that culture differ widely from one another in the amount of emotional expression which is permitted. According to Klopf and Park (1982), the ways people communicate and interact, their language patterns, nonverbal (communication without use of spoken language, and transfer of meaning through means such as body language and use of physical space) models all are determined by culture.
Figure 1: Intercultural communication model (Source: Samovar and Porter, 1997)
As we seen at the figure, cross-cultural communication theory begins with the assumptions of cultural variations. These differences act as barriers to communication. The differences exist and knowing the potential effects on communication, the communicator will be more sensitive to the fact and adapt such differences. Here means, that communicators have to understand each other. Culture bound verbal and non verbal communication is non-verbal codes contain of body movements, facial expression, chronemics (time), proxemics (space), gestures, and Para language. Verbal communication displays non-verbal signs through emotion and speaking style as well as intonation, rhythm and others. CAMBODIA
Cambodia is a collective society which means individuals take second place to the group whether this is the family, neighborhood or company. In such societies, etiquette and protocol guidelines are used to maintain a sense of common harmony, for example subtle communication style are employed in order to minimize the chances of causing offense to others. The concept of face ties in with this collective outlook. Protecting both one’s own and other’s face extremely important. Face can roughly be translated as a combination of honor, dignity and public reputation that is attributed to a person. face can be lost, given accrued. Need to aware of the mechanics of face to ensure they do not cause anyone to lose face as a result of unintentional actions. Face is lost when someone is criticized, embarrassed or exposed in public, it can be given by complimenting someone publicly for example for their business acumen or hospitality.
Laos style in cultural of communication is they really highlight the importance of greetings and the rule surrounding the “wa”. They practice unspoken and implicit communication. Communication with people in Laos also need to caution, patient and humality. Laos also to emphasize social standards such as gift, business card, and dress code. And in communication process, you have to watch sensitive subject like politics, history and religion. And lastly, in Laos, it is rude for strangers to touch upon the head of the children where as in western countries it is way of showing affection. VIETNAM
In Vietnam communication intercultural styles is personal relationship are required for successful business relationship. The initial meeting is viewed as an introductory meeting where you get to know one another. You should wait for your Vietnamese counterpart to raise the business subject. Many meetings are conducted in Vietnamese and to ensure you avoid any potential cross cultural miscommunications you will need a translator. Vietnamese put a higher value on keeping one’s word than on contracts. Never commit yourself verbally unless you are prepared to stand by your word. Communication and negotiations move at a slow and pace and patience will be necessary cross cultural attribute. It is important to speak to all stakeholders, which often includes government officials. When recommending a proposal, it is a good idea to offer several ways the other party could structure the deal. Vietnamese like to consider options. Vietnamese are skilled negotiators.
Approaches to Successful International Negotiations
In international negotiation, cultural preparation to understand different worlds is central to successful strategy and tactics. One theoretical model which may be useful for preparation before do the negotiation set out by Richard D.Lewis in his book “When Cultures Collide.” He divided cultures into three main categories as follows. Many cultures are a mix, but tend to dominate in one or two categories:
The relative positions of cultures can be roughly arranged in a triangle, as a guide to which negotiation approaches may work best:
For successful cross-cultural negotiation it helps to have a logical mental process encompassing which is a clear analytical model for interpreting cultural behavior and applying that model to manage cross-cultural interaction. A sharpened understanding of your own personal cultural profile, and how that fits into the global context of the triangle, in such as attitudes to truth, risk, time, power and others. Adaptation of personal communication style to different cultures expectations in negotiations, as for example in the use of logic, emotion, initiation versus reaction, simplicity versus complexity, optimism to create a positive climate or a free investigation of problems at the outset. Also understanding of how trust is seen in different cultures, and using this as a means of bulding trust more effectively in negotiation. CAMBODIA
The Cambodia style in cultural of negotiations is they really highlight on personal relationship also means here is long term relationship. The process of communication will be slow while they take time to get to know you. Here patient attitudes plays big role because of could jeopardize the decision in this communication. If proposing a large contract, it is advisable to first
seek government approval. Cambodians are non-confrontational. They do not like saying “no” overtly. If they say “no problem” actually means there is a problem and what you have to asked for will not happen. Try hard to maintain your composure at all times. Displaying anger irritation could negatively impact negotiations. In this poor country, price is often a determining factor in business decisions. LAOS
The key of establishing trust which is politeness and willingness to help. Identifying decision-makers and power chains or power conflict. Time, priority and deadline management is important. Attitudes in signed contract and their implications. And organizing the post negotiations phase. VIETNAM
Approaches to change which is Vietnam’s intercultural adaptability and readiness for risk is minimal. Changes is difficult to bring about and the idea of it is not received with enthusiasm. In order for change to take hold, the idea needs to be perceived as good for the group and be accepted by the group. Meanwhile approaches to time and priorities is Vietnamese is very relaxed with its attitude towards schedules and timelines. Vietnamese will not upset others in order to force meeting deadline, and while appointments and schedules need to be set in advance, these should be viewed as flexible. Patience is a necessary attribute to successful cross cultural management in Vietnam. Global and intercultural expansion means that some managers may have a greater appreciation of the need to enforce timescales and as such, agreed deadlines are more likely to be met. Culturally intelligent in Indochina.
Cross-cultural communication is one such global skill that will train people to adapt to any cultural contex. Cross cultural communication has appeared largely through the globalization of markets, affairs of nation-states and technologies. As already explain, people have to adapt with the latest information and communication technologies such as the World Wide Web ( http://www.intercultures.ca/cil-cai/ci-ic-eng.asp?iso=kh ), (http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/cultural-services/articles-intercultural.html ) this links is Center for Intercultural learning, provide about the facts and info cultural all country around the world.
Others sources is computers, films, and television shape cultural and civic speech. Here, from this approaches will brings transformation economic and social relation to such an degree that cultural and economic barriers are minimized. Others approaches is take a world intercultural class. In this class, highlight to intercultural communication and discusses some specific methods and strategies. These include mastering issues like learning to honors and sharing one’s own culture while developing a capacity to be open to others cultures. As for example like classroom practices and strategies include intercultural explorations through the use of appropriate texts, films and other multi-media resources, short stories, contra case studies of cultures, group meetings, presentation and role plays. Cultural intelligence has various meanings that can be looked on as complementary.
It’s also refers to behaviors that are considered intelligent from the point of view of people in specific cultures (Richard Brislin, 2012). Firstly learned information about Indochina cultures such as behaviours can include quick application of previously learned information in some cultures, getting along with kin in other cultures, and slow and deliberate consideration of alternative courses of action in still other cultures. On the other hand, cultural intelligence can also refer to the traits and skills of people who adjust quickly, with minimal stress, when they interact extensively in cultures other than the ones where they were socialized. The two uses of the term are related because people who want to be sensitive to other scan examine intelligence as it is defined and demonstrated in other cultures and can make adjustments in their own behaviours during their cross-cultural experiences.
Jandt, F.E. (2001). Intercultural communication: An introduction (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
Madrolle, C. (1996). Indochina. New York: Columbia University Press.