Guns germs and steel Essay

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Guns germs and steel Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 679

  • Pages: 3

Guns germs and steel

Jared diamond and his theory on how and the Europeans were so successful in their conquest of the incans. This was made possible due to the location of Europe. With the inventions of guns, and steel, along with being exposed to many germs before the incans. This gave the conquestidors many advantages over the inca. Once the Spanish conquered the Incas they had weapons that were unseen and unheard of to the indigenous. This was terrifying to the Inca community because they were unaware of the damage these weapons could cause and the power the Spanish had. The Spanish had been at war with the Mores for approximately 700 years. This gave them experience in fighting and also allowed them to construct the weaponry necessary for war. The Islamic were known to be the first to invent the the gun, but the Chinese invented the gunpowder. These separately were not useful, as the Chinese did not use gunpowder as a weapon. This was when the Spanish decided to combine the two and create what was known as the Harquebus. It was superior to any other gun known at the time. The Spanish had plenty of experience when they arrived to invade the Incas, was was not new to them. This gave them a possible advantage in weapons and fighting tactics.

Since the Spanish had been at war for so long, they found the need to create more weapons, at which time the sword was invented. This was capable stabbing and slashing with great facility. The process of attempting to find the perfect sword took several hundreds of years. It was known as a family business, in which each person’s desire was to create a better sword than those by their ancestors. It was discovered that Iron infused with carbon was the perfect combination to creating a proper sword. The more carbon the harder the sword, but there must be a precise combination of sufficient flexibility and strength to the sword. The Rapier was seen to be that perfect sword, it was long sharp and strong. It not only became popular for war but also amongst gentlemen, this was the time at which it became common to wear your sword towards the side of your waist. These people were known to have descendants that were knights during the medieval times. There was a long process in Europe in attempting to create that perfect fighting weapon which allowed to kill many in a short amount of time. Once the Rapier was introduced it gave Spain more power in weaponry, which allowed conquistadors to have an enormous advantage. During this time of exploration, slaves were brought to the Americas from Africa and Europe. These were transported in ships, at which time it was discovered that some had diseases which were easily transmitted amongst themselves.

This became an epidemic that was brought to the new lands, and affected the indigenous people. Europe had previously gone through this disease, which was contracted by domestic animals. This caused many deaths, but those who survived became immune to these diseases. Once the epidemic arrived to the Americas, the indigenous became utterly ill. They unlike the Spanish, were not immune to these diseases because of their lack of domestic animals. Approximately 95% of the Inca population died. This completely destroyed their community, and allowed for the Spanish to conquer the lands easily and obtain their gold. The Inca’s numbers decreased almost immediately, which caused them to have a lack of power as well as army. This was an advantage to the Spanish which they used at their favor, taking over completely of the Incas. In conclusion the Europeans were able to conquer the incas easily because of geography and where they were located. They aquired guns first and the germs were around more because of the animals they lived with and how they had many years to perfect their weapons and the steel was aquired first too.

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Guns Germs and Steel Essay

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Guns Germs and Steel Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1638

  • Pages: 7

Guns Germs and Steel

Yali asked the question of “why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people had so little cargo of our own? ” (Diamond 14) In other words, he is asking “what is the factor between our people and ours that causes human development to proceed at different rates? ” (Diamond 16) What Yali is really asking though, is, what is this mysterious factor? According to Diamond, the basis for development is the environment around us including the resources and the native people of New Guinea don’t live in an area where a chance is provided for them to take advantage of.

The natural resources are just enough for them to get by. This is why the people of New Guinea produce so little “cargo” of their own. Pizarro’s capture of Atahuallpa and destruction of the Incas made the Europeans realize what power they head, and what they could do to the rest of the world. They easily wiped out the Inca’s of 80,000 with 168 men. From the Battle of Cajamarca, Pizzaro came back to Charles I saying that Europe had the power to conquer the Americas. There were reasons Pizarro and the Europeans could conquer the Americas… They had better warfare than the Incas.

Pizarro’s men had armor rode horseback and used steel compared to their wooden weapons. Eurasia happened to have an abundance of edible material because of the right environment leading to the domestication of plants and animals led the people to settle down in one place instead of being nomads. When people started to settle down and bring the food to them, they started to have a surplus which led for the people to have extra jobs and it started to also support a higher population while allowing women to have more children contributing to job specialization.

These specialists were not devoted to farmers or food producers but varied to priests, blacksmiths etc. Permanent agriculture societies were able to from with the food surpluses leading to empires. Some of the reason that people began to settle down and farm are because at the time many wild foods began to decrease due to hunters and gatherers killing off too many large animals leaving life unsustainable. More wild plants that could be domesticated became available at the time. Technological advances allowe3d people to harvest and store greater amounts of food that they cultivated.

Human populations rose it’s not clear how much it caused food production and how much food production caused it but researchers believe there’s a connection. As populations rose, they needed to have better food supplies and started farming. The farm societies were able to drive out neighboring hunter-gatherers. A continent with long east-west axis like (Eurasia) has an advantage over continents with long north-south axes (like Africa and the Americas). The reasons it does have to do with crops and longitude. In general similar crops can grow at similar longitudes.

In other words a cropped that developed in one place can be spread east to west (or west to east) but less likely to spread north and south. Epidemic diseases developed among the societies that had been farming the longest. These were Eurasian societies. Societies in the Americas, Australia, and other places had not been farming as long and lacked epidemic diseases. When Europeans came in contact with Native Americans, for example, European epidemic diseases killed huge percentages of the Native Americans. This helped the Europeans conquer and the conquest made them richer and more powerful.

Therefore germs help to answer Yali’s question. The societies that did independently invent writing were those with complex hierarchies and sophisticated systems of food production. Writing was needed for politics and was generally learned by bureaucrats who had the comfort of available time and energy. As food was available to them, they had no need to hunt and gather for themselves. Since their basic needs were being met, they could focus on a higher level of existence and communication. There are two conditions in which technology may develop.

The first is “mother necessity ideology” which is when a society needs something to make things easier they invent it. Technology differed from place to place because there were more people to invent and better diffusion to spread the invention. The opposite happened in the Americas because there were less people and a slower diffusion rate. Also different cultures had different ideas for change. The only way that society can emerge is through food. Such developments include jobs, such as the chief and the beginnings of government.

The institutions of society changed over time based on how organized they were. They evolved based around various factors like war and other societies. They are related by diffusion. Whenever a state is conquered by another state they enforce use of their technology or exploit it. States are going to develop weapons, troops, and religion in order to make the state survive. They develop in response to need of their population size. They use these agents of conquest to become larger and to conquer other societies; and for that they need guns, germs, and steel.

What Diamond is saying is that he thinks that people really should not think that history is so much different from the sciences. He is saying that the study of history can be pretty “scientific” if it is done correctly (and that some sciences are not as precise as things like chemistry). Diamond is trying to argue that historians should use what he calls “natural experiments. ” He thinks that there are many “experiments” where there are two or more places that are pretty similar in many ways but which then turned out differently (like his experiment in Chapter 2).

He argues that historians can use these — they can look at what was different and what was similar and how the differences led to the differences in the outcomes. Guns, Germs, and Steel Book Review I think Diamond’s central intent of writing the book is to explain how varying societies become dominate, and how certain others can become dominated. By looking at environmental conditions that caused the disparities that lead to certain societies developing guns, germs, and steel, including other technology, and forming a government necessary for conquest.

He introduced the book with Yali’s question “Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people has so little cargo of our own? ” This question used a scientific/geographic background, and set his intent is to answer the question or inform how to answer the question. He also tries to analyze the causes of the expansion of civilizations’ in some parts of the world, since all people are physically the same what could cause some to be successful

and others to die? He used archaeological and historical case studies and evidence from genetics and linguistics, he argued that technological and gaps in power are not caused by race or culture differences but by environmental differences, He used the idea of the axis as one saying that Eurasia had an east to west (or west to east) therefore having an advantage over Africa or the Americas for instance, because crops could grow at the same longitude but it was more difficult as they went north and south.

Also when cultural or genetic differences have favored Eurasians like for example written language or resistance to epidemic diseases he says these advantages occurred because of the influence and geography on societies and cultures and were not inherited as genes from Eurasian ancestors. Diamond’s book argues that the differences in progress for different societies around the world do not result from one group being smarter or more resourceful than another.

Rather, he focuses on the impact of geography — whether food and other key items were plentiful, whether and how disease spread, and how these developments led to different levels of industrialization, and wealth The book “Guns, Germs, and Steel” was very well written in the sense that Diamond had a question in which was the foundation of the book, he throughout the book acquired evidence and explanations and ideas of how to answer the question.

The book had evidence to back it up by explaining how Eurasia had a better opportunity being west to east meaning they had better crop farming. Which led to a growing civilization and soon conquest. The book wasn’t exactly dull or boring but it wasn’t exciting or entertaining either. It was like any other history book it asked a question, then went on to the point. There was an explanation of the main topic which was Yali’s question and evidence that dealt with answering the question.

From beginning to end, Diamond stresses that he realizes that efforts to compare societies have frequently been used by racists or nationalists to belittle groups or justify mistreatment of them. He argues that his analysis is in fact anti-racism at work because it shows that the white people who enjoy the comforts of modern life are ultimately luckier than, not more deserving than, people in impoverished nations.

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Guns Germs and Steel Essay

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Guns Germs and Steel Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1601

  • Pages: 6

Guns Germs and Steel

Yali asked the question of “why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people had so little cargo of our own?” (Diamond 14) In other words, he is asking “what is the factor between our people and ours that causes human development to proceed at different rates?” (Diamond 16) What Yali is really asking though, is, what is this mysterious factor? According to Diamond, the basis for development is the environment around us including the resources and the native people of New Guinea don’t live in an area where a chance is provided for them to take advantage of. The natural resources are just enough for them to get by. This is why the people of New Guinea produce so little “cargo” of their own.

Pizarro’s capture of Atahuallpa and destruction of the Incas made the Europeans realize what power they head, and what they could do to the rest of the world. They easily wiped out the Inca’s of 80,000 with 168 men. From the Battle of Cajamarca, Pizzaro came back to Charles I saying that Europe had the power to conquer the Americas. There were reasons Pizarro and the Europeans could conquer the Americas… They had better warfare than the Incas. Pizarro’s men had armor rode horseback and used steel compared to their wooden weapons.

Eurasia happened to have an abundance of edible material because of the right environment leading to the domestication of plants and animals led the people to settle down in one place instead of being nomads. When people started to settle down and bring the food to them, they started to have a surplus which led for the people to have extra jobs and it started to also support a higher population while allowing women to have more children contributing to job specialization. These specialists were not devoted to farmers or food producers but varied to priests, blacksmiths etc. Permanent agriculture societies were able to from with the food surpluses leading to empires.

Some of the reason that people began to settle down and farm are because at the time many wild foods began to decrease due to hunters and gatherers killing off too many large animals leaving life unsustainable. More wild
plants that could be domesticated became available at the time. Technological advances allowe3d people to harvest and store greater amounts of food that they cultivated. Human populations rose it’s not clear how much it caused food production and how much food production caused it but researchers believe there’s a connection. As populations rose, they needed to have better food supplies and started farming. The farm societies were able to drive out neighboring hunter-gatherers.

A continent with long east-west axis like (Eurasia) has an advantage over continents with long north-south axes (like Africa and the Americas). The reasons it does have to do with crops and longitude. In general similar crops can grow at similar longitudes. In other words a cropped that developed in one place can be spread east to west (or west to east) but less likely to spread north and south. Epidemic diseases developed among the societies that had been farming the longest. These were Eurasian societies. Societies in the Americas, Australia, and other places had not been farming as long and lacked epidemic diseases. When Europeans came in contact with Native Americans, for example, European epidemic diseases killed huge percentages of the Native Americans. This helped the Europeans conquer and the conquest made them richer and more powerful. Therefore germs help to answer Yali’s question. The societies that did independently invent writing were those with complex hierarchies and sophisticated systems of food production. Writing was needed for politics and was generally learned by bureaucrats who had the comfort of available time and energy. As food was available to them, they had no need to hunt and gather for themselves. Since their basic needs were being met, they could focus on a higher level of existence and communication. There are two conditions in which technology may develop. The first is “mother necessity ideology” which is when a society needs something to make things easier they invent it. Technology differed from place to place because there were more people to invent and better diffusion to spread the invention. The opposite happened in the Americas because there were less people and a slower diffusion rate. Also different cultures had different ideas for change.

The only way that society can emerge is through food. Such developments
include jobs, such as the chief and the beginnings of government. The institutions of society changed over time based on how organized they were. They evolved based around various factors like war and other societies. They are related by diffusion. Whenever a state is conquered by another state they enforce use of their technology or exploit it. States are going to develop weapons, troops, and religion in order to make the state survive. They develop in response to need of their population size. They use these agents of conquest to become larger and to conquer other societies; and for that they need guns, germs, and steel.

What Diamond is saying is that he thinks that people really should not think that history is so much different from the sciences. He is saying that the study of history can be pretty “scientific” if it is done correctly (and that some sciences are not as precise as things like chemistry). Diamond is trying to argue that historians should use what he calls “natural experiments.” He thinks that there are many “experiments” where there are two or more places that are pretty similar in many ways but which then turned out differently (like his experiment in Chapter 2). He argues that historians can use these — they can look at what was different and what was similar and how the differences led to the differences in the outcomes.

Guns, Germs, and Steel Book Review

I think Diamond’s central intent of writing the book is to explain how varying societies become dominate, and how certain others can become dominated. By looking at environmental conditions that caused the disparities that lead to certain societies developing guns, germs, and steel, including other technology, and forming a government necessary for conquest. He introduced the book with Yali’s question “Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people has so little cargo of our own?” This question used a scientific/geographic background, and set his intent is to answer the question or inform how to answer the question. He also tries to analyze the causes of the expansion of civilizations’ in some parts of the world, since all people are physically the same what could cause some to be successful
and others to die? He used archaeological and historical case studies and evidence from genetics and linguistics, he argued that technological and gaps in power are not caused by race or culture differences but by environmental differences, He used the idea of the axis as one saying that Eurasia had an east to west (or west to east) therefore having an advantage over Africa or the Americas for instance, because crops could grow at the same longitude but it was more difficult as they went north and south. Also when cultural or genetic differences have favored Eurasians like for example written language or resistance to epidemic diseases he says these advantages occurred because of the influence and geography on societies and cultures and were not inherited as genes from Eurasian ancestors. Diamond’s book argues that the differences in progress for different societies around the world do not result from one group being smarter or more resourceful than another. Rather, he focuses on the impact of geography — whether food and other key items were plentiful, whether and how disease spread, and how these developments led to different levels of industrialization, and wealth The book “Guns, Germs, and Steel” was very well written in the sense that Diamond had a question in which was the foundation of the book, he throughout the book acquired evidence and explanations and ideas of how to answer the question. The book had evidence to back it up by explaining how Eurasia had a better opportunity being west to east meaning they had better crop farming. Which led to a growing civilization and soon conquest. The book wasn’t exactly dull or boring but it wasn’t exciting or entertaining either. It was like any other history book it asked a question, then went on to the point. There was an explanation of the main topic which was Yali’s question and evidence that dealt with answering the question. From beginning to end, Diamond stresses that he realizes that efforts to compare societies have frequently been used by racists or nationalists to belittle groups or justify mistreatment of them. He argues that his analysis is in fact anti-racism at work because it shows that the white people who enjoy the comforts of modern life are ultimately luckier than, not more deserving than, people in impoverished nations.

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Guns, Germs, And Steel Essay

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Guns, Germs, And Steel Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 621

  • Pages: 2

Guns, Germs, And Steel

In the book Guns, Germs, and Steel the Fates of Human Societies, Jared Diamond discusses the superior developments and advancements of mankind that shaped history through time. Throughout the book Diamond states how disease and germs have shaped history up to today. “Because diseases have been the biggest killers of people, they have also been decisive shapers of history.” For instance, Diamond relates to a story once told to him by a friend about a man that contracted a very odd disease. As the story progressed you eventually found out how the man got the illness by having sexual intercourse with a sheep. This illustrates human diseases of animal origins (pp.195, 196. 197, 206-210). Diamond also discusses how the Europeans were able to defeat the Native Americans because they brought diseases to them that they were not yet immune to.

In Guns, Germs, and Steel, Diamond discusses the evolution of disease that is contracted from animals. Diseases that have had a major impact throughout history such as smallpox, malaria, tuberculosis, plague, flu, and measles have been adapted by humans from animals (p. 196). One example of how a germ can spread is by patiently waiting to be transmitted through the victim. For instance we often contract salmonella by eating raw or unprepared food like eggs and meat; and the worm that causes anisakiasis by eating raw fish. Germs don’t just wait to be transmitted by waiting to be eaten by the victim but by hitchhiking on the animals’ salvia.

For example, mosquitoes, fleas, and even lice carry fatal germs that can cause diseases such as malaria, plague, or even typhus, and once bitten you can easily contract any of those diseases (p.198). Moreover, the worst type of transmission of the germs is by passing through a woman to her fetus and pass on –infect- her child. That type of transmission diamond describes as contracting syphilis, AIDs, and rubella (p.199). AIDs, as Diamond informs us, came from a virus in African Monkeys that was first detected in 1962 (pp.197, 199, 201, and 208)

One main example of how disease had a huge impact on shaping the course of history is the Europeans defeating the Native Americans (pp. 210, 211, 212, 197). The Europeans came to the Americas in 1492 on Columbus’s voyage. When they came they were able to conquer the Native Americans due to the murderous microbes. Many more Native Americans died in bed from disease than ob n the battle field because of the Eurasian germs. For example, Cortés came to the Mexican coast attempting to conquer the Aztec empire. When he reached Tenochtitlan he was able to escape with one third of his army left. When they returned, the Spaniards had an advantage due to the epidemic that was brought to the Aztecs by a Spaniard.

The epidemic spread like wildfire and by 1618 the Aztec population drastically decreased from 20 million to 1.6 million (p.210). Additionally, Pizarro had the same luck when he got to Peru and attempted taking over the Inca Empire in 1531. Smallpox came in 1526 killing a large number of Inca residents’ as well as the emperor and his successor. Hernando de Soto came to the Americas and was the firsts to march through southern united states. He came across many abandoned sites due to epidemics and Eurasian germs. As de Soto marched through the Indian sites of lower Mississippi, Eurasian germs had already reached most of north America and kept spreading. The main killers of the Indians had been the Eurasian germs that were not introduced to the native Americans and therefore never immune.

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Guns, Germs and Steel Essay

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Guns, Germs and Steel Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1688

  • Pages: 7

Guns, Germs and Steel

The book Guns, Germs and Steel is an interesting impression of Jared Diamond to challenge and refresh our outlook towards the effect of politics to cultural and individual development as based from historical and theoretical concept. JD is a physiologist and evolutionary biologist and has made this work on a broader scope during his explorations in New Guinea to study the culture as well as the environment of the people. It started out in a prologue while Jared travels with his friend Yali, a New Guinean and questions the diminutive cargo of the locals against the bulk of cargos of the Eurasians.

JD tried to explain to Yali by answering him with historical and theoretical views according to his research. JD said that while the natives own the land and the resources, the foreigners are capable of dominance because they are superior in technology as can be seen with their tools and machinery. But JD explained to Yali that what he sees is not proof of the superiority of the Eurasians over the natives but rather the opposite. JD said that Yali’s people are actually smarter and adaptable to any environment because they live in a world that has requires critical survival.

Chapter 1 of the book discusses the origin of man and their discovery of tools and art as depicted from their paintings. JD theorizes that man made a great leap and used his intelligence 50,000 years ago as found on skeletons found in Australia and New Guinea. Accordingly, the Americans were probably colonized during 11,000 BC which correspond to the final stage of the Pleistocene Era and the melting of the ice in the last Ice Age. Chapter 2 details the war between the Maoris against the Morioris in Polynesia as early as 1835 in the Chatham islands and.

Polynesia during that period has different set of climates, geography, resources and political and social conditions which lead to less diversification of human populations to be able to adapt in their environment. Chapter 3 details the conquest of European Francisco Pizarro and his men to capture Atahuallpa, the Inca emperor at Cajamarca, Peru in 1532. The superior weapons and their armor which were made of steel and the horses and cavalry pushes the natives out of their place while the Europeans brought along with them diseases such as smallpox and eventually infected and killed another native emperor of different tribe.

JD pointed out that people of dominant culture has the foremost advantage over those who are less in technology and political organization as the Incas does not have. On Chapter 4 of the book, JD significantly emphasizes the importance of agriculture to propel the development of a fragile society because with the increase of food production there is a room for population to grow larger and stronger. Enough supply of food can sustain people to be more vigorous and organize themselves without resorting to violence to survive.

An organized society can form political government to protect its people against conquest such as JD pointed out. In chapter 5, the author describes the technology of calibrating sites for food production by naming sites and crops suitable to grow in their environment while in chapter 6, 7 and 8 discusses his confidence the possibility of converting native hunters into agriculturist because of degeneration of wild games and animals in their environment. He said that there are already great varieties of plants and animals that can be domesticated and cultured and there is no need to hunt for food for a family to survive.

JD gave an example in chapter 9 and 10 the success of the Indians in domesticating animals and prevents the extinction of wild animals in their forest. He said that breeding animals is one of the most accepted principles in domesticating animals that even wild species of animals can be bred in captivity. But this depends on the adaptability of animals with the climatic conditions on certain locality. Lack of animal adaptation means limited domestication and cultivation of animals and plants.

The New World on the other hand is located on a tropical zone therefore people have more favorable climatic conditions as compared with the Eurasian countries. However, major infectious diseases or what JD calls “killers of humanity” mainly comes from animals men domesticates. He said that small pox originates from cowpox, flu from pigs and ducks and tuberculosis from cattle. These are only few of the negative impact on the cultivation of livestock by man that even people in the cities are not safe from certain diseases as they kept animals as pets.

Industrialization gave man endemic diseases because he attracts germ carrying pests and we now have yellow fever, hookworm, bubonic plague and many other diseases transmitted by pests. Man also is a carrier of pest and diseases to his fellow human such as the body lice, sexually transmitted disease and other human infections. The following chapters introduced the origins of writings in early period of Mesoamerica and most part of Asia. JD significantly highlights necessity as the mother of invention and the invention of writings lead to the invention of the technology and then to arms for weapons and destruction.

He said that the introduction of technology was also the beginning of civilizations to colonize other civilizations, destroying their population and their culture. The author also reviews the societal form of organization on a certain level which starts from the smaller faction or the band. The “band” is composed of people that are usually related by blood, nomadic in nature and have one ethnicity and language and no more than 5 to 80 people bonded together to be form a small society.

The “tribe”, however has more people with fixed community, one ethnicity and language but being led by a leader in a societal form of government such as tribe in New Guinea and Australia . The “group” leads to chiefdoms and then to a larger extent which forms the state. The “state” have more than 50,000 people living in various villages, class and residence-based relationships. They also have more than one language, have centralized bureaucratic government levels and politicians to man the government, the law and the state.

States have also their police and militaries to protect its citizenry against injustice. This was discussed on chapter 14. Chapter 15 to 16 depicts the Australian and New Guinean’ climate where Yali belongs. These two countries were formerly united as one large mass of land but separated because of the effect of large body of water 10,000 years ago. The following chapters discuss how China became the China of today which brought by forced unification of the Qin dynasty in 221 BC.

Continuous fighting and dominance of Asian ethnicities in old China produces mixed races of different Asian origins but came up to have one traditional language which is the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. Among these languages is the Mandarin. Chapter 17 is explained by JD on how the islands of the Pacific were able to be colonized by the Asians who arrived in New Guinea around 40,000 BC. This Asian group composes the ancestors of Philippine Negritos and formerly called the Austronesian.

Their migrations began from China, reached Taiwan and then the Philippines at around 3000 BC. Those who came to Sumatra and Java became the Malayo-Polynesian while those who arrived in Northern New Guinea and Samoa became the Samoans. JD reviews on chapter 18 the factors which led to the European conquering Americas. The Europeans are better in food production, domestication of animals, producing metals and weapons, organization of armies, transportation and communication and solid political organization which the people of early America lacks.

The people of the New World such as New Guinea, however are more primitive and backward and lacks capabilities to organize themselves. This was the reason why the Europeans or the Eurasians have been able to establish their colony in their nation without conflict and resistance. And finally chapter 19 discusses how the people of Africa came to be blacks. Accordingly, in the previous era, North Africans were whites who resemble Middle Eastern and Europeans and speak Afro-Asiatic languages.

The pygmies or small black African people are mostly confined to Central Africa but were outnumbered by indigenous people. The blacks occupy only most of the Saharan Africa but extended their occupancy to the East coast to Cape town. From there they began to cultivate crops and domesticate animals and expand largely in numbers. The epilogue of this book answers Yali’s question on why whites have been so successful with their trades and always have larger cargos compared with the locals on a shipping trade comes to conclusion.

The book answers his question by chapters and details. The effect of geographical formation and the environment clearly emphasizes the commencement of dominance by the Eurasian whites. Dominance factors illustrates the capability of the Eurasian to domesticate plant and animals better than the people of the New World, the speed of their technology which also sped up the rates of migration and their concrete population and size of their continents enable them to migrate and search for more opportunities to other continents.

Furthermore, JD wants to search further with his study to come up with more variables that could defend his theory. He believes that he can only do this through natural historical experiments that need to be researched. These involve the history of human societies which are always intricate to understand than the lost dinosaurs of the old world (McGoodwin).

Work Cited: McGoodwin, Michael. “Jared Diamond: Guns, Germs and Steel. ” (2000). April 10, 2008 <http://mcgoodwin. net/pages/gungermsteel. html>.

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