University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Hydroelectric in Philippines
It is known to us that energy become more and more important to human beings. People can not live without energy. They use energy everywhere, but pew of them can give a clear definition of it. Because of people’s widely use, the energy on the earth reduces steadily, people are trying o find the energy which can be renewable. Energy is the thing which has the ability to work. It can be stored or be a poverty of an objects motion. It can move from one object to another, and defines the capacity of system to do work. Obviously, renewable energy is the energy which can be used over and over again, from natural sources. There are so many renewable energy people use nowadays. For example, they use solar energy, the wind and the hydro power. From year 1981 to 1991, renewable energy developed very fast, and the following text may concentrate on the hydro power.
Hydro power is the energy driven by water turbine, People always use it to produce electricity. The falling water drives the turbines, and the turbines in turns to drive the generators. Then the generators translate the turbines’ mechanical energy into electricity. The hydrologic cycle produces neither atmospheric nor the normal pollution. Hydro power has been used since ancient time, and is can be used for grinding floor and performing other tasks. In 1878, the world’s first hydroelectric station was developed in NORTHUNLAND, and by 20th century, it become the largest part of renewable energy all over the world.
Everything has two faces. Though the hydroelectric has a lot of advantages, for its low cost and low pollution, still it has some disadvantages. In some Asian countries, like Philippines and China, people can see the hydroelectric production clearly by year. There are some hydroelectric stations which are typical in these countries. Like the Bela in Philippines and the Three Gorges Dam in China. What’s more, we can also know something about the development of hydroelectric in these countries.
The following text will give more details about the hydroelectric production, the hydroelectric stations and the future development of hydroelectric in Philippines and China.
Body: Ⅰ.Hydropower production by year Since the first Edison hydroelectric power plant begin to use in 1882, September 30th, (industry archive logy review, 1987), hydroelectric become fast developing. During 1981 to 1991, it developed very fast. It can be seen clearly that hydroelectric become more and more important in human’s daily life, and also they can see the trend of development of hydroelectric in Philippines and China.
In Philippines, people can get the information directly from the line chart that there was a fluctuation in it. It produced about 3.8 billion KWH in 1980, and had a tiny increase reached at 4 billion. Then it fell back to 2 billion KWH in 1983 and raised again. It has risen steadily from year 1983 to year 1986, from 2 billion KWH to 6billion KWH. Things looked the same from then on, but the trend is increasing. By the year 2003, the production of hydroelectric power was more than 10 billion KWH. After that, it remained steadily, by the year 2010, the production of hydroelectric was 9.8 billion KWH. Hydroelectric in Philippines takes 19% of all electricity consumption and the rate constant for decades. (Bronuyn-W, 1998)
However, in China, the hydroelectric production grows steadily. It has risen from 80 billion KWH in 1980 to more than 300 billion KWH in 2003. People can predict from the line chart that it will be a more and more part of energy in Chinese electric production. It takes about 49% of all the renewable energy in China. (World Institute, 2010)
Hydroelectric is very important, not only in these two countries, but also all over the world. In Democracy Republic of Congo, Paraguay and Brazil, hydroelectric takes 85% of their electric. In the USA, more than 50% of electric comes from it. That means hydroelectric really plays an important role in people’s life.
Ⅱ.Examples of the hydro electric station For the reason that hydroelectric really take a great part in electric production, there are some hydroelectric plants which are typical in Philippines and China.
In Philippines, the AGUS-Ⅱ station may be the earliest one. It located on Lanow del Sur. The operator of it is National Power Corp. It can produce 3*60 MW Francis and still it can be used though it was been built in 1979.
The BELEA, which is the biggest one in Philippines is located on Negros Occidental. It has been built in 2008, and can produce 1*39 KW crossflow. The operator of the BELEA is WINROCK international-preview Negrs.
In China, the Three Gorges Dam should not be missing. It began to built when in December 1994, and was finish in May 2006. It is expected to produce 18.2 billion pound watts, and it is the biggest hydroelectric station in China. In 2008, October, all the equipment in the Three Gorges Dam were put into use. Evidently, it dose solve the electric-short in eastern China.
Another hydroelectric station in China which usually be ignored is call XIN’AN River Station. It was built in 1957 and finished in 1960. It is the first station China designed and built itself. It has been working for more than 50 years and it can produce 1.96 billion KWH per year. Ⅲ .The influence to Environment and People
Everything has two sides, no exception for the hydroelectric station. As stated in the previous paragraph, the hydroelectric station has some bad effects. Generally, the disadvantages can be listed as follows. For the reason there are so many hydroelectric station on Changjiang river, there will take it for example.
The most direct impact of cascade reservoirs is that continuity of river is break. Though it may make people have more place for cultivation, it may caused some endangered species died out. It will damage the habitat of the fish even the HUCHO BLEEKERI, a kind of rare fish has already died out. The disappearing of the species may affect the structure and balance of entire ecosystem.
In some places, to build a reservoir will make the effiency of water utilization, anyway, the flood and low-flow process of ricers is weakered at the same time. Because of that, some species which live based on it may be damaged.
The construction of large-soale will produce obvious impact on the habitat since reservoir impoundment. Because of the slow down speed of the rivers in reservoir area, the water receiving sewage ability and self-purification capacity will reduce. Besides, many floodplain is submerged by reservoir, it will cause the problem that may farmland will lose.
The hydroelectric station also has the influence to the climate. It will impact on the temperature, the rain fall and so on. Moreover, it may induce geological such as earthquake and landslide.
Ⅳ Future development of hydroelectric Though the hydroelectric stations have some bad effects, anyway people now are trying to develop it. It has several advantages. It has the low power cost. It is known to people that many plants can service for 50 to 100 years. It is much cheaper than fossil fuels. It can also reduce the CO2 emission which makes contribution to alleviate the green house effect. And it is suitable for industrial application and flexiable to use. What is more, it also provide facilities for water sports, and some plants even become tourist attractions themselves.
In all, people are coming to realize the importance of hydroelectric. They have begun to try their best to develop it. It can be predicted that the hydroelectric will develop faster and faster, not only in Philippines or China, but also around the world.