University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
The main role of the executive is to preform leadership like duties such as carrying out leadership roles, ceremonial roles, and preforming symbolic. The leadership role demand formulating, articulating, and implementing goals of the political system. The effective chief executive becomes the spokesperson for the people, attempts to invigorate the people’s support for these goals, and then develops strategies that ease their accomplishment. For the most part the chief executive takes the initiative in a policy form. The executive policy leadership is very crucial during times of crisis, because the executive structure has the potential for a level of coherence and consent of action, which is almost always lacking in legislature. In most political systems the chief executive officer has the power to veto the legislation that the legislature initiates, which may be directly or indirectly. The actors in the executive role usually function as the unifying symbol of the entire society, becoming the lead figurehead for the people.
The executive presence becomes a central to many of society’s ceremonies and rituals. In the majority of all political systems the executive has the primary responsibility for implementing the laws and policies of political order. Most systems have an executive cabinet in where each member is directly and personally responsible for some of the major areas of administration. However they are supposed to set a broad set of guidelines for policy and implementation and responsibility for any major mishaps that occur. In parliament for examples, the minster of a department will usually resign if there is a serious shortcoming in his or her area of responsibility. The chief executive must set policy and supervise the organization and utilization of the state’s military capabilities, which is a task that can have the most serious consequences for the security, and well being of the society.
Along with this comes the supervision of foreign affairs that involves a complicated pattern of meeting officials from other states and deal with national dealings with other nations usually showing some form of cooperation. The British government and the United States government are different in many aspects but yet share many similarities. A prime minister who handles the majority of the executive responsibilities mainly holds Britain’s executive, and of curse the king or queen handles ceremonial responsibilities like a figurehead would. However the United States has a fused executive system in where the president handles both the head of state and the head of government roles.
2. Democracy has a wide range of meanings, but true direct democracy is a government of and by the people. An alternative concept in which it is pretty clear is representative democracy. This is a system in which the citizens elect people to represent them in the political aspect of things and to express the values on their behalf of society. Another general term to describe this democracy is a republic even though not all republics are democratic and not all democrats are republicans. Electoral democracy is defined as a political system in where all citizens periodically vote in order to elect political leaders in their society. It also seems important to establish that the people have the power to retain or reject those serving as their political leaders. This additional condition, called the limited mandate, means that the electorate grants the authority to rule for only a short fixed period of time, and then the electorate has the opportunity to elect their representatives again. Meaning that if the political leaders do not gain sufficient votes the political leaders will voluntarily resign office. We can also classify a political system called liberal democracy when citizens enjoy not only electoral democracy but also substantial political rights and civil liberties regarding participation, personal freedoms, and oppositions.
The United States is considered to have some like similarities in this regard for the notion that its citizens enjoy the freedoms and rights that come along with voting and individual values. A non-democracy is a concept by with all major decisions especially with those that deal with the state is handled by the person or political group in charge of the state in that time. One conventional concept used to define non democracies is a dictatorship. A definition of a dictator might be a ruler with absolute power and authority. Dictatorship may be further defined as the absence of a limited mandate- a critical factor in the definition of democracy. That is, the citizens of that state have no power to remove the person in office or political leadership period. This government type is often time seen as harsh to its citizens and harsh. Totalitarianism, which is a political system that the allocation of values and its control penetrate into almost every aspect of its citizen’s everyday lives. The totalitarian political system demands complete obedience to its extensive rules in culture, economics, religion, and most of all morality. All organizations are subordinated to the totalitarian state. Every activity is under scrutiny by the state in the name of the public interest.
The state might define what is ok to watch or be produce in a movie, what acceptable to say in the media, and It even has acceptable behaviors and thoughts for its people. Another concept that falls under the category of non-democratic is Authoritarian regimes. Many authoritarian regimes such as dictatorships lack empowerment. What really distinguish authoritarianism are the political actions and decisions of the ruler, while the political rights and freedoms of the people are significantly limited. In other words under authoritarianism the population has very minimal political rights. An authoritarian regime places many severe restrictions on the activities of individuals and groups who advocate the people on the actions of the political system. The great majority of the populations are not allowed to participate in any political activities except in ways that expressly encouraged by the regime such as mass rallies and speeches. Citizens of such places are not allowed to question the political intuitions, procedures, or public policies of an authoritarian regime.
3. There are a few different types of states, first there is the unitary state and then there is central government, which holds all legislative power. While the central government has indivisible sovereignty, it can delegate power or functional responsibilities to territorial units, which have names such as department or regions. These peripheral governments serve only at the convenience of the central government, which can revoke their power or functions at any given time. The majority of all citizens tend to identify with the country as a whole, rather than with regional authorities as they should. A federation is divided constitutionally and functions between a central government and the set of regional governments. On the other hand to a unitary state, there is an explicit sharing of power among the levels of government in a federation, and no level has legal power to dominate any other level in all policy domains. There are five major rationales that make up a federation: large size, prior existence of strong states, desire to create unity or accommodate diversity, the desire to concentrate power and resources, and the desire to disperse political power.
A federation can be established to prevent the over centration of power in the central government. A confederation is an association in which states delegate some power to a supranational central government but retain primary power. Confederations emphasize on economic cooperation and or military cooperation’s. It is a loose grouping of states in which each state’s involvement membership, and compliance with the central government are conditional depending on the state’s perception of its own national interest.