Global warming Essay

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Global warming Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 3433

  • Pages: 14

Global warming

Nature, by contrast, is slow-moving, undemanding, maybe underwhelming for many people. But if you never put yourself in the midst of nature–to understand that its essence is our essence–then you’re inclined to treat it as trivial. You become willing to abuse and destroy it through carelessness, not recognizing that to do so is wrong.

We’ve come to accept that if nature can yield something of value to the lucrative engines of commerce, then we should grab it and rip it out, never thinking twice about the wounds left behind. According to this way of thinking, if exploitation results in injury to the environment, so be it: nature will always heal itself. But the magnitude of environmental destruction is now on a scale few ever foresaw; the wounds no longer simply heal themselves. We have to act affirmatively to stop the harm. Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p.161 May 26, 2006

An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore: on Energy & Oil
Skeptics point to historical warming–but today is hotter
The correlation between temperate and CO2 concentrations over the last 1,000 years–as measured in the ice core record by Thompson’s team–is striking.

Nevertheless, the so-called global warming skeptics often say that global warming is really an illusion reflecting nature’s cyclical fluctuations. To support their view, they frequently refer to the Medieval Warm Period. But as [the historical] thermometer shows, the vaunted Medieval Warm Period was tiny compared to the enormous increases in temperature of the last half-century.

In any given year, it might seem as if the average global temperature is going down, but the overall trend is very clear. And in recent years, the rate of increase has been accelerating. In fact, if you look at the 21 hottest years measured, 20 of the last 21 occurred within the last 25 years. The hottest year on record during this entire period was 2005. Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p. 64&72-73 May 26, 2006

Ocean warming causes stronger hurricanes, like Katrina
Scientists have been using evermore accurate computer models that long ago predicted a much higher range of ocean temperatures as a result of man-made global warming. The actual ocean temperatures are completely consistent with what has been predicted, and they’re way above the range of natural variability.

As the oceans get warmer, storms get stronger. In 2004, Florida was hit by 4 unusually powerful hurricanes. That same year, Japan set an all-time record for typhoons. The previous record was 7. In 2004, 10 typhoons hit Japan.

The emerging consensus links global warming to increasingly destructive power of hurricanes, increasing the strength of the average hurricane a full half-step on the well-known 5-step scale. As water temperatures go up, wind velocity goes up. One major study came out less than a month before Hurricane Katrina hit.

When Katrina first hit, it was only a category 1 storm. Then, it passed over the unusually warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico [and became category 5]. Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p. 78-94 May 26, 2006

Global warming causes more floods & also more droughts
There has been record flooding in China, which, as one of the planet’s oldest civilizations, keeps the best flood records of any nation in the world.

Recently, for example, there were huge floods in Sichuan and Shandong provinces. Paradoxically, however, global warming also causes not only more flooding, but also more drought. The nearby Anhui province was continuing to suffer a severe drought at the same time the neighboring areas were flooding.

One of the reasons for this paradox has to do with the fact that global warming not only increases precipitation worldwide but at the same time causes some of it to relocate.

A second reason for the paradoxical effect of global warming is that while it produces more evaporation from the oceans to fill the warmer atmosphere with increased moisture, it also sucks more moisture out of the soil. Partly as a consequence, desertification has been increasing in the world decade by decade. Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p.112&118 May 26, 2006

Supported ethanol in 1970s & cellulosic ethanol now
When I was in Congress we used to wrangle about the value of making ethanol from corn. Despite the moonshine jokes, I supported ethanol. Even though some of its environmental consequences made me uncomfortable, I thought it was important for us to work on alternatives to fossil fuels to begin to break our dependence on foreign oil. Since then, newer innovations have [come along]: one company has figured out a way to make a new kind of ethanol out of plant fiber–cheaper & cleaner than regular ethanol. Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p.137 May 26, 2006

Arctic ice is melting & may disrupt global weather patterns
Since the 1970s, the extent & thickness of the Artic ice cap has diminished precipitously. There are now studies showing that if we continue with business as usual, the Artic ice cap will completely disappear each year during summertime. At present, it plays a crucial role in cooling the Earth. Preventing its disappearance must be one of our priorities.

The melting of the ice cap represents bad news for creatures like polar bears. A new study shows that for the first time, polar bears have been drowning in significant numbers.

What does it mean to look at a vast expanse of water that used to be ice? We ought to care about this because it has serious planetary effects. An increase of 5 degrees actually means an increase of only 1 or 2 degrees at the Equator, but more than 12 degrees at the North Pole. And so all those wind and ocean patterns that formed during the last ice age, are now up in the air.

Our civilization has never experienced any environmental shift remotely similar to this. Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p.143-149 May 26, 2006

Carbon exchange market can cap-and-trade CO2 like we did SO2 When acid rain was falling on parts of the US back in the 1980s, an innovative program helped to clean up the polluted precipitation. With bipartisan support, Congress put in place a system for buying and selling emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), the main culprit behind acid rain. Called a cap-and-trade system, it used the power of market forces to help drastically reduce SO2 emissions, while allowing pioneering companies to profit from environmental stewardship.

A similar approach can speed up the reduction of CO2 emissions. The European Union has adopted this US innovation and is making it work effectively. Here at home, while Congress has not yet passed a federal cap-and-trade system for CO2 emissions, there is an effective private-sector carbon market that is already up and running–the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX).

The CCX is leading the way toward a future in which reducing CO2 could bring not only environmental rewards, but financial ones too. Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p.252 May 26, 2006

Consensus on global warming, but newspapers fabricate doubt
Politicians often confuse self-interested arguments paid for by lobbyists & planted in the popular press with legitimate peer-reviewed studies published in reputable scientific journals. For example, the global warming skeptics cite one article more than any other in arguing that global warming is just a myth: a statement of concern during the 1970s that the world might be in danger of entering a new ice age. But that article was published in Newsweek and never appeared in a peer-reviewed journal.

There is a misconception that the scientific community is in a state of disagreement about global warming. In fact, there is virtually no serious disagreement on the central points.

The misconception of disagreement is actually an illusion that has been deliberately fostered by oil & coal companies. These companies want to prevent any new policies that would interfere with their current business plans that rely on the massive unrestrained dumping of CO2 into the Earth atmosphere every day. Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p.260-3 May 26, 2006

Current tech can reduce CO2 emissions to 1970 levels
Together, these changes, all of which are based on already-existing, affordable technologies, can bring emissions down to a point below 1970s levels.

Reduction from more efficient use of electricity in heating and cooling systems, lighting, appliances and electronic equipment. Reduction from end-use efficiency, meaning we design buildings and businesses to use far less energy. Reduction from increased vehicle efficiency by manufacturing cars that run on less gas and putting more hybrid and fuel-cell cars on the roads. Reduction from making other changes in transport efficiency, such as designing better mass transit systems. Reduction from increased reliance on renewable energy technologies that already exist. Reduction from the capture and storage of excess carbon from power plants and industrial activities.

Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p.281 May 26, 2006

Dealing with global warming inconvenient for rich & powerful As for why so many people still resist what the facts clearly show, I think, in part, the reason is that the truth about the climate crisis is an inconvenient one that means we are going to have to change the way we live our lives.

The truth about global warming is especially inconvenient and unwelcome to some powerful people and companies making enormous sums of money from activities they know full well will have to change in order to ensure the planet’s livability.

These people–especially those at a few multinational companies with the most at stake–have been spending many millions of dollars every year in figuring out ways of sowing public confusion about global warming. Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p.284 May 26, 2006

We solved ozone crisis; can solve CO2 crisis by same methods Once upon a time, your refrigerator could kill you. Early models used toxic and explosive gases top keep food cold. In 1927, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) replaced those gases. But in 1974, scientists theorized that as CFCs rose into the upper atmosphere, their molecules would be broken down by the sun, releasing chlorine into the ozone layer and setting in motion a dangerous chain reaction. Ozone protects us from the sun’s damaging rays. Chlorine would eat away at this fragile protective skin, allowing the sun’s ultraviolet rays to stream unimpeded through the atmosphere, thereby causing skin cancer and other problems.

In 1987, 27 nations signed the Montreal Protocol, the first global environmental agreement to regulate CFCs. At last count there were 183 signatories, and the levels of CFCs have stabilized or declined.

Today, as the CO2 crisis unites us, we must remember the lesson of the CFC battle: that cool heads can prevail and alter the course of environmental change for the better. Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p.295 May 26, 2006

Steadily increase energy from clean, renewable sources
Governor Douglas and his team have been hard at work planning Vermonters’ energy future and steadily increasing the amount of power produced here in Vermont by clean, renewable sources. Governor Douglas is a leader in the effort to reduce greenhouse gases and halt global warning. He was the first governor to agree to a new Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, a cooperative effort by Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic states to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Source: Rutland Herald op-ed, “The real inconvenient truth” Jul 28, 2006

An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore: on Environment
Humans can impact earth’s ecology; especially the atmosphere Many people today assume mistakenly that the Earth is so big that we humans cannot possibly have any major impact on the way our planet’s ecological system operates. That may have been true at one time, but it is not the case any more. We have grown so numerous and our technologies have become so powerful that we are now capable of having a significant influence on many parts of the Earth’s environment. The must vulnerable part of the Earth’s ecological system is the atmosphere. It is vulnerable because it is so thin. Indeed, the Earth’s atmosphere is so think that we have the capacity to dramatically alter the concentration of some o fit basic molecular components. In particular, we have vastly increased the amount of carbon dioxide–the most important of the so-called greenhouse gases. Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p. 22-25 May 26, 2006

To let earth continue warming would be deeply immoral
In Antarctica, measurements of CO2 concentrations and temperatures go back 650,000 years. At no point in the last 650,000 years before the pre-industrial era did the CO2 concentration go above 300 parts per million (ppm). Where CO2 is now–350 ppm–is way above anything measured in the prior 650,000-year record.

There is not a single part of this 650,000-year record–no fact, date, or number–that is controversial in any way or in dispute by anybody. To the extent that there is a controversy at all, it is that a few people in some of the less responsible coal, oil, and utility companies say, “So what? That’s not going to cause any problem.”

[Does temperature follow CO2 levels?] It’s a complicated relationship, but when there is more CO2 in the atmosphere, the temperature increases because
more heat from the Sun is trapped.

But if we allow this to happen, it would be deeply and unforgivably immoral. it would condemn coming generations to a catastrophically diminished future. Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p. 67 May 26, 2006

Use market capitalism as ally of environmentalism
One of the keys to solving the climate crisis involves finding ways to use the powerful force of market capitalism as an ally. And more than anything else, that requires accurate measurements of the real consequences–positive and negative–of all the important economic choices we make.

The environmental impact of our economic choices has often been ignored because traditional business accounting has allowed these factors to be labeled “externalities” and routinely excluded from the balance sheet.

Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p.270 May 26, 2006

An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore: on Foreign Policy
Drought from global warming set stage for Darfur genocide
Unbelievable tragedies have been unfolding in the part of Africa near Lake Chad, where genocidal murders have become commonplace in the region of Darfur. The region-wide drought has contributed to the famine conditions that put millions at risk. A little discussed contributing factor to the famine and genocide is the disappearance of Lake Chad.

Just 40 years ago Lake Chad was as large as Lake Erie–formerly the 6th largest lake in the world. But now due to declining rainfall and ever-intensifying human use, it has shrunk to 1/20th of its original size. The lake’s dissipation has led to collapsing fisheries and crops.

While Lake Chad withered, intense drought set the stage for the violence that erupted in neighboring Darfur, a war-torn region of Sudan.

The more we understand about climate change, the more it looks as if we may be the real culprit–the US emits 1/4 of the world’s greenhouse gases. We helped manufacture the suffering in Africa, and we have a moral obligation to try to fix it. Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p.116-7 May 26, 2006

An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore: on Homeland Security
Real danger to WTC is not terrorism, but rising sea levels
In Manhattan, the World Trade Center Memorial is intended to be, among other things, an expression of the determination of the United States never to allow such harm to befall our country again.

But if sea levels rose 20 feet worldwide, the site of the World Trade Center Memorial would be underwater.

Is it possible that we should prepare for other serious threats in addition to terrorism? Maybe it is time to focus on other dangers as well. Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p.208-209 May 26, 2006

An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore: on Principles & Values
Son’s serious accident spurred interest in environment
My son had suffered a concussion, a broken collarbone, broken ribs, a compound fracture of the thigh bone, and massive internal injuries as well as a bruised lung & pancreas & a fractured kidney.

I tell this story because it was a turning point that changed me in ways I could not have imagined. I asked myself how did I really want to spend my time on Earth? The environment had for years been at the forefront of my policy concerns, but it had been competing for attention with a lot of issues. Now, in this comprehensive and soul-searching rethinking of how I would spend my time, the global environment trumped other concerns. I realized that this was the crisis that should occupy the bulk of my efforts.

I believe I was handed not just a 2nd chance, but an obligation to do whatever I can at this moment of danger to try and make sure that what is most precious about God’s beautiful Earth–its livability for us, our children, future generations–does not slip out of our hands. Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p. 69-71 May 26, 2006

An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore: on Technology
Tech makes us a force of nature; obligation to use wisely
Mistakes in our dealings with Mother Nature can now have much larger, unintended consequences, because many of our new technologies confer upon us new power without automatically giving us new wisdom. Some of our new technologies overwhelm the human scale.

Our new technologies, combined with our numbers, have made us, collectively, a force of nature. And those with the most technology have the greatest moral obligation to use it wisely. And this too, is a political issue. Policy matters. The US is responsible for more greenhouse gas pollution than South America, Africa, the Middle East, Australia, Japan, and Asia–all put together. Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p.247-251 May 26, 2006

Internet restores press integrity lost by 1-way TV dominance Part of the problem with climate change has to do with a long-term structural change in the way America’s marketplace of ideas now operates. The one-way nature of our dominant communications medium, television, has combined with the increasing concentration of ownership–the vast majority of media outlets are owned by a smaller and smaller number of large conglomerates that mix entertainment values with journalism–to seriously damage the role of objectivity in America’s public forum. The propaganda techniques that emerged with the new mass media of the 20th century prefigured the widespread use of related techniques for mass advertising & for political persuasion. Today there are fewer independent journalists with the freedom & stature to blow the whistle when important facts are consistently being distorted in order to deceive the public. The Internet offers the most hopeful opportunity to restore integrity to the public dialogue, but TV is still dominant in shaping that dialogue. Source: An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore, p.286-7 May 26, 2006

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Global Warming Essay

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Global Warming Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 910

  • Pages: 4

Global Warming

Introduction

Usually when people think of global warming they think of hotter weather. This is not necessarily correct. Global warming is not something that happens over one season but happens gradually overtime. The term global warming is a bit deceptive because it leads people to believe the temperatures will get hotter, this is not the case. Climate change impacts the hydrology and biology of our planet. This can cause stormier, dryer and even in some cases, colder weather. (Maria Trimarchi, 2014)

Cultural Relativism

When we think of global warming we typically just think about how the climate change is affecting our society. We do not stop and think how the changes affect other under-developed cultures. The article discusses how many under privileged countries die a lot sooner because of climate change. Something that developed countries would not see as quickly. (Sarah DeWeerdt, 2013) Understanding that the carbons and methane we use here in the United States not only affects our air quality and climate control but can have effects in Africa and other countries.

The article discusses how the changes in weather from really dry heat to instant down pours of rain affects the agriculture. (Sarah DeWeerdt, 2013) This not only means the region experiencing this change is burdened by the increase and decrease in the climate, but countries doing import and export exchange is also affected. Ethiopia already experiences social and economical problems; climate change will make this country suffer even greater problems. National Geographic states the country already loses thousands of people a year due to effects from the climate. If global warming continues the effects would be catastrophic. (Alan Corbis, 2007)

Mechanical Social Solidarity

The term social solidarity refers to how a society unifies as a whole in aspects like interests, standards, objectives and sympathies. (Book Reference) Society can take a mechanical or organic approach to this philosophy. A mechanical solidarity society shows high emphasis on religion, society’s interest and has relatively low population rates. An example of this population group would be small tribes in Africa, Ethiopia and South America. Organic Solidarity is the complete opposite. They focus more on secular religion, material possessions, and high population and are human-oriented. The biggest example is America but you could also list China and Japan under this category. (Webster’s Dictionary)

The article discusses how global warming is caused by omissions of carbon and methane into the atmosphere. (Sarah DeWeerdt, 2013) Our bigger organic solidarity societies are causing the global warming problems for the mechanical societies. It is unfortunate that we are not only ruining the environment for ourselves but we are also ruining it for innocent bystanders. Ethiopia being one of the poorest countries is being the most hurt by our materialist greed. They do not have the resources to even try and make a difference.

Conflict Theory

Conflict theories put emphasis on social, political, or material inequalities of a social group. Conflict theories draw attention to power differentials, such as class conflict and generally contrast historical ideologies. (Book reference) Understanding conflict theory is important to see how developed countries are hurting and hindering the development of under-developed countries. Until we draw a full understanding of this, a resolution cannot occur.

The article discusses the differences and challenges under-developed countries face compared to developed countries. The risk of disease like Malaria is higher because of contamination and the inability to vaccinate. The United States faces mosquito problems but we do not have the issues of contaminated water. Plus our country also has vaccines to protect our population unlike most parts of Africa and other countries. (Sarah DeWeerdt, 2013)

The article discusses the dry temperatures will cause an increase in mosquitoes and the risk of contracting a disease from insects will increase. Vaccines are a concern but also the inability to control the insect contamination. Major countries have preventatives to control the reproduction of insects. Smaller countries do not have the means to control this growing problem. (Sarah DeWeerdt, 2013) If global warming continues to increase, so will the dangers all from all the effects.

Conclusion

Our planet as a whole must come up with a solution that protects everyone from the effects of global warming. The countries that pose a risk of losing the most are the ones that do not have the resources to contribute much to the solution. These are also the countries that do not contribute to the problem. Generating lower carbon and methane technology is a must. We need our government and other high power governments to increase federal funding to programs that help in promoting this technology.

REFERENCES
Corbis, A. (2007). Global Warming Effects. National Geographic. Retrieved on April 24, 2014 from http://www.environment.nationalgeographic.com/global-warming/gw-effects

DeWeerdt, S. (2013). Climate Change, Coming Home: Global warming Effects on Population. World Watch. Retrieved from http://www.worldwatch.org/global-warming

Trimarchi, M. (2014). Top 10 Worst Effects of Global Warming. Discovery. Retrieved on April 24, 2014 from www.discovery.com/topics/worst_effects_global_warming

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 325

  • Pages: 1

Global Warming

One of the biggest problems facing the world today is global warming. Many experts believe that our production of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is heating the atmosphere, and this could be very dangerous for human life. This essay will examine the problem of global warming and suggest some solutions for it.

Many problems could result from global warming. One of the biggest is rising sea level. This could result in the flooding of low lying coastal areas and cities, such as Egypt, the Netherlands, and Bangladesh. Another problem is changes in weather patterns. Many areas of the world are experiencing increased hurricanes, floods, and other natural disasters. A final issue associated with this phenomenon is the negative effect on animals. Fish populations could be effected, while some insects which spread disease might become more common.

Pg. 288 #2,3,7
2. Define:
a. surplus – extra or excess
b. commodity – valuable product
c. mansa – title for the king of Mali
d. oba – a title for the king of Benin
3. The gold-salt trade develop between West Africa and North Africa because first of all they were lucky because they had camels to travel on. Well, the gold-salt trade develop between West Africa and North Africa when the Berber-speaking people began crossing the Sahara desert. From the eighth century and onward, annual trade caravans followed routes. So that is how the gold-salt trade develop between West Africa and North Africa. 7. Historians might learn about the kingdom of Benin by studying its sculpture that there kingdom is very gifted with arts and crafts because of their highly advanced sculptures. And the historians can learn through that because they will know that there civilization was very sophisticated. So that is how historians might learn about the kingdom of Benin by studying its sculpture.

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Global warming Essay

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Global warming Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 370

  • Pages: 1

Global warming

Persuasive Speech
Good day everyone, today I admonish about global warming. As we know that global warming is on the rise and worsen our planets condition, and as a concern citizen to our environment we should make an action to fight global warming, we should have maintenance and changes to our surroundings to help our dying planet; wake up to reality and be part of the preservation of our mother earth. Global warming has started since the late 19th century and still continues to the present time. According to studies global warming is getting worst through the years and even we can feel the changes in our climate. The melting of North and South Pole are some evidence of the rising temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere and ocean caused by the increasing concentrations of green house gases produced by human activities. And since 1980 the rise of temperature increases two-thirds from the preceding. For now we know how global warming mount and on its greatest.

We should be concern to life, to our future, to our children’s children and to all living things in our planet. And I also predict if global warming still prolong and influence our planets worsening condition, 5000 years is the remaining time to our planet that life can exist for even us could imagine what would happen to the upcoming years if global warming still continues. Today there are lots of people producing actions that battle global warming but still they are lacking, they still need more or else all people to be a component of the conservation of our planet. Even there are many citizens saving the earth but the more citizens killing our planet, it is useless.

I hope that you will realize the effects of global warming and be more concerned to our environment .To have the sense of discipline to do the right things for the goodness of our planet, so that we won’t suffer. And once again I’m knocking on you to wake up and be part of the preservation of our planet. Thank you. God bless!

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1073

  • Pages: 4

Global Warming

Climate scientists tell us that global warming is a very serious matter and the world has to make firm decisions to try to slow the warming and eventually to reverse it. Some politicians agree, but many lack the political will to press for urgent changes. Many scientists believe it is already too late to stop a 2 degree Celsius rise in temperature.

Already there have been changes.
Extreme weather events are becoming more common.
Heat waves have been happening.
Famine is worsening in Africa.

Sea levels are rising and the Pacific Island countries are desperate for a solution. Glaciers are melting and the rivers in Asia and South America that rely on the glaciers for a steady supply of water for the millions of people downstream are in danger of drying to a trickle. A: It could (someday) destroy the earth and we would all die and there would be nothing living on the earth! A: Global warming causes an increase and decrease in temperatures in the world. Some cities will experience a hotter climate, some would experience a colder climate. This generally affects the habitat, ecosystem, ocean water levels, etc. In other words, a little increase in temperature would have a disastrous effect for residents living near/on coastal regions.

This would mean flooding and also playing an influential factor as to the organisms that survive within a temperature/pH (power of Hydrogen) range, resulting in possible extinction. because polar bears enjoy life not death in the cold ocean….Climate scientists tell us that global warming is a very serious matter and the world has to make firm decisions to try to slow the warming and eventually to reverse it. Some politicians agree, but many lack the political will to press for urgent changes. Many scientists believe it is already too late to stop a 2 degree Celsius rise in temperature.

Already there have been changes.
Extreme weather events are becoming more common.
Heat waves have been happening.
Famine is worsening in Africa.

Sea levels are rising and the Pacific Island countries are desperate for a solution. Glaciers are melting and the rivers in Asia and South America that rely on the glaciers for a steady supply of water for the millions of people downstream are in danger of drying to a trickle. A: It could (someday) destroy the earth and we would all die and there would be nothing living on the earth! A: Global warming causes an increase and decrease in temperatures in the world. Some cities will experience a hotter climate, some would experience a colder climate. This generally affects the habitat, ecosystem, ocean water levels, etc. In other words, a little increase in temperature would have a disastrous effect for residents living near/on coastal regions.

This would mean flooding and also playing an influential factor as to the organisms that survive within a temperature/pH (power of Hydrogen) range, resulting in possible extinction. because polar bears enjoy life not death in the cold ocean….Climate scientists tell us that global warming is a very serious matter and the world has to make firm decisions to try to slow the warming and eventually to reverse it. Some politicians agree, but many lack the political will to press for urgent changes. Many scientists believe it is already too late to stop a 2 degree Celsius rise in temperature.

Already there have been changes.
Extreme weather events are becoming more common.
Heat waves have been happening.
Famine is worsening in Africa.

Sea levels are rising and the Pacific Island countries are desperate for a solution. Glaciers are melting and the rivers in Asia and South America that rely on the glaciers for a steady supply of water for the millions of people downstream are in danger of drying to a trickle. A: It could (someday) destroy the earth and we would all die and there would be nothing living on the earth! A: Global warming causes an increase and decrease in temperatures in the world. Some cities will experience a hotter climate, some would experience a colder climate. This generally affects the habitat, ecosystem, ocean water levels, etc. In other words, a little increase in temperature would have a disastrous effect for residents living near/on coastal regions.

This would mean flooding and also playing an influential factor as to the organisms that survive within a temperature/pH (power of Hydrogen) range, resulting in possible extinction. because polar bears enjoy life not death in the cold ocean….Climate scientists tell us that global warming is a very serious matter and the world has to make firm decisions to try to slow the warming and eventually to reverse it. Some politicians agree, but many lack the political will to press for urgent changes. Many scientists believe it is already too late to stop a 2 degree Celsius rise in temperature.

Already there have been changes.
Extreme weather events are becoming more common.
Heat waves have been happening.
Famine is worsening in Africa.

Sea levels are rising and the Pacific Island countries are desperate for a solution. Glaciers are melting and the rivers in Asia and South America that rely on the glaciers for a steady supply of water for the millions of people downstream are in danger of drying to a trickle. A: It could (someday) destroy the earth and we would all die and there would be nothing living on the earth! A: Global warming causes an increase and decrease in temperatures in the world. Some cities will experience a hotter climate, some would experience a colder climate. This generally affects the habitat, ecosystem, ocean water levels, etc. In other words, a little increase in temperature would have a disastrous effect for residents living near/on coastal regions. This would mean flooding and also playing an influential factor as to the organisms that survive within a temperature/pH (power of Hydrogen) range, resulting in possible extinction. because polar bears enjoy life not death in the cold ocean….

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Global Warming Essay

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Global Warming Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1292

  • Pages: 5

Global Warming

In 1950, the matter was entirely peripheral, existing only in the minds of science fiction writers and a few unheralded scientists. In 1990 it was still, to most, utterly implausible. By 2001 a handful of plucky voices were expressing the opinion that it somehow COULD be possible. Then, almost overnight, other voices clamoured to suggest it wasn’t just possible, but highly probable. Today, it seems, we are resigning to the fact that the inconvenient truth is in fact true. Climate change is right upon our doorstep, staring into us like some giant awakening from his slumber, unable to contain his anger any longer, offended by the constant prodding and poking to his side.

We occupy the driest inhabited continent with a highly variable climate and great susceptibility to weather change. Predictions of fiercer droughts and more frequent storms invade our media and perhaps our consciousness. The future will be the disappearance of Australian wildlife due to the increasing temperatures affecting their environments. The warmer waters may cause the death of the Great Barrier Reef, placing thousands of species of plants and animals in danger. The outlook of Australia’s future is bleak. The most worrying environmental threat of our time is unfolding.

Yes we’ve all heard about it, and I’m sure, politely listened to all the things they say about global warming and so on. But have we taken it seriously enough? Yes, we all have other ‘more important’ things to worry about. But we must realise that the threat of climate change is no less than the threat of losing your job, or the threat of a car collision.

The economic costs of climate change, for starters, will kill us – loss of tourism, loss of jobs, loss of fish, farmers battling and food prices through the roof. Climate Change is wreaking havoc, and its not going anywhere anytime fast.

We’ve all heard about Climate Change and its disastrous effects, but what exactly causes it? And what can we do about it? Global warming is the heating up of our world. It is the result of huge amounts of CO2 being pumped into the atmosphere, via the burning fossil fuels such as coal and oil to produce power and electricity and thousands and thousands of products, from plastic to makeup to the clothes that we wear.

Ever since the beginning of the century, we have been progressively burning more and more fossil fuels. In fact the average Australian generates eighteen tons of carbon emissions per capita. Thus, to save the planet and cleanse our resource sins, Australia must go far beyond freezing greenhouse gas emissions. As a nation, we must reduce emissions by more than ninety per cent.

We are all global citizens. We all have access to information, facts, figures and statistics that undeniably prove climate change exists. We all depend on our earth – for clean air, for food and water, for resources, for our livelihoods. We are all consumers. We are all contributing to climate change. We are all responsible for our actions. We are all obligated to do something about it.

If not to save our own skins, think about our children, and our children’s children. Do we want them to inherit a devastated world, knowing full well that we contributed to its destruction? Do we want to be the generation that could have done something real, but instead chose to continue down this selfish road of pollution, alarming consumption and total disregard for the world we live in? It’s not so much self-glorification as self-preservation.

Although we are not the ones creating the energy, we are the ones consuming the energy. The amount of energy produced is a direct proportion of the amount we demand. The average Australian household uses nine thousand kW per year. The amount of energy use is incredible and reducing it is a vital step towards stopping the onslaught climate change brings.

Transportation. How many of you own more than two cars? How many of you live on a bus route, but do not travel on one? How many of you drive to the shops even if it’s only a five-minute walk away? The car has become such an integral part of society that we’ve taken it for granted. We just don’t know the harm that it’s causing. There are many alternative options of transport that can significantly reduce carbon emissions and it is up to us, humanity to reduce it. But if we do not use these alternatives, we can only expect the worst for the future.

It is our responsibility to put pressure on the government to enforce legislation to limit the amount of CO2 emissions produced by industries that produce raw goods, electricity and consumer products. And to commit to formal reduced emissions targets like the Kyoto Protocol. Let the Australian government know that polar bears living in the dwindling ice sheets of the Arctic aren’t the only ones skating on thin ice.

If we are to make a serious attempt at reversing the severe harm caused by climate change we must not only change the way energy is produced, but also severely reduce the amount of energy we consume. We do not need to make huge sacrifices for the cause of lowering emissions, but when every single small reduction in energy consumption is put to process on a national scale, the decrease in carbon emissions becomes dramatic.

If one million households replaced four traditional light bulbs with the more energy efficient fluorescent variety, we could eliminate approximately five hundred thousand tonnes of carbon emissions per year. If we work together, results like these can be achieved, but we must be unified in our fight to save the Australian environment.

Another method of significantly reducing transport emissions is carpooling. The average commuter creates 3.5 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year and sharing your car with one other person will effectively halve this figure and create another step towards creating a stable climate. But it is up to you to take these actions. Using public transport instead of driving will also significantly reduce emissions and it is your duty as an inhabitant of this planet to do so. These are practical, feasible ways in which every single one of us can make a huge difference when we work together for the greater good.

Imagine a future where smog and acid rain dominate the skyline, a horrific environment where billions of people are exposed to cancerous diseases, where our delicate flora and fauna have been depleted severely. It’s just not worth it.

Now picture a future where the skies are clear and the air is clean. A world of symbiosis. Of cooperation. Of humanity. A world where our children, and our children’s children can look back at our generation and be proud of us making a change. Which future do you want?If you, like I, chose the latter, we must act. The threat is real. The facts are undeniable, but a bleak future is certainly NOT inevitable. We can prevent it, but again, we MUST act. And we must ALL act, for the future, and for Australia.

Bibliography: Heinamann Geography Textbook, Nicholas Onie

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 616

  • Pages: 2

Global Warming

Word One of the biggest issues facing us right now is global warming. Global warming is affecting many parts of the world. Because of global warming, the glaciers are melting which is causing the rising of the water level of the sea. When the level of the sea rises, it causes danger to the people who live near to the coast or lower areas. So this will cause many problems for the people, plants, and animals living in the dry spaces of the earth. For example; when the water level of the sea rises, it will floods the plants, and animal will die. Also, people will lose their homes. So, in this essay there are four solutions that could help to reduce the global warming: preventing deforestation, establishing alternative ways of transportation, recycling waste products, and using renewable energy.

Word The first solution is preventing deforestation. Trees help to reduce the amount of toxic gases that come from different sources on the earth. They are able to absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen. Today, there are many trees cut down because of the high demand for the land space to build houses, malls, buildings, or business projects. Also, people cut down the trees to use the wood in some woody products such as papers, boxes or furniture. So, if the deforestation still continue, there would not be any more trees that help to stop the toxic gases which cause global warming. Word The second solution is establishing alternative ways of transportation.

Cars , trucks and trains are sources that help to create air pollution which cause the global warming. Everyday, millions and millions of private cars are driven in the streets. All these cars release poisonous gases like hydrate and carbon monoxide which directly affect global warming. So, either the governments or the companies should support alternative ways of transportation. Public transportation like buses and metros are some ways to solve this problem. Also, when people use bicycles for their transportation, they help to prevent global warming from spreading. Word The third solution is recycling waste products.

In many countries, the house’s trash is burnt, and that is the reason for increasing global warming in the world. So, to avoid that, government and people should start recycling the trash. They should make a big company which is able to recycle the waste products and to convert them into some useful products. Word The last solution is using renewable energy. Countries should stop using fossil fuels to create energies. When the electrical companies use the fossil fuel to create electricity, they produce a huge amount of smoke which pollute the air and cause global warming. So, all countries should find alternative ways to generate energy.

For example, renewable energy is the safest way to generate energy. Word In conclusion, global warming is a real problem to worry about. In other words, the world will be affected if no one do anything to stop global warming from spreading. Deforestation must be stopped to protect trees that are able to reduce toxic gases effects. Also, the people should help the environment by minimizing the use their private cars and using the public transportation. Also, home’s trash should not be burned, it should be recycled by big recycling companies to make useful products. Also,the pollution ,whether it is electrical or industrial, should be reduced by using renewable sources of energy. In other word, making small changes in the way we live means avoiding huge changes in the future.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 361

  • Pages: 1

Global Warming

Planet earth has an abundance of natural resources, which makes it unique and perfect for life to exist. However our use of these natural resources is creating a bit of a problem for us. Global warming is affecting our world in a negative way and mankind is exacerbating this problem. Today I am here to tell you what global warming is, why it is a problem and how we can solve it. Global warming is the increase in average temperature of earth’s land, sea and atmosphere. This is caused by the greenhouse effect, which is when greenhouse gases let sunlight in to the lower atmosphere which warms the earth and then blocks the heat from leaving. The greenhouse effect is a natural occurrence mostly caused by water vapors. Mankind is contributing to this problem by creating large amounts of greenhouse gases, mostly by burning fossil fuels. The burning of fossil fuels disrupts the natural balance of the earth’s temperature and as a result, the earth warms. When the earth warms it causes glaciers to melt like in Greenland. Global warming is melting the last edge of Greenland’s ice sheet and is adding billions of tons of water which is resulting in rising sea levels. This causes more frequent flooding, and very low lands could be submerged completely. Rising sea level can also harm important ecosystems such as forests and coral reefs.

We can prevent global warming from getting worse by ​ reducing our use of burning fossil fuels, planting trees, and recycling. Now you’re thinking how are we going to do this? Well it’s simple. There are two ways to reduce burning fossil fuels: use less energy and use non polluting energy sources such as solar and wind power. Carbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas ​ emitted through human activities. Planting trees is important because trees absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen. Therefore it can slow down or stop global warming. Recycling reduces greenhouse gases by keeping materials out of the landfill and reducing the need of mining.

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 472

  • Pages: 2

Global Warming

This paper would focus on the development of panel experts to address the effect of climate change due to global warming on our community. Climate change had been a point of interest due to its imperative effect to food production, health and safety.

The first member of the panel would be the late, Professor Roger Revelle. He was one first advocates on the study on global warming and the Earth’s tectonic plate through measuring carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. He had inspired Al Gore into creating the documentary. Incovenient Truth. He was a scientist and scholar who was instrumental in the formative years of the University of California, San Diego and was one of the first scientists to study global warming and the movement of Earth’s tectonic plates. UC San Diego’s first college is named Revelle College in his honor. (Gore, 200g)

The second member of the panel would be a representative of the World Climate Program, directly involved in the World Climate Impacts Assessment and Response Strategies Program of the organization.  Mrs. Sri Woro B. Harijono,  WCP President – South West Pacific is a source of expert and on the field information that regarding the impacts of climate changes on the global economy, consequently the socio-economic, ideally this would help to form response strategies that could be used by governments and the community.

Finally, Michael Brant Shermer would complete the panel. He is a science writer, historian of science, founder of The Skeptics Society.  The Skeptics Society is a nonprofit organization that supports scientific skepticism and resisting the spread of pseudoscience, superstition, and irrational beliefs. Hogan (2009) asserts that there is a need to eliminate forms of doubt that global warming is a real situation, problem and exponentially affective human life and survival.  Contradictory studies had surfaced that debunks the existence of global warming. Thus, there is a need to affirm and confirm this exponentially escalating world problem. Shermer could address sources of skepticism and address them through the organization expansive study on the topic.

The panel members would be able to address not only the need for information, but would be able to present global warming in scenario which a lay person could relate to. They would then help the community understand the implication and form concrete action plan to help alleviate the problem.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Gore, A. (2006) An inconvenient truth: the planetary emergency of global warming and what we can do about it. Rodale Books

Hogan, J (2009) Climate cover-up: the crusade to deny global warming.Vancouver, canada: Greystone Books

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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 2558

  • Pages: 10

Global Warming

The ability to understand and address effects of global warming forms the basis to sustainability of resources, greater social-economic development, political stability and ecological sanctity in the fast globalizing society. Global warming, unlike it was previously thought, is not a one state issue, but a highly diverse aspect with far reaching implications to all environmental spheres. To concur with Jerry (31) and Taoyuan (665) conclusions, if the globe fails to address global warming causes, the cumulative effects are irreversible and consequently pose great risks to future generations.

At this point, the following key questions recur frequently to economists, environmentalists and most importantly, the readers. What really is global warming? What are the main causes and resulting effects? What are the current efforts in addressing global warming and their efficiencies? To answer these questions, this paper provides an intrinsic analysis of global warming and further derives respective recommendations to prevent the looming disaster. A brief analysis of global warming

According to Lonngren and Er-Wei Bai (1567-45680), global warming is the average rise in global temperatures of the lower (near surface/ troposphere) atmosphere over the last two centuries. Houghton (1361-1362) explains that global warming has seen temperatures rise with about 1. 33° F. Notably, the largest temperatures increase was recorded in the last half of the twentieth century which is double the overall rise since 1880 (see diagram I). Diagram I: Global warming since industrial revolution II I (Haughton, 1389).

Readers as Georgios and Christodoulides (391-392) point out appear startled on how the problem arose and why it was never stopped before reaching the current threatening status. Siegfried and Avery (65) explain that prior to the United Nations Convention on Human Environment at Stockholm in the year 1972 the environment was considered a different entity to development. As a result, environmental systems were considered to have indefinite capacity to cleanse any developmental wastes and emissions.

During the later Rio Summit of 1992, Kumi et al (3117) report that effects of development on environment were brought out to have long term negative implications. Consequently, Agenda 21 (main recommendations of the Rio Summit) established the basis for scientific understanding of the global warming phenomena. As earlier pointed out by environmentalists, it was found out that developed nations were the main causative factor through excessive emissions from their industries. However, these findings opened a new chapter of addressing global warming; a consideration that Taoyuan (666) agree was not very welcome to many nations and states.

Key misconceptions on global warming The recently concluded United Nations Conference Convention at Copenhagen in December 2009 reflected the criticality of the problem but also revealed the great misconception. To begin with, World Bank (101) indicate that many nations especially the developed ones consider global warming a phenomenon that must be addressed by all with equal proportions. However, as Siegfried and Avery (81) and Jerry (49) argue, this view is sycophantic as it omits key facts about the main causative aspects of the problem.

A different group, largely from the developing world considers global warming as an income unit which can be utilized to improve their economic status. While this consideration is indeed true with introduction of carbon trading, Apurva and Mendelsohn (662-663) noted that it deviates the consideration of real problem largely from the notion of the ‘benefits’ arising from it. However, the greatest misconception comes from those not yet affected by the negative effects. Kyounghoon, Songtak and Tak (273-274) argue that many countries especially the developed ones consider global warming as an analogy that have no clear baseline.

As a result, mechanisms recommended to address this phenomenon are viewed as restrictive to their development. Since the signing of the Kyoto Protocol, the United States has remained non-committal in becoming party to the recommendations. However, they are the largest fossil fuel users and greenhouse gases emitters globally (Taoyuan, 669). How then can a clear balance that is acceptable to all be arrived at? Causes of global warming a) Greenhouse gases Apurva and Mendelsohn (656-657) report that global warming is largely caused by greenhouse gases was at first not fully accepted.

As a result, the United Nations Conference on Climate Change UNFCC (a making of Agenda 21) provided for a holistic framework to ascertain the role of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases which include Carbon Dioxide as the most destructive emission, Oxides of Nitrogen, Oxides of Sulfur, Ozone and Methane form a covering layer at the upper end of the lowest atmospheric layer (troposphere) (Haughton, 1357). Consequently, this layer is highly selective in that it allows short wavelength radiation from the sun to pass into the earth’s lower atmosphere causing terrestrial energy transfer.

However, this layer prevent excess radiation in the form of long-wavelength radiation from getting back into the outer space and result to the green house effect (see diagram II). Diagram II: The green house effect (Haughton, 1360). b) Deforestation Following the increasing widespread acceptance of greenhouse effect as the major cause of global warming, other causes have also been identified to aid in generating holistic mechanisms to address it. Brian and Scott (212) explain that clearing of forests reflects a critical removal of the sinking platform for the greenhouse gases.

Clearing of forests over the years has intensified as people seek land for agriculture to feed the ever rising population, expand settlements, and develop urban areas. In addition, forests are also cleared intensively as raw materials for domestic and industrial use. An average of 80, 000 acres of land as Mongabay. com (2010) indicates is cleared daily in the globe. It is at this point that a new dilemma of whether to conserve the forests or produce food to eat has made the quest to address global warming an unending debate.

Figure III: Deforestation in tropical countries (Mongabay. com, 2010) c) Use of fossil fuels and industrialization From a deeper consideration of greenhouse effect and its critical role in global warming, Zecca and Chiari (1-2) were correct in emphasizing on the real sources of the destructive emissions. The task force by the UNFCC noted that use of fossil fuels released massive emissions that contributed towards global warming. An average of 450 exajoules, a figure considered to be higher when adjusted to reflect small scale users, is got from fossil fuels (Kyounghoon, 279).

The extensive use of fossil fuels largely driven by industrialization forces provides an immense point source for the greenhouse gases. In the year 2006, the largest fossil fuel consumers, The United States and Republic of China produced over 5,500 and 6,100 megatons of emissions into the atmosphere respectively (Kyounghoon, 279). Presently, most nations are on a great struggle to maximize their production and economic development through industrialization. As a result, nations and businesses find themselves in the midst of a quagmire between the development and focus on addressing greenhouse houses.

Indeed, though the concept of global warming is becoming clearer, Patrick and Damon (1724) argue that many upcoming economies will seek to develop first with global warming as a secondary issue. However, Taoyuan (665) calls for an equal platform in addressing the phenomenon; a consideration that depicts Marxist deviation of responsibilities by pushing key causes under the carpet before working out alternatives for solutions. Effects to the society a) Floods and submergence of coastal lowlands According to Kumi et al (3113-3114) rising temperatures over the years have resulted to excessive thawing of ice waters at the Polar Regions.

Consequently, the additional waters has resulted to key submergence and flooding of the low lying costal lands. Islands and low lying regions such as Venice, New Orleans and Indonesia have recorded key losses from floods. In the Caribbean, nations such as Haiti, Dominican Republic and Cuba which rely on beach tourism to support about 15% of their economies have started experiencing major losses from floods and could be headed to major disasters if the problem is not addressed (Brian and Scott, 210-211).

b) Desertification and increasing poverty levels A more worrying effect to agree with Siegfried and Avery (91) is desertification. The rising temperatures as recorded over the years intensify the severity of draughts by making more land uncultivable and less habitable. In developing states, the need to address demands of the people is based on the capacity to empower them locally and therefore projecting their economic growth to sustainable levels. Therefore, global warming is a key accelerating factor for raising poverty levels (Jerry, 85-86).

Even for communities that embrace artificial irrigation in the fast drying lands, the cost of their products cannot easily compete in the market due to high production cost. c) Extreme tropical weather conditions Higher temperatures as scientists explain, intensifies the differences between various pressure belts which results to key disasters especially in tropical regions. A good example to focus on at this point is the 2005 Hurricane Katrina that resulted to a loss of US $ 100 billion (see diagram III) (Collins, 38).

It is worth noting that despite these tropical weather systems being highly destructive, their frequency of occurrence in the tropical regions has created greater fear to local people, investors and thus predicting doom to the affected regions. The period lapsing between1995-1998 saw 12 major tropical weather extremities in the United States. It is from this consideration that United States failure to ratify the Kyoto protocol that seeks to reduce overall greenhouse gases is seen to be ill-advised and therefore unjustified (Lonngren and Er-Wei Bai, 1570).

Diagram III: Flooded city of New Orleans (Louisiana after Hurricane Katrina) (Collins, 2006) d) Resilience of diseases The recently concluded United Nations Conference on Global Warming at Copenhagen as Taoyuan (670) explains found that major tropical diseases for plants, animals and even people were recurring at much higher rates due to the rising temperatures. As a result, affected nations especially those in developing countries have shifted their developmental focus to address these issues (Zell, Andi and Wutzler, 655).

Global warming therefore stalls development and eliminates the needed human capacity by deviating focus; a factor that greatly promotes poverty. Addressing global warming a) Use of alternative sources of energy The realization of the immense magnitude that global warming has to the society resulted to administrators moving back to the drawing board to design mechanisms for reducing the problem and that are acceptable by all. Jerry (94) argues that due to the fact that fossil fuels are the main sources of green house gases, alternatives should be sought.

Particularly, environmentally friendly alternatives such as solar, wind, hydro and nuclear energy use should be intensified both in developed and developing nations (see diagram IV). Diagram IV: A wind farm in West Texas (Collins, 2006) b) Greening projects In his contribution, Haughton (1400) calls for green projects to create a larger carbon dioxide sink platform to from the atmosphere. Analysts appear to agree on greening projects because it is a simplistic model which all stakeholders can be involved in.

Besides, greening projects have added advantages such as restoring ecological integrity, facilitating clean water availability and most importantly creating a haven for greater biodiversity. c) Technological improvements While the capacity of nations to forego using fossil fuels for cleaner energies have appeared rather difficult or extremely slow, Patrick and Damon (1721-1722) call for technological improvements especially in promoting fuel efficiency have intensified. Large companies such as Toyota, Ford, GM and Honda have already invented hybrid vehicles with minimal emissions from high fuel efficiencies.

When employed especially in the industrial sector, Patrick and Damon (1724) add that it is possible to reduce greenhouse gases emissions with more than 50% globally. d) Carbon trading As the main protocol addressing global warming, Kyoto provided for a trading mechanism on greenhouse gases emissions. Under this model, Gary, Steve and Jisun (59-61) explain that developed countries were considered as the main emitters of greenhouse gases and therefore required to reduce their 1990s emissions with 5% by year 2012.

To facilitate this reduction, carbon emitted is quantified into units that are then converted to monetary terms and used in carbon trading. Besides, nations with effective carbon reduction and sinking mechanisms also quantify the carbon they remove from the atmosphere into equal carbon units traded in the carbon market (Zecca and Chiari, 3). As a result, those countries with perfect carbon reduction and sinking mechanisms can easily reap from their efforts. Of greater importance, this model has provided developing countries with a chance to view the value of their low carbon emission status (Gary et al, 78).

Conclusion and recommendations From the above discussion, this paper concludes by supporting the thesis statement, ‘the ability to understand and address effects of global warming forms the basis to sustainability of resources, greater social-economic development, political stability and ecological sanctity in the fast globalizing society. ’ Global warming came out as a highly contested phenomenon whose effects cut across nations, continents and even generations. It is critical that all stakeholders at the national and global level establish effective collaborative models based on factual causative factors to derive workable solutions.

Works cited page Apurva, Sanghi and Mendelsohn Robert, The impacts of global warming on farmers in Brazil and India. Global Environmental Change, 18(2008)4:655-665. Brian, Copeland and Scott Taylor, Free trade and global warming: a trade theory view of the Kyoto protocol. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 49(2005)2:205-234. Collins, Susan, Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans: A Flooded City, a Chaotic Response! Congressional Hearing. New York: DIANE Publishing Company, 2006. Gary, Hufbauer, Steve Charnovitz and Jisun Kim, Global warming and the world trading

system. New York: Peterson Institute, 2009. Georgios, Florides and Christodoulides Paul, Global warming and carbon dioxide through sciences. Environment International, 35(2009)9:390-401. Haughton, John, Global warming. Progress in physic, 68:6(2005)1343-1403 Jerry, Silver, Global Warming and Climate Change Demystified. Boston: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. Kumi, Kataoka, Futoshi Matsumoto, Toshiaki Ichinose and Makoto Taniguch, Urban warming trends in several large Asian cities over the last 100 years. Science of The Total Environment, 407(2009)9:3112-3119.

Kyounghoon, Cha, Songtak Lim, Tak Hur, Eco-efficiency approach for global warming in the context of Kyoto Mechanism. Ecological Economics, 67(2008)2:274-280. Lonngren, Karl and Er-Wei Bai, On the global warming problem due to carbon dioxide. Energy Policy, 36(2008)4:1567-1568. Mongabay. com. A world Imperiled: Forces behind forest loss. Retrieved on 25th March, 2010, from: http://rainforests. mongabay. com/0801. htm Patrick , Moriarty and Damon Honnery, The prospects for global green car mobility. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(2008)16:1717-1726.

Siegfried, Fred and Avery Dennis, Unstoppable global warming: every 1,500 years. Miami: rRowman & Littlefield, 2007. Taoyuan, Wei, A general equilibrium view of global rebound effects. Energy Economics, 32(2010)3:661-672. World Bank, World development report 2010: development and climate change. New York: World Bank Publications, 2009. Zecca, Antonio and Chiari Luca, Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming. Energy Policy, 38(2010)1:1-3. Zell, Roland, Andi Krumbholz and Wutzler Peter, Impact of global warming on viral diseases: what is the evidence? Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 19(2008)6:652-660.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

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  • Words: 929

  • Pages: 4

Global Warming

Discuss the challenges that global warming presents to both governments and business Introduction (250 word approx.)

This essay discusses the challenges that global warming presents to both the government and also how they affect businesses. Many people think global warming is just the weather becoming warmer, but in fact this is not the case. Global warming makes the weather more unpredictable as some places become colder, some hotter, some more drier, some more wetter and so on. Global warming is defined as basically how the greenhouses gasses affect the climate of the earth, which significantly effects agriculture and ecosystems (whatisglobalwarming, 2011). Too much greenhouse gasses have a negative effect for example higher sea levels, higher temperatures and variable climatic conditions.

The main cause of greenhouse gasses is the use of fossil fuels. Our usage of fossil fuel is shown from the table 10.1 by Wetherly and Otter (2nd edition) that is linked to the population growth of 3.6bn to 6.1bn from 1970 to 2000. Furthermore, oil, gas and coal also shows that it has increased considerably over the past thirty years. The increase in population and the demand for consumer goods has also lead to the biggest increase in GDP (Gross Domestic Product) by 165% compared to 69% increase in population in the same period (Wetherly and Otter, 2nd edition). The impact on greenhouse gasses has definitely been proven with environmental monitoring showing depletion of the Ozone Layer, the Ice Cap and the increase in the earths temperature, all of these have a knock on effect of the world’s food and water supplies. Impacts on Governments (500 words approx.)

The government have put many declarations in place starting off with the Rio Declaration Environment and development. In 1992 the Rio declaration was introduced with 27 principles for the future sustainability and development around the globe (United Nations Environment Programme, n.d). The government also signed an agreement with the new Agenda 21 which is a plan that the United Nations has taken globally in which human’s impact on the environment (UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2009). Kyoto protocol (2005) creates obligatory emission reduction targets below 1990 levels but only for industrialised countries (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, n.d) Why do governments why do they need to do something about greenhouse gasses Reducing allowance on fossil fuels (limited resource)

Reduce reliance on unsafe energy resources (nuclear fukashema2011, Chernobyl1982, exxon valdez1989)all results in death and eco systems.
British government
European commission (Emissions Trading Scheme)
European Union Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EUEPBD)
Our government has set itself a target to reduce its c02 emissions to check points at 2020 and one at 2050. Climate change act 2008 (where GB is at)

CRCEES climate reduction commitment energy efficiency scheme. They have introduced incentives for renewable energy (feed in tariff FIT, renewable heat incentive RHI. Impacts on Businesses (500 words approx.)

Global warming is always an ever- rising significance for business strategies. Manufacturing businesses will be most important with keeping up to date with legislations and laws with the amount of carbon dioxide and other dangerous gases permitted into the atmosphere. The European Unions Emission Trading Scheme has effects on businesses as they have to pay a certain percentage to the government on the amount of harmful gasses they produce into the atmosphere (PUT SOURCE IN). Airlines especially were affected by this. (FIND EXAMPLE) Businesses also have Cooperate Social Responsibility which merges into the global warming aspects.

Many customers now expect from businesses ways in which they are keeping the environment green. Marks and Spencer’s introduced there Plan A in 2007 where they set out 100 commitments to achieve within 5 years (Join the Green Shift, 2011). (EXPLAIN MORE MAYBE?) Similarly to Cooperate Social Responsibility, The impact on businesses such as Tesco and there voluntary actions of providing solar panels to a selected few stores gives not just the business money saving on electricity, but also helps the environment. Although £100 million has been ploughed into sustainable environmental technology (Professional Engineering, 2006), they will also give customers a better experience knowing they are in an eco-friendly store giving them more potential business and gain more market share overall.

Cost to them of complying with government legislations
Cost saving exercise (recycling)
Carbon trust standard
ISO 14000(1)
Industry labelling, eco labelling
Conclusion (250 words approx.)
Governments are taking action
Governments introduced legislation
Performance is what X level, businesses are taking action
Businesses are taking action in the economic climate because its saving money
Businesses are taking advantages of renewable energy incentives

Bibliography:
What is Global Warming (2011) What is Global Warming [internet]. Available from: < http://www.what-is-global-warming.com/> [Accessed 28th April 2012]. http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?documentid=78&articleid=1163 http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/agenda21/

http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php
Tim Smedley (2011) JOIN THE GREEN SHIFT. [Internet] June, p24-28. Available from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=19&sid=be8cfe39-80ab-4250-b8f6-426c3a8176f4%40sessionmgr10&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=buh&AN=61763919> [Accessed 1st May 2012]. Professional Engineering (2006) Tesco to go down the eco-energy route. [Internet] March, Volume 19, p7. Available from: [Accessed 1st May 2012].

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 365

  • Pages: 1

Global Warming

Over the past years the problem that has most scientist and people in the world concerned is global warming.What leads to global warming is called the green house effect, where the atmosphere builds up by gases, like methane, carbon dioxide and others, and keeps heat from the sun in the atmosphere, which increases the temperature on Earth. Many people think that global warming and the green house effect are the same thing but it is not. The greenhouse effect is the heat that comes from Eart. While global warming is an issue because the more gases that are produced by man the more gases will be in the atmosphere, which upsets the natural balance.

As a result of global warming the polar ice caps are melting and this will lead to a rise in sea levels causing flooding and coastal damage to many countries. The increase in temperature means an increase in water temperature which will lead to extreme weather conditions, such as hurricanes. As a cause of the temperature changes, it can lead to animals and insects migrating to other areas. Taking disease with them that normally won’t occur in other places.

There is no known solution to reverse global warming yet, but there are solutions that will help to prevent it from growing even more. For instance recycling by using recycling bins and other methods will help prevent the problem to advance. Another way is to use compact fluorecent bulbs. By replacing three frequently used light bulbs with compact fluorecent bulbs you save like 135Kg of carbon dioxide and R$120 per year. By unpluging unused electronics, even if the electronic devices are turned off, they use energy. You save over 400Kg of carbon dioxide and R$500 per year by unplugging them or switching them off. Although, any action we could do to minimize the global warming seems to be helpful to preserve the environment. Maybe with some help from the government we could do a little bit more for our planet and provide a sustainable future for the generation that comes.

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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1016

  • Pages: 4

Global Warming

It is sometimes unbelievable that science discoveries are being disproved despite scientific evidences. This action is a manifestation of political influence over a matter of “facts” about climate science according to some analysts. However, disbelieving will result in too much danger because truth is truth; it will exist and will manifest itself regardless of human efforts. In the case of Galileo who made a theory that the sun stands still while the earth and other planet revolve around the sun had caused his liberty and life.

This is because his theory was against Catholic belief. Politicizing then would mean full intervention and manipulation of people in authority to dispute or reject something as a means of protecting their interest or institutions. Galileo had many discoveries during his time but none of them were recognized. If Galileo’s early discoveries were acknowledged perhaps the science today was even more advanced compared today. However, the danger of refuting science and what it holds as truth is currently done on climate science known as global warming.

Many scientists gave warning about the possible consequences of greenhouse effects in the society but some view it as unrealistic that brings disaster causing irregularities and hazards in the economy. For instance, Coleman (2009) stated that people are already enduring the “CO2 silliness in many ways” in which he pointed to prohibition of new refineries to operate, and the conversion of sources of energy is very costly. Some even claim that climate change brings positive effect in the environment.

Oreskes noted that scientific community has “substantive disagreement … about the reality of anthropogenic climate change” and that the claim of IPCC regarding global warming was not totally recognized by politicians, economists, and journalists for confusion. A senator named Gore, a coauthor of Revelle in an article about the global warming, turned his back to recognize that everything about global warming was just “too uncertain to justify drastic action…” (Sheppard, 2006).

Politicizing the global warming issue is also evident in the libel suit filed against Lancaster for pressuring Singer to drop the name of Revelle as co-author in a global warming anthology. This case revealed a secret agreement between Lancaster and Gore who wanted to politicize what could be resolved by science (Sheppard, 2006). The CFAT report stated also that around 18,000 scientists claimed that “they see no scientific evidence that human is altering our climate. ” These scientists discredit the predictions of previously claimed effects of global warming by 2025 or 2050.

What role do “facts” play in the modern global warming drama? It is definite that what science refers to as facts are proven true based on scientific investigation and studies. Likewise, these facts have special role to play in the modern global warming drama in such a way that predictions made in the past are now prevalent causing changes in the climate. This environment condition has moved many government and international leaders to act to prevent the rapid effects of global warming. As a consequence, many suggested the replacement for fuel fossil and other sources of energy.

Instead, many scientists recommend corn and biochemical for fuel; solar and wind energy for electricity. The facts pertaining to what causes global warming, its effects in the environment, the human activity, etc. only prove that global warming is true and it poses danger not only in the environment but most importantly in the human body. However, opposition to this make counterattack against global warming; but, to their dismay still majority believe the facts about global warming and climate change because of reliable scientific explanations; that is if there will be no manipulation from political group.

At what point does science lose its independence and ability to rely on critical thinking, and is this dangerous? Science loses its independence when its discovery is refuted and manipulated by known and respected people in the society like government official. In the case of Galileo, his opponents to his view were religious leaders who used their authority to denounce him from Catholic faith. Galileo renounced his first statement and bound to obey the Catholic law.

Politicizing of sciences issues loses its credibility because political intervention and manipulation is being allowed to control its content and its publication. Because of this, science lost its savor and credibility; and most importantly it loses its function as knowledge provider necessary for people to enjoy his environment. The claim that climate change is a natural occurrence, while global warming does not post danger, which is not facts, only limits the function of science to society in some aspects alone. Because of this, many scientists will no longer rely on their critical analysis for fear of manipulation.

Primarily, politicizing is done to serve the interest of a few but will not generate benefits to all, which is very dangerous because no one could escape when there is extreme weather condition or natural disaster due to changes in climate brought by too much heat on the atmosphere. Reference Coleman, J. (2009). The Amazing Story Behind the Global Warming Scam. Kusi News San Diego. http://www. kusi. com/weather/colemanscorner/38574742. html CFACT (2004). Scientific Questions, Ethical Concerns Missing in Today’s Debate over Climate Change. http://www. cfact. org/site/view_article. asp? idCategory=4&idarticle=436

Halsall, P. (1999). Modern History Sourcebook: The Crime of Galileo: Indictment and Abjuration of 1633. http://www. fordham. edu/halsall/mod/1630galileo. html Oreskes, N. (2009). The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change. Essay Beyond the Ivory Tower. http://www. sciencemag. org/cgi/reprint/306/5702/1686. pdf Sheppard, M. (2006). Gore’s Grave New World. American Thinker. http://www. americanthinker. com/printpage/? url=http://www. americanthinker. com/2006/06/gores_grave_new_world. html http://www. americanthinker. com/printpage/? url=http://www. americanthinker. com/2006/06/gores_grave_new_world. html

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1967

  • Pages: 8

Global Warming

Global warming is a pertinent issue in the current world and it has also raised a lot of concerns due to varied negative implications which come with it. Many women activists, political leaders and other women from all races, social class and justice have taken a leading role in lobbing against global warming. This paper is written to critically analyze global warming through a feminist critique. Global warming is as a result of pollution of the environment through the production of carbon dioxide and other gases like carbon monoxide (Wibojorn, 2001).

There are various causatives of such impurities in the air but worse are the implications they have on the environment. Studies show that global warming is a result of the depletion of the ozone layer releasing poisonous gases and other substances to the atmosphere causing adverse effects on all living things (Rorsch, Courtney & Thoenes, 2005). Air pollutants have been known to weaken the ozone layer creating acid rain, smog and changes in the climate through an abnormal increase of earth’s temperature.

Despite various studies being carried out, there are still many negative effects of global warming that have not been discovered yet. However, existing research shows that global warming causes extreme weather changes which affects food production leading to food shortages (Gouretski & Koltermann, 2007). The world is currently faced with higher consumption levels food products because of depletion of natural resources. Consequently, this study also found out that global warming is also responsible for the cause of incurable diseases like cancer which affects both men and women at varying degrees (Landsea et al, 2006).

This study found out that, there are various human dimensions to issue of global warming. Human dimensions are key to acceleration of global warming, for instance excessive production of carbon dioxide due to human activities leads to depletion of the ozone layer. There are concerns that political leaders have failed to treat the issue of global warming with the seriousness it deserves. For example in 2008, Laureates Wangari Mathai and Jody Williams asserted that global warming affects women disproportionately yet political leaders do little about it (Skirble, 2008).

Further Laurite Wangari Mathai prompted the US government “to show that it embraces the international responsibility and leadership by providing legislation that would give the financial support, the technological support and the moral support to the rest of the world. As long as the United States of America doesn’t take its leadership position, the rest of the world hides behind her” (Skirble, 2008). Many industrial activities for instance energy production, running of industries and running of automobiles lead to production of carbon dioxide which is catalyses the depletion of ozone layer.

Governments and other non governmental organizations should take a leading role in ensuring that alternative methods to harmful technology are used. Some studies suggest that countries should use renewable forms of energy for example nuclear power, but fears of production of mass weapons supersede the will to pass that motion for all countries. Global warming affects women in varying degrees. For example, when the ozone layer is exposed the negative effects are experienced by women from all social economic classes.

Studies show that most of women reproductive cancers in women are caused by global warming (Landsea et al, 2006). The major challenge to scientist is that cancer does not have known forms of treatment and as a result many women have lost their lives to the disease. Consecutively, women unlike men are left with the burden of handling children and running of their families. Men on the other hand, can go looking for greener pastures in urban areas leaving the women to face hardships of global warming for instance depleted agricultural produce, water, energy to mention a few (Skirble, 2008).

It is in this light, that women have taken a central position in the fight against global warming since they are usually the worst affected. Laurite Jody Williams urges fellow women to work hard and put in strategic thinking into the concept of fighting global warming. Other studies show that, global warming can lead to birth defects, nerve damages and breathing problems (Khandekar, Murty & Chittibabu 2005). With this in mind, unborn children can be affected by adverse effects of global warming. Currently, there are many scientific solutions which can help combat the negative implications of global warming.

For example, women are advised to use specially formulated sun screens to help fight the negative effects of radiations created during global warming. The major challenge with such a proposition is that women from undeveloped countries or women faced with adverse forms of poverty cannot be able to afford such forms of ‘luxuries’. Studies show that initially cancer was a disease of rich people due to poor diets but with the impending danger of global warming, cancer and lung problems has become generalized to people of all social economic classes.

Consequently, there are suggestions that people should turn away from use of oil as a form of energy and instead use nuclear energy. Studies show that use of nuclear forms of energy is a core ingredient in reducing air impurities since nuclear power does not produce carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide (Gouretski & Koltermann, 2007). The only challenge is that, no conclusive research has been and there may be other dangerous side effects of nuclear energy that are subject to confirmation.

When diseases like cancer arise, hospitals employ the use of chemotherapy and radioactive materials to kill the cancerous cells (Khandekar, Murty & Chittibabu 2005). Consequently because depletion of the ozone layer releases materials to the atmosphere it is advisable for people not to spend too much time in the sun. This paper asserts that solutions to global warming could lead to various implications. For example the use of nuclear energy could spell a terrorism threat to the world. Nuclear plants can always be secure targets of terrorists and other hate crimes.

Since the inception of terrorism, the world is never a secure place and the worst affected casualties are always innocent women and children. On the other hand, studies show that there are no conclusive studies to show that nuclear power plants will not have any negative implications to human health after a long period of exposure (Khandekar, Murty & Chittibabu 2005). The use of oil saves very many countries which do not have the financial support for nuclear activities which are need colossal amounts of money to set up and maintain.

Other studies also show that treating cancerous growths with chemotherapy and radioactive radiations does not always guarantee that the cancer will stop or heal. Physicians also have to be very careful when administering chemotherapy and radiation since undue exposure could also risk their well being. Consequently, with the rate of industrial and economical growth, industries and firms cannot be forced to stop their produce since they are highly needed for survival. The issue of global warming is a pertinent issue that keeps on escalating.

Since the time when scientists, discovered it, the depletion of ozone layer has continued to increase making it an international concern. The developing world has been lobbying for the use of fossil oil which produces fewer impurities compared to the use of oil (Landsea et al, 2006). Both the developed and developing world already recognize the fact that global warming state is worsening and unless stern measures are taken, serious precautions will have to be faced.

Global warming has become a pertinent issue in both the developed and developing world since both are correlated. For example, when people are starving in less developed world, the developed countries have to take the initiative of feeding the starving and dying individuals. Hence in one way or another human intervention is inevitable because at one point or another people have to be responsible for their actions. This paper notes that, had countries started curbing the depletion of ozone layer early enough, the implications faced now would be in fewer numbers.

For example, statistics show that, diseases like cancer and bath defects as a result of global warming are on the increase. In my opinion, there are various measures which can be taken to ensure lasting solutions to the issue of global warming. For example, researchers have to carry out more studies to find out alternative means of energy production that do not endanger national and international security. The use of nuclear energy for sure is one such alternative to the use of oil which releases impurities in the air.

However, its use does not guarantee international and national security of any country since it can be used for military or terrorism activities There are other alternatives for example the extraction of oil from plants which can instead be used for energy purposes and that calls for more defined research. Consequently, researchers can come up with vaccines against deadly diseases like cancer so that instances of such diseases can be reduced significantly. Perhaps it is also the high time governments lobbied for afforest ration so that more oxygen can be produced by plants during the day and help in purifying the environment.

Deforestation and encroachment of forests has also had a lasting impact in natural footprints leading to various implications for instance, adverse climatic changes (Skirble, 2008). In my opinion, the nature has its way of refurbishing itself without human interference and if forests could be enhanced and encouraged then, the issue of adverse climatic conditions could be dealt with to some extend. Policies should also be passed so that industrial wastes to the atmosphere are controlled and those found guilty should be heavily fined to curb pollutants in the atmosphere.

In my opinion, all environmental issues are political issues because everything that pertains the environment is politicized to some extend. I don’t believe that there is any government in the world that treats the issue of global warming with the seriousness that it deserves. For example, governments gain from investors industries by getting taxes and levies and perhaps that why to some extend some industries are left to pollute the environment without much action from the government.

On the other issue of environmental conservation are also used as political campaigns for some selfish leaders who lack the political will for their subjects and countries. Reference list Landsea C. et al. (2006). “Can we detect trends in extreme tropical cyclones? ” Science V 313p. 452-454 Khandekar M L, Murty T S & Chittibabu P. (2005). “The global warming debate: A review of the present state of science” Pure & Applied Geophysics V 162 p. 1557-1586 Gouretski V. & Koltermann K. P. (2007). “How much is the ocean really warming? ” Geophysical ResearchLetters 34 Rorsch A, Courtney R.

S. & Thoenes D. (2005). “The interaction of climate change and the carbon dioxide cycle” Energy & Environment V 16 p. 217-238 Skirble R. (2008). Women Nobel Laureates Say Global Warming Disproportionately Affects Women. Washington DC. Retrieved on 09th March, 2009 from http://www. voanews. com/english/AmericanLife/2008-05-20-voa24. cfm Wibojorn K. (2001). K. “Global temperature forced by solar irradiation and greenhouse gases? ” Ambio. Vol. 30 p. 349-350 Zwillich T. 2007. Experts: Global Warming Affects Health. WebMD Health News Retrieved on 09th March, 2009 from www. medicinet. com

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Global Warming Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 787

  • Pages: 3

Global Warming

This essay is based on Global warming and the cause and effect of it. “Global warming I define as an increase in the earth’s atmospheric and oceanic temperatures widely predicted to occur due to an increase in the greenhouse effect resulting especially from pollution. Increase in the global average surface temperature resulting from enhancement of the greenhouse effect, primarily by air pollution” (Merriam-Webster, 2013).

In “2007 the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasted that by 2100 global average surface temperatures would increase 3. 2–7. 2 °F (1. 8–4. °C), depending on a range of scenarios for greenhouse gas emissions, and stated that it was now 90 percent certain that most of the warming observed over the previous half century could be attributed to greenhouse gas emissions produced by human activities (i. e. , industrial processes and transportation). Many scientists predict that such an increase in temperature would cause polar ice caps and mountain glaciers to melt rapidly, significantly raising the levels of coastal waters, and would produce new patterns and extremes of drought and rainfall, seriously disrupting food production in certain regions” (Wojtal-frankiewicz, 2012). Other scientists maintain that such predictions are overstated.

The 1992 Earth Summit and the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change attempted to address the issue of global warming, but in both cases the efforts were hindered by conflicting national economic agendas and disputes between developed and developing nations over the cost and consequences of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases” (Kitson, 2011). To begin, the evidence to this article in Wikipedia that show the originality s the use of departmental organization that show the cause of global warming. This organization is known as (UNFCCC), they highlighted some Global warming controversy. It also showed a pie chart which indicate that glaciers have been retreating since the early 1800s. In the 1950s measurements began that allow the monitoring of glacial mass balance, reported to the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS) and the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Moreover the bibliography was also stated to show where the information was came from.

Where some of it was from official people with a higher state of position. Information on this article was also picked from books and journals and a full bibliography was provided for it. Looking at this, it can be said that the information was neutral and not a made up one. In addition, the article also has detailed factual information that was the use of another pie chart that indicates the “Contribution of natural factors and human activities to radiative forcing of climate change. Radiative forcing values are for the year 2005, relative to the pre-industrial era (1750).

The contribution of solar irradiance to radiative forcing is 5% the value of the combined radiative forcing due to increases in the atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide”. This stratices was formed in a project known as IPCC. The article seems to be neutral and unbiased due to the use of quotation and picture with a full proper bibliography. The article is similar to our text book as it has the similar format of writing. These are the use of table of content, title, subheading and bibliography. Thus, the information that was in the article was relevant to the topic that I chose.

Moreover, some of the addition information that was it the article was the use of the diagrams to show the greenhouse effect. It shows Greenhouse effect schematic showing energy flows between space, the atmosphere, and earth’s surface. Energy exchanges are expressed in watts per square meter. The article also has used the different language that is for better understand to those who does not know much in English. Thus, the article could have used pie chart and line graph to show the increase in the sea level due to global warming.

It also should have discussed a country that is mostly affected due to global warming. Final, Wikipedia is not a favourable web site due to some of its features that allow anyone to edit it anytime. The most dangerous feature is the edit button in it. Thus, the overall article was well structured with having least error in it. It was also simple and straight forward to make it user friendly. This was the use of table, pictures and number to add simplicity to the article. The article has some complex situations where it uses different language. So that people can read the article in their own language.

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 473

  • Pages: 2

Global Warming

Globalization – a process of integration among countries is taking place as a new trend of the world. The cooperation among individuals and groups bring back many chances as well as challenges in different fields. As students in the era of integration, it is possible for us to realize both sides of this trend.

First of all, it can not be denied that students can get many advantages from globalization. Thanks to the cooperation in education, different countries share new technology that support teaching and learning with each other. Students are the objectives who can get benefits from it. They are allowed to explore new sources of knowledge through Internet and other education material such as video conferencing, tape recordings, etc. Therefore, they find that studying is not very difficult as they think, even it is more interesting.

Besides, globalization promises them a much brighter future. Students have more chances to get access to new skills, for instance, presentation skill, skill to work with a team, and so on, which are very invaluable for their future career. In addition, the interaction among countries creates a huge market with a plenty of choices of jobs. Thus, the graduates have more options to choose which job is the best and the most suitable for them.

Go along with many advantages, students still have to face up with other difficulties. As being mentioned above, modern method of teaching and learning are big advantages for students but they may become obstacles when they are not very suitable and it must take a very long time to get familiar. For example, in many Asian countries, among which has Viet Nam, the feature of education is teacher – centered. When this changes into learner – centered which requires much of individuals’ responsibilities.

At first, students who used to depend much on their teachers get shocked and fell it difficult to study with this new method. It may be a problem. What’s more, financial problem is another one. Under the impact of globalization, there has been a trend for the budge for education to be reduced. Government has to spend money on different areas so they do not pay as much attention as before. As a result, the financial burden is placed on students’ shoulders and their families.

In conclusion, globalization as well as other phenomenon has both sides: good and bad. All the impact of this has effects on students. Students get many advantages but also disadvantages. They should be aware of this problem carefully so that they can turn challenges into chances which will support their studying as well as their future.

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Global Warming Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 289

  • Pages: 1

Global Warming

One of the biggest problems facing the world today is global warming. Many scientists believe that our production of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is having a heating effect on the atmosphere, and this could be very dangerous for human life. This essay will examine the problem of global warming and suggest some ways of solving the problem. Many problems could result from global warming. One of the biggest problems is rising sea level. This could result in the flooding of low lying coastal areas and cities, such as Egypt, the Netherlands, and Bangladesh. Some countries might even disappear completely! Another problem caused by global warming is changes in weather patterns. Many areas of the world are experiencing increased hurricanes, floods, and other unusual weather.

A third problem associated with global warming is the effect on animals. Fish populations could be affected, while some insects which spread disease might become more common. There are several things we can do to solve the problem of global warming. One solution is to stop producing C02. We can do this by switching from oil, coal and gas to renewable energy. Another solution is to plant more trees. Trees absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen, which is not a greenhouse gas. A third solution is to use less energy and to recycle more products. Generating electricity is one of the main sources of carbon dioxide. If we use less electricity, we will produce less C02. In conclusion, if we make small changes now in the way we live, we can avoid huge changes in the future. Scientists, governments and individuals must work together to overcome this threat.

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Global warming Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 2058

  • Pages: 8

Global warming

Global warming has become one of the main environmental concerns of the twenty-first century, with debate spanning from the international level all the way down to the smallest local hamlet. One can hardly pick up a paper or turn on the news without seeing a story about how drastically the world is warming, or to hear that global warming is nothing but a myth caused by liberals for political purposes.

With millions of ardent supporters and detractors of the global warming theory, the facts that science presents continued to be debated and it remains to be proved whether recent warming trends are caused by human progress or natural cycles, or whether they will have long term consequences on the biosphere or have very little effect on it at all. The most accurate way to test the global warming theory is to observe the climatic changes taking place over a period of time to see what trends and changes are in effect.

As the size and scope of the entire planet makes such study difficult if not impossible, the easiest way to do this is to take a sample study of a region that could well represent the whole. The Wabash Valley Watershed in Illinois, with its rich and diverse terrain of waterways and tributaries near human populations, provides the perfect ecosystem to observe to figure out what and if any effects global warming has on it, as well as the implications these effects may have on the rest of the planet as a whole.

Wabash Valley Watershed To determine the potential warming trends in the global environment, the need to understand the temperature trends of at least a small portion of the world is necessary, and for this study, the Wabash Valley Watershed has been selected for observation, specifically the years from 1961 to 1990. The Rivers and Streams The Little Wabash River is located in Southeastern Illinois, flowing southward to the Wabash River.

The river’s headwaters are located in southwestern Coles County, and from there the Little Wabash flows approximately 237 miles south and east to its confluence with the Wabash River near New Haven, a point approximately 13 miles upstream from the Ohio River (IEPA, 2006). Altogether, there are about 5145 miles of rivers and streams in the Little Wabash River basin, and of these there are roughly 100 rivers and streams with drainage areas in excess of 10 square miles that account for 1640 of the total stream miles.

Geological Makeup of Wabash Valley Watershed In addition to the flow and direction of the rivers in the region, the geological make up is also important to understand the data properly. Based on an analysis of the topographic information, the elevation in the Wabash watershed ranges from 778 feet above mean sea level at the highest point in the watershed, in Coles County, to 404 feet in Clay County, at the downstream terminus. The change in elevation of the Little Wabash River itself, between its headwaters and the most downstream portion, is 362. 7 feet, over this approximately 114-mile stretch (IEPA, 2006).

Human Influence on Wabash Valley Watershed The characteristics of streamflow in any watershed will, over time, vary from earlier conditions because of the cumulative impact of human activities in the region. Like most locations in Illinois, the Wabash Valley Watershed has experienced considerable land-use modification since European settlement, including cultivation, drainage modification, removal of wetland areas, and deforestation. Most of these modifications occurred in the late 1800s, and most of the land in the watershed remains in agriculture, much as it did almost 100 years ago. Urbanization has affected only a very minimal percentage of land in the Wabash Valley Watershed.

While human influence on much of the region remains minimal, the larger scope of the impact of civilization can be measured best in the climatic changes the region has experienced over the years (IEPA, 2006). Overall Warming of the Environment of Wabash Watershed Based on climatic information measuring temperature in the Wabash Valley Watershed region, the average annual maximum temperature appears to be slightly increased between 1961-1990. The annual average maximum temperature in the Wabash Watershed reached a low in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but has since steadily risen to levels comparable to the peak years in the early 1960s.

The temperature fluctuated from an average annual maximum low of 60. 50 in 1978 to 65 in 1964. The average annual minimum temperature is also increasing over 1-year, 5-year, and 10-year trends. The average annual temperature for the region reached a high during the years observed in the late 1980s, with two of the hottest years recorded during that time. The 5-year and 10-year averages have also reached all-time highs and appear to be on the rise. According to the data provided about the Wabash Watershed, while there is a fluctuation over the time period studied, there is a noticeable rise in temperature in the recent years.

Pronounced Warming Of Minimum Temperatures and Reduced Range of Temperature The observed warming of the Wabash Valley Watershed suggests that global warming has had an effect on the region. To fully understand the extent of the warming, the data collected during the specific period must be analyzed and compared to the history of the region to see if the temperatures are similar to fluctuations in the past or signify a trend that requires much more analysis. Pronounce Warming of Minimum Temperatures The warming trends displayed in the Wabash Valley Watershed suggest that global warming has affected the temperature of the region.

According to the data collected from the latter half of the twentieth century, there is indeed a more pronounced warming of minimum temperatures than maximum temperatures. The minimum temperature of the Wabash Valley Watershed has reached an all-time high for the region, taking into account the entire recorded temperature history. The average annual minimum temperature reached the high of 44 degrees Fahrenheit in 1990, and highs at almost 43 degrees Fahrenheit for the 5-year span, and 42 degrees Fahrenheit for the 10-year trend.

Reduced Range of Temperatures The information gathered on the range of temperatures does suggest a trend consistent with global warming, though not as pronounced as other areas of study. The average daily temperature range in the watershed clearly shows that there is a reduced range of temperatures, though the temperature seems to have remained relatively steady around 20 degrees Fahrenheit a during the period studied. Surplus of Water and Precipitation Because many experts suggest that the globally warmed environment will see more drought and less surplus water conditions for inland or continental locations such as the Wabash Valley Watershed.

Therefore, it is expected that some trends in precipitation amounts and the frequency of certain amounts of precipitation would vary. This has been observed in the Wabash Valley Watershed, and the average annual precipitation in the watershed has increased noticeably since the 1960s. With a warming climate, precipitation in the Wabash Valley Watershed can be expected to continue on an upward trend, with 10 to 30 percent increases projected across the region by current climate trend models. Increases in the proportion of heavy and extreme precipitation appear to be very likely.

However, increased evaporation is projected to lead to a soil-moisture deficit, reduced lake and river levels, and more droughtlike conditions (Winstanley, 2006, 43). These each suggest that the area has indeed been affected by a trend of global warming. Evapotranspiration, Streamflow, and Runoff In reference to evapotranspiration, surplus/deficit conditions and runoff/streamflow, one might expect to see marked changes in each to reflect an environment in the clutches of a warming trend. In the Wabash Valley Watershed, these changes are observable.

Evapotranspiration High temperatures increase evapotranspiration rates, which tend to reduce the amount of surface water, soil moisture, and groundwater. When considering the impacts of future precipitation anomalies on water supplies, it is important also to consider the impacts of possible high temperatures (Winstanley, et al. , 2006, 9). Higher temperatures will only continue to increase the rates of evapotranspiration in the region. Streamflow Groundwater levels often are slower than streamflow to respond to precipitation deficits, only after soil moisture and streamflows are down.

Groundwater levels also recover more slowly from drought and do so only after precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration and soil moisture demands. In many places, shallow aquifers act as reservoirs from which groundwater can percolate slowly downward to recharge deep aquifers. As a result, deep aquifers are buffered from short-term droughts and only show effects during extended periods of more severe drought (Winstanley, 2006, 10). Runoff Runoff is very sensitive to precipitation changes. A decrease in precipitation by 20 percent causes a decrease in runoff of 49-55 percent.

An increase in precipitation by 20 percent causes an increase in runoff of more than 60 percent. Runoff is less sensitive to temperature change. For example, for a precipitation increase of 20 percent, runoff varies from an increase of 60 percent for a temperature increase of 7oF to 68 percent for no change in temperature. Although it is counterintuitive for runoff to increase with an increase in temperature, the slight increase shown by the model appears to be due to two factors. One, crops develops faster under warmer conditions, thus extracting soil moisture for a shorter period.

Two, high temperatures put crops under stress more frequently, which in turn causes stomates to close. It is not clear whether this reflects reality or is simply an artifact of model construction. Changes for evapotranspiration are considerably smaller: a 6-8 percent decrease for a 20 percent decrease in precipitation, and a 1-4 percent increase for a 20 percent increase in precipitation (Winstanley, 2006, 44). Trends Observed in Wabash Watershed By observing the data available, clear-cut trends can be seen in many aspects of the Wabash Valley Watershed ecosystem.

While there are many anomalies that make it difficult to predict the future and what affect, if any, current trends will have on the watershed and the rest of the world, it is clear from the data that annual temperature and precipitation is increasing. The changes and trends observed in the Wabash Valley Watershed suggest that global warming theory must continue to be a valid scientific investigation, and resources must be utilized to fully understand the scope of impact such warming trends will have on the planet.

Obvious and dramatic effects such as intensified tropical storms, polar melting, and the filling of the carbon sink in the Southern Ocean provide the public with glaring instances of global warming, but the problem still remains foreign to many that feel it does not directly affect them. Even the subtle changes in such places as the Wabash Watershed are barely detectable by the common population, and the mission of scientist should be to help examine and explain the impact.

Other Useful Environmental Data There are many other types of data that can be helpful to make a worthwhile analysis of the Wabash Valley Watershed, including ecological evaluations. By studying the animal and plant life of the region will give a better understanding as to the effect the climate changes are having. For example, if certain plants or animals native to different types of climate begin to appear in the region, this is a good indication that the characteristics of the region are changing.

Implications of Study The implications of this study clearly show that over the last half of the twentieth century, the climate in the Wabash Valley Watershed has changed slightly. Whether these changes are caused by global warming remains debatable, but the data suggests that there is a warming trend, as well as a trend of more precipitation. If it is indeed caused by global warming, there are many immediate and long-term risks associated with not trying to reverse the trend. Drought conditions run the risk of causing widespread damage to the ecosystem, as well as diminished plant and animal life in the area.

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Global Warming Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1318

  • Pages: 5

Global Warming

It’s happening everyday and right now. It is becoming a worldwide problem. This is global warming. Global warming is a serious problem that affects our planet. Is it a natural cause or man-made? It may be natural. Many people point to the melting ice caps as proof that humans are the ones that are causing global warming, but what they may not know is that the polar ice caps on Mars are melting too. Humans may not be the main cause of global warming but they do affect it greatly causing it to accelerate.

Global warming was most likely sped up by human causes. One major human cause is pollution. People are creating more and more of it. One type of pollutant is greenhouse gases. These gases trap solar energy, increasing Earth’s temperature, rather than letting the heat back into space. Another cause is the burning of fossil fuels. Some fossil fuels are oil, gas, and coal. These produce carbon dioxide. We are producing too much of it into our atmosphere too quickly and plants can’t absorb all of that carbon dioxide. We even cause global warming to be sped up by being alive. We exhale carbon dioxide with every breath we take.

If we want to reduce global warming, to a state we can deal with and not worry about it, we need to start by reducing all of the pollution we create. Global warming may be a natural cause but “humans can be a powerful influence on the climate as well. ” It increases the evaporation of water into the atmosphere. Since water vapour itself is a greenhouse gas, this causes still more warming. The warming causes more water vapour to be evaporated. The C02 level is expected to rise in future due to ongoing burning of fossil fuels and landuse change.

The rate of rise will depend largely on uncertain economic, sociological, technological and natural developments. Other gases such as methane, CFCs, nitrous oxide, tropospheric ozone are also responsible for global warming. Increases in all these gases are due to explosive population growth, increased industrial expansion, technological advancement, deforestation and growing urbanisation, etc. Trees play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. They are the largest land-based mechanism for removing carbon dioxide from the air. Deforestation is checking these positive processes.

It is the second principle cause of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation is responsible for 25 per cent of all carbon emissions entering the atmosphere, by the burning and cutting of 34 million acres of trees each year. Everyday over 5500 acres of rainforest are destroyed. As a consequence of massive loss of forests, global CO, levels rise approximately 0. 4 per cent each year, the levels not experienced on this planet for millions of years. As we know the forests are the great absorbers of CO,,. There is a close relation between global warming and population growth.

Today the large population on earth is using the technologies which are destructive for the earth. Approximately, 80 per cent of atmospheric C02 increases are due to man’s use of fossil fuels either in the form of coal, gas or oil. A large portion of carbon emission is attributed to the burning of gasoline in internal-combustion engine of vehicles. Vehicles with poor gas mileage contribute the most to global warming. Besides, the sulphur group gas is the most harmful for this. Its contribution is 30 per cent in global warming. This gas is also emitted from the burning of fossil fuels.

Increase in global temperatures will cause rise in sea level. It will lead to melting of glaciers, changes in rainfall patterns, increased intensity and frequency of extreme weather. As per the latest survey report the rate of melting of glaciers has seen sharp increase in recent times. Even those glaciers are affected from global warming which have been considered permanent. The shrinking of glaciers is going to pose a major problem of drinking water. The sea levels as a result of melting of glaciers have risen from 0. 35 mm to 0. 4 mm.

Scientists have warned in their reports that most of the glaciers will disappear within a period of 15 to 25 years. It will create problems of drinking water and food grains in most of the North American countries. India is not unaffected from it. The Himalayan glaciers have shrunk about 30 per cent after 1970. The rise in sea levels is a major cause of concern. A large number of cities located in coastal areas will submerge in the sea. Besides, many island countries will ultimately “lose their existence and will be washed away from the surface of the earth. The damage of rising sea levels is diverse.

Buildings and roads close to the water could be flooded and they could suffer damage from hurricanes and tropical storms. Experts believe that global warming could increase the intensity of hurricanes by over 50 per cent. In addition, as the sea rises, beach erosion takes place, particularly on steep banks. Wetlands are lost as the level rises. Rise in atmospheric temperature will lead to the outbreak of air¬borne and water-borne diseases. It would also contribute to the rise in death caused by heat. The problem of drought would be frequent. Consequently, malnutrition and starvation will pose serious challenge before humanity.

Global warming is a great threat to the flora and fauna of the earth. A large number of species of them may become extinct. The expanse of desert would increase. Low rainfall and rising temperature could add to the intensity and frequency of dusty storm. This in turn will immensely affect the quality of agricultural land, ultimately causing adverse effect on agricultural produce. It would have far-reaching socio-economic impact. In Indian context, the impact of global warming is a matter of grave concern. As is well known, India is mainly an agricultural country and agriculture here is gamble of the monsoon, e. . largely depending on rainfall.

Though it is to affect the whole country, the worst likely impact would be on central and northern India which is high-yielding parts of the country. These are the regions which produce the largest agricultural yield. The rise in atmospheric temperature and fall in rain would naturally result in decline in crop production. Moreover, it would have great effect on biodiversity as well. The growing concerns over global temperatures have led to the nations, states, corporations and individuals to draw out a plan of action to avert the situation.

As a result the world’s primary international agreement on combating global warming was reached in Kyoto in 1997 which came to be known as Kyoto Protocol. However, ten years have passed; the situation does not appear to be very changed. It seems that the member countries are not very serious about its devastating effects. In addition, forestation can be of great help in this regard.

Planting more trees and reducing timber cuts worldwide will help restore the imbalance. Secondly, we must follow on environmental policy of ‘reduce, reuse, recycle’, i. e. romoting the reuse of anything. Thirdly, the use of fuel-efficient vehicles should be promoted as these vehicles have lower emissions of harmful gases. Fourthly, every individual should be aware of the importance of the protecting environment. Besides, eco- friendly technologies must be promoted, and must be substituted with the technologies which cause great emission of global warming gases. Public awareness campaign can be of great help in this regard because unless each and every individual is aware only governments’ effect cannot bring desired difference.

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Global Warming Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1439

  • Pages: 6

Global Warming

The Global Warming theory has become increasingly popular over the past few years. Citizens of the world are being encouraged to be more environmentally conscious by others including politicians, celebrities, and world organizations. The problem with the theory lies in the fact that it has become more and more controversial as it gains publicity and attention. The basic concept behind this theory is that the earth was made with a balance of “greenhouse gasses”.

These gasses are naturally occurring within the atmosphere and they essentially make the planet habitable by keeping it warm. When the world became more industrialized, the amount of carbon dioxide that was being emitted into the atmosphere increased. In the past hundred years or so, that number has more or less skyrocketed when compared to the previous amount due to the invention and mass distribution of automobiles, aircraft, trains, and boats. The surplus of greenhouse gasses are beyond what the earth can store and are creating a pseudo blanket around the world.

The earth has thence become more and more hot, “…the globe has heated up by about one degree Fahrenheit over the past century—and it has heated up more intensely over the past two decades. ” (IPCC, 2001) To be able to correctly put that into perspective one must have the knowledge that the temperature difference between the ice age and current times is nine degrees. The potential repercussions of the increase in global temperature include more intense storms, more severe droughts, and rising sea levels.

There are several ways to have a more positive impact on the environment. Everything from buying more energy efficient cars to helping control the population has the potential to help reduce the effects of global warming. One of the largest contributors to the increase in global temperature in the past century has been the ever expanding population. It is a simple math problem, if one person produces too many greenhouse gasses and then proceeds to have seven children, the greenhouse emissions with increase even more so.

The more people habituating the planet, the more potential there is for emission of greenhouse gasses. In short, the basis of this argument other than years of documented research and scientific discovery is what harm could we do by being more conservative in our use of energy and other entities that produce more than their share of greenhouse gasses? The answer as it stands now is none. The harmful effects of ignoring this crisis are all but proven fact. The problem that the pro- global warming theorists have created is that of social standing and little else.

While there may be scientific backing to support some of the theory, the media presents the problem with great sensationalism. Global warming and energy conservation has thus become a trend and losses some of its validity through this. The scare tactics used by the media to “promote awareness” are just that, a linguistic ploy to gain favor. “Awareness of this global threat reinforced public concern and environmental problems and thereby provided environmental activists, scientists, and policy makers with new momentum in their efforts to promote environmental protection. (McCright, 2000)

This statement draws line to the potential benefits that would be received if the pro-global warming theorists were to draw enough attention to the issue. Driven by social empowerment and conviction to environmental protection, these activists misrepresent the actual threat and paint it as being much more intense and imminent than the scientific evidence concludes. The fact that the planet’s temperature is ever changing is solid, however there is no solid proof that humans are responsible for this rise.

The earth’s temperature has experienced extreme highs and lows throughout its millions of years in existence and we as humans understand little about what has caused those fluctuation. If humans did not exist billions of years ago, yet the temperature still changed dramatically, then why is it that scientists’ claim that humans are the cause for this current phenomena? The answer to that question is unknown however one could make the assumption that it may be due to our lack of understanding about the way in which carbon dioxide exists in the atmosphere.

The public has no easy access to this information therefore it is easily forgotten or removed from the argument. Global warming is a theory that has been wildly blown out of proportion. Media backing and celebrity endorsements combined with political scare tactics have been used to create the sense of responsibility in this matter. The true concern is being masked by the “solution” that is being presented to the world. The supposed solution to the global warming theorists is to conserve. The real issue at hand is discovery. Science must be perfected or at least further tested before conclusions can be drawn.

While evidence exists on both sides, the side that acknowledges the existence of global warming at least has the appearance of more science on its side. The publicity brought to global warming can have the ability to cause people to accept it as fact rather than simply a theory. That being said, it is the belief of this writer that the pro-global warming theory is more valid than the anti-global warming theory. This conclusion was made mostly due to the distrust that this student grew for the anti-global warming supporters.

The anti-side invalidates their own arguments by using some basic fallacious thinking and aggressive tactics. Many of the websites and other sources to gain knowledge about the potential non-threat of global warming are extremist and use many common fallacies. For example, here is an excerpt from just one of the many anti-global warming websites available to all on the World Wide Web, “We all know that the artificial construct known as “cap and trade” is nothing more than a fraud to get companies to pay more taxes.

It will have very little, to no, impact on CO2 levels, much less global warming. ” (Casey, 2009). The author assumes that the “cap and trade” issue is universally known and understood which a fallacy of hasty generalization is. The second flaw in that particular argument is that it appears to be an argument of outrage in the sense that it degrades the government and paints them to be money hungry and unconcerned with the well-being of its peoples. Websites against global warming take personal attacks at the politicians or celebrities who endorse the idea of global warming.

While these personal attacks may hold some general truth, they do not address that person’s ability to become involved with an organization to create awareness for global warming. Personal attacks are used to dissuade the American public from siding with the pro-global warming theory. Celebrities are often used as spokespeople for different causes and charities, but they do not embody what they are speaking for. They are solely a resource to raise awareness to the general population.

While it may be true that some scientific evidence has been withheld or not made as accessible to the general population due to its potential harm to the pro-global warming theory, this writer has not been dissuaded from her former school of thought. It is very true that there are more humans on the planet than there were many years ago. It is also true that humans now use more advanced technology that have the tendency to produce a lot of carbon dioxide. The link between what we understand about humans and their production habits and the atmosphere may be blurry, but the question remains, why not conserve?

In conclusion, the moral of the global warming story is moderation. Little personal changes may affect the way in which the world climate is changing but if they do not, what harm would we have done? Riding a bike to work or walking to school not only reduces the amount of carbon dioxide being produced, it saves that person money. Global warming may not be as big a threat as the media makes it out to be, but there is scientific evidence supporting the fact that it just may be a threat.

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Global Warming Essay

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Global Warming Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1913

  • Pages: 8

Global Warming

Global warming is a gradual rise in Earth’s temperature over a given period. Various sources have different opinions and findings as to what exactly is happening to the global climate (1). One source, the U. S. National Research Council, which is a leading science policy body, states that currently the Earth’s temperature had been the hottest in the last 400 years. Accordingly, this time span could expand to 2000 years. The rise shown on record was between 0. 3 – 0. 6 degree Celsius over the last century, and the expectation is it would rise more at the end of this century.

The warming is attributed to the greenhouse gases that include carbon dioxide and methane accumulated in the upper atmosphere due to human activity such as fossil oil burning, industrial and agricultural activities, and deforestation, whether it is done for farming or logging. Establishments such as Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are claiming it is possible that climate change could have an effect on life on the planet currently, while the problem could get worse in the future since the change could affect the sea level, could introduce desertification and droughts by changing the pattern of precipitation around the globe.

In addition, there could be change in agricultural yields, retreating glaciers, some species becoming extinct, and an increase on the vector of diseases. In all this, some are looking at solar variability to be the other contributor to global warming despite the fact that the available measurement covers only 30 years making this assumption unreliable. The Goddard Institute Studies of NASA had concluded that the solar variable increase alone cannot be responsible for the rise in temperature.

According to its finding, the main culprits are the greenhouse gasses. Another establishment the United Nations on its February 2007 report had also concluded that the cause of the global warming is an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide and methane concentration in the atmosphere, mostly created because of human activity (2). No one disputes the existence of the greenhouse effect, which is a natural occurrence and the known greenhouse gasses had a mean warming capability of 33 degree Celsius. Without such a temperature, the Earth will not be inhabitable.

The concern recently had been how much human activity has contributed to the elevating of the amount of the gasses in the atmosphere. The other major greenhouse gas, water vapor that causes up to 36-70 percent of the greenhouse effect is more or less out of the control of human beings. Carbon dioxide the other major culprit believed to be the outcome of human activity has between 9-26 percent effect. Methane, which is the outcome of mostly agricultural activity has an effect of between 4-9 percent. The other one the ozone has an effect of between 3-7 percent.

The recorded atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and methane since the 1750 pre-industrial level has increased by 31 percent and 149 percent respectively. About three-quarters of the increase in carbon dioxide had been recorded to be from human activity where fossil fuel burning had been the case especially in the last 20 years, whereas the remaining had been due to deforestation. When looking on the feedback process the amount of carbon dioxide that is prevalent in the air could affect the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere.

This is due to the fact that whenever there is excess warming because of carbon dioxide, more water will evaporate. Since the water vapor itself is the major part of the greenhouse gases, the higher concentration causes more warming leading to more water vapor entering the atmosphere. Furthermore, there is no scientific evidence that proves the high level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is contributing to weather change where the Earth has become warmer because of it. The reality is Earth’s climate changes constantly and the cause still is not very clear for those who are studying it.

Global warming is not a recent phenomenon since it had been around for a long time. Factors such as solar variations and the tilts on Earth’s orbiting around the sun could also contribute for the global warming. Volcanoes had been around from time immemorial and whenever they occur they contribute for global warming in a significant way. Forest fire had been and still is a natural phenomenon for the most part that could add to the greenhouse gasses and it has proven difficult to prevent. In all this, what the involved 0.

6 degree Celsius increase on the Earth’s temperature after 1860 from thermometer reading reveals is all what human activity contributed to the global warming and for the increase of the greenhouse gasses is miniscule by any standard and should not be a concern of such high magnitude. In addition, when taking into consideration almost 80 percent of the increase of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere occurred after 1940 due to the recorded industrial expansion that ensued because of World War II, the concern that the high rising level of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is due to human activity is not substitutable scientifically (3).

Human factor Is Not the Main Cause of Global Warming There are opponents and proponents to the premise that it is human activity that is responsible for whatever global warming recorded and there are those who fear the effect will be devastating unless it is possible to introduce some measures. With the same token, others say that the most likelihood of the global warming is beneficial for the globe as well as for the people that inhabit it.

This means there is no a global warming threat and the temperature rise that had been recorded in recent years has much more advantage than the fear of a catastrophic disaster the proponents of global warming that is induced by human activity are forecasting for the near and distant future. This is because there is no solid evidence to support what the proponents are claiming. It is also possible that politics and alarmist reporting methods could be contributing to the belief that current human activity is pumping a dangerous level of greenhouse gases into the atmospheres.

Even if it is possible to discern that fossil fuel burning and other human activities are responsible for raising the level of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, which in its turn is responsible for the raising of the global temperature, the outcome is not devastating for Earth as some are trying to portray it (4). Some level of carbon dioxide derived from fossil oil burning could be a pollutant although such outlook lacks scientific support.

Carbon dioxide is naturally present in the atmosphere and responsible for maintaining plant life, as well as is part of the natural mechanism that controls the eco system. The amount raised from human activity especially after the industrial revolution has not contributed significantly to the global warming since some of the major global warming incidents occurred before that defying the fact that the greenhouse gases caused by human activity have not contributed significantly to the global warming.

In fact, the scientific evidence is without the greenhouse effect the Earth will be too cold for inhabiting. Since carbon dioxide is also essential for plant physiology its absence could devastate plant life, whereas its abundant presence could have an opposite effect, hence carbon dioxide as such is not doing harm to Earth. What all human activities after the industrial revolution added to the already existing amount of carbon dioxide is a mere 30 percent.

Historically, starting from 1940 up to the 1980s was the period where there was an escalated amount of human activity that resulted in burning a much higher level of fossil fuels. However, the reality had been during these years the global temperature had cooled down to the point where some scientists were about to declare a new ice age was in the making. According to the U. S. National Academy of Sciences, the trend of the cooling of the Earth did not continue past the 1980s and a precise surface measurement had shown that there was an increase of 0. 25 – 0.

4 degree Celsius, whereas the atmospheric measurement showed no rise in temperature. The observed reality had been, for the four decades after 1940, the Earth’s temperature had cooled down and for the remaining two decades the recording was a rise of 0. 3 degree Celsius. When that is for surface measurement, the measurement made on the atmosphere had shown there was no change in the atmospheric temperature. The reason attributed for that is urban centers create heat islands that could boost the temperature level if the measurement takes place around such centers.

Another assumption that used was soot and dust from volcanic activity had the capacity to block the sun’s ray resulting in cooling the temperature of the atmosphere. This assumption is disputed simply because the surface would have been cooled through the same process simply because the particles would prevent the sunray from reaching Earth. What is possible to surmise from such observations is it is possible that the Earth could be coming out of the 600 years Ice Age and will follow this trend for some time into the future until the next Ice Age comes around.

Such assumptions demonstrate the fact that scientists still do not have the complete answer about the environment. In fact, one of the method that they claim will be accurate is using computer simulation that had fallen short of getting at the answers simply because it has many shortcomings. There are also other overlooked causes feared either to contribute to the cooling or heating up of the temperature. These are aerosols, very small particles that will enter the atmosphere from numerous sources that include burning fossil fuel or dust particles that could originate from desert dusts or volcanoes.

What these small particles could do is block the sunray from reaching Earth and that could contribute to the cooling of the Earth’s surface. Since they can absorb heat, they could also cause the atmosphere to get hotter. Consequently, even if establishments such as IPCC twice had indicated, once in 1996 and again in 2001 that humans are the contributors of the greenhouse effect through their day-to-day activities, what they are relaying is the outcome of computer simulation whose accuracy is in doubt simply because there are many elements that cannot be made part of the simulation (5).

In spite of the shortcomings, the outcome had been the center of attention and the major cause to the coming into existence of the Kyoto protocol that recommends humans should curtail their use of fossil fuel to the level that was prevalent before 1990 in order to avoid further damage to the environment. However, the trend tends to be that science is not anymore focusing on carbon dioxide alone to be the main culprit when it comes to the global warming resulting in loosening the stance that it is humans who are contributing to the global warming (6).

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1063

  • Pages: 4

Global Warming

Global warming causes changes in the earth’s weather patterns that have disastrous effects. Global warming or anthropogenic global warming is defined as the gradual increase in the earth’s surface temperature. One of the major causes for this phenomenon has been attributed to the increase in the quantity of certain gases in the atmosphere that cause the greenhouse effect. The radiation received from the sun by the earth is retransmitted by the earth into space, but the wavelength of the retransmitted radiation is greater than that of the incident radiation.

The gases present in the atmosphere absorb this radiation and this action results in increasing the earth’s temperature. Carbon dioxide is the predominant greenhouse gas. Some of the other greenhouse gases are water vapor, methane, ozone, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, hydroflourocarbons, perfluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons. Industrialization and deforestation are the chief factors that have caused this increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Further, the ever increasing emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are modifying the composition of the atmosphere, thereby leading to global climatic changes.

For instance, the period 1995 to 2006, was witness to the warmest atmospheric temperatures. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change or the IPCC had estimated in the year 2001 that the linear warming trend from 1906 to 2005 of 0. 74? C was higher than the corresponding trend for the period from 1901 to 2000 when it was only 0. 6? C (Webb, Barlow, & Whetton, May 2007). Moreover, the increase in global temperatures has wrought widespread climatic changes. The melting of glaciers and ice deposits near the poles and the thermal expansion of the oceans has brought about an increase in the sea level.

Heavy rains are being caused due to the changes in the patterns of precipitation and an increase in the number of hurricanes was observed. In addition, an increase occurred in the average intensity and duration of these hurricanes, due to the correlation of hurricanes with the surface temperatures of the tropical seas. Furthermore, other natural catastrophes like floods, droughts, heat waves and tornadoes exhibited intensification in their duration and cycles. In addition, global warming causes changes in agricultural output, glacier movements and summer stream flows; and the extinction of certain species.

Other concomitant causes are the spreading of infectious diseases like malaria. Scientists predict that the effects of global warming would last up to the year 2100 because carbon dioxide would persist from fifty to two hundred years (Cause and effect for global warming). Deforestation is one of the main reasons for the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, because trees convert most of the carbon dioxide to oxygen. In addition, burning of fossil fuels increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

For instance, in the year 1987 a large area of the Amazon rain forest was burned down and this burning released nearly five hundred tons of carbon dioxide into the earth’s atmosphere. Further the conflagrant of forests would result in a reduction of the number trees, which would increase the carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere and thereby enhance the greenhouse effect. Modern civilization entails the use of cars, power stations and industrialization, which are factors that contribute to global warming. The main contributors to this process of global warming are the United States, the European counties and China (Global Warming).

In addition to carbon dioxide, which comprises more than half of the greenhouse gases, there are other gases that also contribute to the greenhouse effect. Methane is released due to activities like coal mining, oil excavations and the burning of fossil fuels. Agriculture is the chief contributor of methane and cattle emit methane into the atmosphere when they chew their food. As the world population increases, the activities of agriculture are also increased thereby the emissions of methane also increases.

Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas that is emitted during the burning of fossil fuels. Chlorofluorocarbons are emitted by air conditioners, refrigerators and aerosols and their molecules are ten thousand times more effective in absorbing heat than carbon dioxide molecules. Moreover, they survive for a hundred and ten years in the atmosphere (Global Warming). Oceans absorb carbon dioxide, but when the oceans heat up their ability to absorb carbon dioxide diminishes. Moreover, methane, which is located in the ocean bed, is released due to the warming of the oceans.

Global warming raises temperature levels and it has been observed that the temperature at poles rises more than that of other regions on the earth. This causes the melting of glaciers and ice at the poles, which would further raise the sea level. Occurrences of storms and hurricanes become more frequent due to global warming, because the heated oceans produce more water vapor. Continental farmlands suffer a greater depletion of water due to the heavy evaporation and there is decrease in the groundwater levels. These factors serve to increase the possibility of droughts.

Due to the melting of the polar ice caps the sea level may rise by twenty to fifty centimeters by the year 2050, which would result in the inundation of the coastal areas (Global Warming). In order to overcome the problem of global warming it is essential to contain fossil fuel combustions, ban the use of CFCs completely and plant more trees. Energy conservation will help to diminish fossil fuel burning and efforts have to be made to find alternate transportation modes that will replace petrol and diesel fuelled cars. Moreover, cars that meet the eco friendly standards only should be manufactured.

Deforestation should be completely stopped and afforestation should be initiated on a war footing. In the absence of such measures, the future of this planet is grim and life would be seriously endangered.

References Cause and effect for global warming. (n. d. ). Retrieved September 9, 2007, from http://timeforchange. org/cause-and-effect-for-global-warming Global Warming. (n. d. ). Retrieved Septeber 9, 2007, from http://www. ypte. org. uk/docs/factsheets/env_facts/glob_warm. html Webb, L. , Barlow, S. , & Whetton, P. (May 2007). Climate Change Raises the Heat on Wineries. Australasian Science , Vol. 28, Issue 4; Pg 20.

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 592

  • Pages: 2

Global Warming

Among The most profound environmental problems, Global Warming is one of the serious problem. Former vice president Al Gore takes his environmentally friendly political agenda to the big screen with the documentary ‘An Inconvenient Truth’. The film follows Gore’s platform of recognizing global warming as a worldwide problem. Gore says the truth must be revealed or there will be consequences to pay . Since the beginning of Industrial Revolution, atmospheric concentration of CO2 have increased by 30%, Methane concentration by 100% and Nitrous oxide concentration by about 15%.

These increases have enhanced the heat trapping capability of the Earth’s atmosphere. The combustion of coal, oil and natural gas accounts for most of the heat trapping greenhouse gases emitted by human activities. Most of the best and brightest in the world scientific community, however, believe we are heading for the trouble. But coal and petroleum products are abundantly used for moving the life cycle of people. Asking such people to slow down or choose more expensive alternative energies is asking for trouble.

Petroleum industry is very big industry In which there are millions of people employed and the millions of families thriving on this for their livelihood. To find out the solution of Global Warming merely alleging the petroleum industry and burning of fossil fuels then those millions of people who are depending on these industries are badly affected. There are so many other causes also which are responsible for the Global Warming like industrial revolution, nuclear radiations and emitting of green house gases. 98% of total global greenhouse gas emission are natural, mostly water vapour; the effect of water vapour is not well understood.

Some of the critics of Al Gore’s ‘Inconvenient of Truth’ says “ An Inconvenient Truth, Al Gore makes absurd remarks about global warming that stretch well beyond the IPCC claims. This clip demonstrates some of Gore’s various exaggerations on the subject of global warming”. There could be benefits in the wake of the planet’s warming. Increased rainfall, created by climatic fluctuations, in a semi arid region will raise agricultural productivity. Rising CO2 levels cause plants to grow faster and absorb more CO2, through photosynthesis.

Longer growing seasons may boost yields in northern Canada and Europe. In fact, a vast majority of scientists now believe that even an immediate and dramatic cut in global greenhouse gas emissions would not fully prevent climate change impacts. Even USA, world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases, is not willing to be subjected to any kind of restraint on their energy use. USA has not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The country claimed that if it has to implement the provisions of the Protocol, the economic losses will be heavy and will drive 5 million Americans out of work.

Policies to promote energy efficiency, in the long run, will improve economic performance, at the individual firm or country level. Global warming is a global problem calling for global solutions; no nation alone can defeat the problem. Industry must develop energy – efficient vehicles, consumer goods and production processes. “ Most important, individual households must contribute to emissions reduction through their power of consumer choice and their personal lifestyle decision”.

Reference: With inputs from “ Is Apocalypse Near, Far or Never? ” by G. Vijaya Raghavan & V S M Nair.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1832

  • Pages: 7

Global warming

What exactly are the causes of global warming? Is there anything that can be done about it? These are the questions that have become the main focus of arguments and lectures around the world regarding global warming. Global warming is a major Atmospheric issue that has been damaging our precious environment for many years. In recent years the issue of global warming has become an increasingly popular matter among society. Both the causes and effects of global warming have been the topic of heated debate not only among scientists, but among politicians, businesses, and general members of society as well.

Global warming is defined as a measurable increase in temperature of Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, and landmasses. Greenhouse gases have been pinpointed as the main cause of this increase in temperature. The burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas have caused a thirty-five percent increase in carbon dioxide (a highly potent greenhouse gas) since the 1750’s (MSN Encarta, 2008). Since the Industrial revolution in the mid 1700’s there has been a significant increase in the production of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases such as water vapor and methane occur naturally in the environment.

Other greenhouse gases, like hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride are created as a result of the industrial process which is used by humans (West, 2009). Greenhouse gases are the main contributing factor to global warming and climate change. These gases allow the Sun’s radiation to heat the earth, much like the glass panes in a greenhouse. These gases also prevent the escape of infrared energy that is radiated from the Earth, which ideally would escape into space (MSN Encarta, 2008). Apart from greenhouse gases, deforestation has also been recognized as a major contributing factor in global warming.

Deforestation is a negative impact on the environment caused specifically by humans. Large numbers of plants and trees are cut down every year to make way for farming and building. Plants and trees naturally absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen into the atmosphere. As mentioned before, carbon dioxide is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. Daniel Howden, a journalist for The Independent, stated that, “Scientists say one days’ deforestation is equivalent to the carbon footprint of eight million people flying to New York,” he also states that “If we lose forests, we lose the fight against climate change.

” Deforestation is specified as the second main contributor to global warming. Clearly, humans play a vital role in the causes of global warming. Scientists have already noticed a 40 percent reduction in thickness of Arctic Ice due to global warming and climate change (Bird, 2008). If ice continues to melt within these regions the sea level will rise and wipe out various islands and coastal cities. Many lives will be affected by global warming if something is not done to reverse or prevent its progression. Global warming awareness is slowly gaining momentum.

Many people have begun making changes within their own home in order to reduce their contribution to global warming and climate change. The growing movement towards ‘green’ products and services is rapidly becoming a key element of the building industry. With global awareness improving through political support, media coverage, and overall education, the rising popularity of environmentally safe products and materials have gained popularity. Reusable grocery bags, environmentally friendly cleaning products, and recycled paper goods are just a few products that are being sold in stores around the world.

With global warming being the topic of most environmental discussions, reducing greenhouse gases and improving energy efficiency have helped drive the use of renewable energy as a practical option to reduce the negative impact that humans have on the environment. Solar, wind, and hydropower are a few ‘clean’ alternatives to non-renewable resources like fossil fuels. These renewable resources produce little to no pollution or greenhouse gases, and unlike non-renewable resources, they will never run out because they are naturally replaced within nature (Laird, 2009).

Current sustainability strategies and solutions cover a wide range of global warming contributors. New York City’s advisory council has already come up with several ways to decrease negative effects on global warming throughout the city. The advisory council intends to make New York City the world model of a ‘green’ megacity (Darrell, 2007). One of the main sustainability plans for New York City is coming up with ways to cut traffic congestion, which is one of the main contributors to the pollution that causes global warming.

New York City is setting a good example for other heavily populated urban areas around the globe, and perhaps New York City’s sustainability plan will inspire other cities to develop sustainability plans of their own. Various approaches are being taken to decrease the adverse affects of greenhouse gases. Energy experts at McKinsey & Company created a detailed study that includes the different ways people can reduce their contribution to harmful greenhouse gases. The report states that rules for utilities could be rewritten so they make as much money in promoting conservation as they do in selling electricity.

It also mentions that emission limits and other government mandates may soon be required. Incentives like tax breaks might be proposed to help promote efficient buildings, cars, and appliances (Wald, 2007). Successful sustainability in global warming lies in the hands of people all over the globe. Every human being can play a part in reversing and preventing damage caused by global warming. It is not something that can be accomplished over night; it will take a continued effort to produce significant results. With a combined effort across the globe the rate of success will see a monumental increase.

Everyone is responsible for global warming in one way or another, and it will take effort from everyone to show initiative and do their part to repair our damaged environment. I have created a multi-step action plan for sustainability in relation to global warming. The first step in my proposed sustainability plan is to encourage people to take personal action and responsibility for their contribution to global warming. Children and young adults are easily influenced, and if we can get them involved in the sustainment plan it will ensure success in the future.

The second step is to alert and motivate business and political leaders into addressing global warming issues across the globe. If the government becomes more involved in global warming issues it will help raise awareness around not only in the United States, but around the world as well. The third and final step of this plan is to encourage continued efforts to solve the issues that contribute to global warming. Recycling centers, research centers, and community outreach programs should be set up across the world to help educate people about the importance of global warming.

Although this sustainability plan will not completely solve the issue of global warming, it will definitely contribute to global efforts in reducing negative human impacts on global warming. The following table provides a detailed breakdown of the steps proposed in this sustainability plan. Action Itemsfor sustainabilitySteps taken to achievesustainment goalsTimelineResearch the various ways people contribute to global warming. Encourage people to take personal action and responsibility. Request government funding to carry out sustainment plan. Apply for government grant to help fund sustainability plan in global warming.

Also ask large businesses across the country to donate to the cause. Contact environmental agencies and discuss ways to raise awareness among society. Work with these agencies to develop workshops and presentations. Contact local business across the country to help advertise. Review the history of global warming and its contributing factors like greenhouse gases and deforestation. Gather data and statistics for future use. Month 1-3Present the workshops and presentations at various locations across the country. Provide all communities with hands on workshops and presentations regarding their impact on global warming.

Make visits to colleges, high schools, and elementary schools to raise awareness. Month 3-5Contact all U. S. governmental leaders and government agencies to invite them to a lecture on global warmingWrite letters to government officials requesting their attendance at a lecture regarding global warming. Contact NYU to request the use of a campus lecture hall to be used for presenting the lecture. Contact scientists and environmentalists that specialize in global warming to speak at the lecture. Month 6-7Present lecture about global warming to government leaders.

Request additional funding to continue promoting and encouraging communities to become involved. Discuss the damage being done by deforestation, greenhouse gases, and non-renewable resources. Propose various alternatives to non-renewable resources (solar, wind, and hydropower. ) Discuss the damage that has already been done by global warming and what will happen if nothing is done. Request additional funding. Encourage the government’s involvement in global warming issues. Month 8To be successful in reducing and preventing the adverse affects of global warming it will take effort from all aspects of society.

Government officials, communities, and businesses across the world should work together to convey the importance of facing global warming head on as an international crisis. Education and knowledge are the two keys to understanding and preventing global warming. We may never be able to repair the damage that has already been done, but we can still work together to prevent any further destruction to our environment and the lives of all living things that exist here on earth.

References

Bird (2008). We Have Ways to Make You Green. Alternatives Journal, 34(1), 28-31. Retrieved April 3, 2009 from Research Library databaseDarrell, A. (2007).

New York City’s sustainability plan: A bold ‘greenprint’ for the city’s future. Environmental Defense Fund. Retrieved April 2, 2009 from http://blogs. edf. org/climate411/2007/04/23/new-york-citys-sustainability-plan-a-bold-greenprint-for-the-citys-future/Howden, D. (2007). Deforestation: The hidden cause of global warming. The Independent. Retrieved April 3, 2009 from http://www. independent. co. uk/environment/climate-change/deforestation-the-hidden-cause-of-global-warming-448734. htmlLaird, F. (2009). A Full-Court Press for renewable energy, issues in science and technology, 25 (2), 53-56.

Retrieved April 3, 2009, from MasterFILE Premier Database EBSCOWald, M. (2007, November 30). Study details how U. S. could cut 28% of greenhouse gases. The New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2009 from http://www. nytimes. com/2007/11/30/business/30green. html? _r=1West, L. (2009). What are greenhouse gases? About. com: Environmental Issues Retrieved April 2, 2009 from http://environment. about. com/od/faqglobalwarming/f/greengases. htmWest, L. (2009). Top 7 renewable energy sources. About. com: Environmental Issues. Retrieved April 3, 2009 from http://environment. about. com/od/renewableenergy/tp/renew_energy. htm

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Global Warming Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 2150

  • Pages: 9

Global Warming

Global warming is scientifically defined as the increase in the temperature of the earth as caused by human activities — such as burning coal, oil and natural gas. These actions cause the release of carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. These greenhouse gases form a blanket around the earth and traps heat and raising temperatures on the ground, which in turn results to a steadily changing climate (Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, undated, Glossary). A greenhouse gas either occurs naturally in the atmosphere or is man-made.

Natural greenhouse gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and ozone. Powerful man-made greenhouse gases include hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which are generated through various industrial processes. However, certain human activities add to the levels of most naturally occurring gases. For instance, carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere when solid waste, fossil fuels – like oil, natural gas, and coal – and wood are burned.

Another example is methane, which is emitted during the production and transport of natural gas, oil and coal. Nitrous oxide, on the other hand, is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels. Moreover, methane emissions result from decomposed organic wastes in municipal solid waste landfills, and livestock (Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, undated, Glossary). Greenhouse gases absorb heat in the atmosphere, but each gas differs in this ability.

HFCs and PFCs are known to be the most heat-absorbent, while methane traps over 21 times more heat per molecule than carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide absorbs 270 times more heat per molecule than carbon dioxide. Estimates of greenhouse gas emissions are often presented in units of millions of metric tons of carbon equivalents (MMTCE), which weighs each gas by its GWP value, or Global Warming Potential (Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, undated, Glossary). It is predicted that if global warming continues, the earth’s average temperature will rise by 2 degrees by the end of the 21st century.

There is overwhelming concern that the phenomenon will lead to the destruction of ecosystems caused by the sudden temperature changes and weather anomalies like heavy rains, droughts, and extreme heat, as well as the submersion of low-lying regions due to rising sea levels (NEC Corp. , undated, Glossary). Signs and Consequences of Global Warming Present scientific data show that the earth’s climate is changing rapidly. Global temperatures rose by about 1 degree Fahrenheit over the last century, and will likely increase more rapidly in the coming decades.

This is caused by the thickening layer of carbon dioxide pollution and other greenhouse gases, mostly from vehicles and power plants. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a team of premiere climate researchers, says that there is a more than 90 percent chance that emissions of man-made greenhouse gases has caused most warming in the last five decades (Natural Resources Defense Council, 2007, Introduction section, para. 1). The NRDC cites scientists as saying that the earth could warm by 7.

2 degrees Fahrenheit more in the 21st century if people do not reduce their emissions from burning fossil fuels. The increase in average temperature is going to have extensive effects: sea levels will go up and flood the coastal areas; heat waves will occur more frequently and more intensely; more droughts and wildfires will take place; and species will start to become extinct. In fact, many of these changes have already started to occur (Natural Resources Defense Council, 2007, Introduction section, para. 2).

The United Nations World Meteorological Association linked certain extreme weather events around the globe in 2007 to global warming, pointing out that heat-related and flood-related catastrophes can be considered as consequences of global warming, as well as signs of what is eminent if people do nothing to put a stop to the climate change affecting the earth due to greenhouse gas emissions (Shapley, 2007, Introduction section, para. 1). According to the 2007 World Meteorological Organization report, climate and weather are marked by record extremes in various regions around the world since January 2007.

In January and April 2007, it is likely that global land surface temperatures ranked warmest since records began in 1880 — 1. 89°C warmer than the average for January and 1. 37°C warmer than the average for April. Several regions had experienced very heavy precipitation that led to extreme floods. Moreover, the Fourth Assessment Report of the WMO/UNEP Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – IPCC — noted an increasing trend in extreme events that occurred in the last 50 years.

IPCC projected it to be very likely that hot extremes, heat waves and heavy precipitation events will continue to occur more frequently in the future (WMO Press Release No. 791, 2007, Introduction Section, para. 1). In terms of consequences brought by signs of global warming, the NRDC says that temperatures that are warmer increase the energy of the climatic system and cause more intense rainfall in certain areas. Today, the NRDC considers as signs of this consequence the fact that national annual precipitation rose between 5 and 10 percent since the early 20th century.

Moreover, the IPCC reported that heavy rains have become more frequent during the last 50 years. Also, NOAA statistics show that in 2006, the Northeast region experienced its wettest summer on record, exceeding the previous record by over an inch (Natural Resources Defense Council, 2007, “Climate Pattern Changes” section). Furthermore, more heat waves could result in more heat-related fatalities. These conditions could also worsen air quality problems. Warning signs today include a report that in 2003, intense heat waves caused around 35,000 deaths in Europe.

Nearly 15,000 of these deaths took place in France, where temperatures soared as high as 104 degrees Fahrenheit. Another instance is the severe heat wave experienced by North America in July 2006 (Natural Resources Defense Council, 2007, “Health Effects” section). Moreover, deadly heat waves cause the spread of diseases. Studies have found that an increased level of carbon dioxide contributes to increasing growth of weeds that hold allergy-triggering and asthma-causing pollens. In addition, disease-carrying mosquitoes spread as climate changes allow these insects to live and survive in what used to be “unfriendly” areas for them.

For one, dengue-causing mosquitoes that were previously limited to areas within 3,300 feet elevation were recently found in the Andes Mountains of Colombia, at 7,200 feet. Malaria has likewise been found in higher elevated areas in Indonesia (Natural Resources Defense Council, 2007, “Health Effects” section). Another consequence relates to more powerful and dangerous hurricanes. The NRDC explains that warmer water in the oceans brings in more energy into tropical storms, thus making them more intense and more damaging.

Current warning signs include the fact that the occurrence of category 4 and 5 storms has widely increased in the last 35 years. In addition, the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was considered to be the most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history — with a record 27 storms, 15 of which became hurricanes. Seven of these hurricanes progressed to become major storms, five became Category 4 hurricanes, and a record four reached Category 5. Hurricane Katrina in August 2005 was one of the deadliest hurricanes, and most costly one, in the history of the U. S. (Natural Resources Defense Council, 2007, “Warming Water” section).

Additional consequences of rising global temperatures are the melting of glaciers and early thawing of ice; the increase in rates of sea-level rise as a result both of ocean thermal expansion and melting of mountain glaciers and of the West Antarctic and Greenland ice caps, and which, in turn, cause the loss of coastal wetlands and barrier islands; the disappearance of some ecosystems, which include the alpine meadows in the Rocky Mountains; and the death of certain species and loss of species diversity (Natural Resources Defense Council, 2007, “Ecosystem Disruption” section).

According to “Solutions to Global Warming,” the loss of species is proven by the change in animal ranges due to changes in local climates. One example are walruses that are starving in the Bering Sea because they are adrift on ice flows in water that are too deep to feed, and the fact that frogs all over the world are dying too fast. When it comes to flora, plants are germinating earlier and earlier and moving farther and farther up north.

As an example, nearly four million acres of mature white spruce forest on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska have been killed by a growing population of spruce bark beetles since about 1987 (Willis, 2008, “What is the evidence of global warming? ” section). Perhaps the most apparent effect of global warming is that the sun’s heat is getting hotter. According to a NASA satellite data, solar radiation reaching the earth is 0. 036 percent warmer than it was in 1986. Moroever, a Swiss/German research team confirms that the sun is brighter now than it was 100-150 years ago (Willis, 2008, “What is the evidence of global warming?

” section). Solving Global Warming There are solutions available to dramatically cut global warming. People should put clean, innovative energy technologies to use and impose policies that encourage widespread adoption of these technologies. Instead of almost doubling global warming pollution in the United States by 2050, Americans can cut it by more than 50 percent using present technology (Natural Resources Defense Council, undated, Solving Global Warming). The NRDC is promoting a four-point plan on how to get started in solving the problem of global warming.

The first plan of action is to “boost energy efficiency. ” The cheapest and fastest way for one to help curb global warming pollution is to make things that utilize electricity more energy-efficient. People must continue pushing for products that waste less energy and promoting “green building” design and construction, which can reduce the amounts of energy that buildings consume in cooling, heating, lighting and water use (Natural Resources Defense Council, undated, “Boost energy efficiency” section).

The second plan of action as suggested by NRDC is “better cars and smart growth. ” The gasoline-burning vehicles in the U. S. are considered to be the second-largest source of global warming pollution in the country. Using hybrid engines and ready-to-go technologies in cars could almost double the mileage from a gallon of gas, thus saving a lot of money. By 2050, fuel-cell technologies and other advancements could boost efficiency to 54 miles per gallon.

Americans can lessen usage for oil further by adopting “smart growth” principles and by encouraging developers to build compact, walkable communities that encourage people to spend less time behind the wheel (Natural Resources Defense Council, undated, “Better cars and smart growth” section). The third plan of action involves “biofules and renewable energy. ” According to the NRDC, renewable energy is going mainstream – what with its business-friendly and cost-competitive characteristics and the facts that it is ready to meet America’s energy needs.

Wind power, NRDC says, is the fastest growing electricity generation form in the U. S. States, expanding at an annual rate of 20 percent-plus on average. Solar energy, on the other hand, employs over 20,000 Americans in high-tech, high-paying jobs. Also, clean-burning biofuels produced from plants are a promising replacement for gasoline. By 2050, biofuels and renewable energy could meet a huge and relevant portion of people’s energy necessities (Natural Resources Defense Council, undated, “Biofuels and renewable energy” section).

The fourth plan of action involves the “return of carbon to the ground. ” Coal is the most carbon-intense among fossil fuels, thus, reducing coal usage through energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies will be the cornerstones of global warming solution. However, there is the reality that hundreds of new coal-fired power plants will probably be constructed in coming years. Coal generates more than 50 percent of the electricity used today, and it is in abundant supply in countries like the U. S. , China, and India.

It is just a matter of choice. Power plants have a long lifespan – either we build new coal plants with dirty, 19th-century technologies and be locked in high levels of pollution for decades, or instead choose a 21st-century alternative by using existing technologies and convert coal into a clean-burning gas and dispose of the carbon dioxide deep underground. The latter choice would greatly reduce air pollution from dirty fuel (Natural Resources Defense Council, undated, “Return carbon to the ground” section)..

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Global Warming Essay

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Global Warming Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 651

  • Pages: 3

Global Warming

Global warming pertains to the increase in temperature of the atmosphere based on the entrapment of gases that are emitted from activities on the surface of the earth. The increase in temperature is a direct result of the greenhouse effect, which involves heat that originated from the sun, which is entrapped within the atmosphere due to several factors. Scientists have determined that the atmosphere’s temperature has increased since the industrial revolution, which has maximized the use of chemicals in manufacturing various kinds of materials in industry.

Global warming may result in regional changes in the weather, which will be more obvious if the weather were compared from one decade to another, and not on a daily basis. However, scientists have hypothesized that when the temperature of the surface of the earth has reached a highly critical level, such high temperature will cause severe and drastic changes to the atmosphere, affecting the oceans and will severely alter the weather patterns in a matter of years. Changes in the weather may include increasingly hot days and less cool days.

The water levels will go down, exposing more land surface during the summer. Even higher latitude regions will be warmer by 40%. In addition, the amount the precipitation, be it rain or snow, will also increase, in the form of stronger storms and very intense typhoons and hurricanes. The El Nino events may also be more increase due to global warming. Global warming not only affects the weather, but it will also affect natural habitats. Higher levels of CO2 may facilitate the growth of forests, facilitating them to flourish and bloom.

The warmer ocean waters will be helpful to fish and algae in the high seas. However, those organisms in higher elevations will find difficulty in surviving in warmer environments. Higher temperatures in oceans may kill corals, which are the nurseries for fishes and other aquatic organisms. For the human population, global warming may cause more incidents of infectious diseases such malaria, as well as systemic health problems such as heat stroke and respiratory diseases. Currently, the world is confused as society is ignorant of the detailed effects of global warming.

Society is aware the summers are now longer and more intense and winters are envious of summer’s wrath, unleashing a fury that rivals the intensity of the heat. This is actually what global warming does. It confuses the world and now currently has also succeeded in confounding scientists. From a scientific point of view, global warming can be understood as a global environmental phenomenon which is characterized by an increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s near-surface air and oceans (Smith and Reynolds, 2005).

There is certainly no doubt that global warming has a very detrimental effect on the environment as it causes rising sea levels and alters the amount and pattern of precipitation that a areas all over the world get (Gregory et al. , 2002). These environmental changes are also the projected causes of other ecological changes such as increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events which in turn creates changes in agricultural yields, glacier retreat, reduced summer stream flows, species extinctions and increases in the ranges of disease vectors (Choi and Fisher, 2003).

References

Choi O and Fisher A (2003): The impacts of socioeconomic development and climate change on severe weather catastrophe losses: Mid-Atlantic region (MAR) and the U. S. Climate Change Vol. 58, pp. 149. Gregory JM, Stouffer RJ and Raper SCG (2002): An observationally based estimate of the climate sensitivity. J. Climate 15(22):3117-21. Smith TM and Reynolds RW (2005): A global merged land–air–sea surface temperature reconstruction based on historical observations (1880–1997). J. Clim. 18(12): 2021-2036.

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Global Warming Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1837

  • Pages: 7

Global Warming

Global Warming is an issue that concerns almost everybody worldwide: it is the primary cause for the erratic and sometimes devastating weather that is experienced around the world. Global warming is causing the rise in sea level which in turn causes the flooding of coastal areas and areas with low elevation. Is global warming really happening today? Scientists with the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) believe it is so (Mank, 2005). It is indisputable that there has been a rise in the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere during the last century, which scientists think may be one of the causes of global warming.

The climate change however is not a direct result of the rise in greenhouse gases. Will global warming spell doom for our world? Scientists believe this to be so. “Much depends on what actions we take now and in the coming years. ” Meteorologist Jagadish Shukla of the University of Maryland found out that deforestation would cause rainfall in the Amazon River to decline by more than 26 percent from the current 2. 5 m. to about 1. 8 m. a year (Bellamy & Gifford, 2000). At the same time, the burning of fossil fuels, particularly coal and oil, produces sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides which are hazardous to the atmosphere.

Findings show that a single smokestack may produce as much as 500 tons of sulfur dioxide a day. When these gases combine with oxygen and moisture, sulfuric acid and nitric acid is formed. The rain will carry the acids to the ground (acid rain) which may cause the depletion of calcium and magnesium in the soil, elements needed by plants for the formation of chlorophyll and wood, or it may cause the release of aluminum in the soil, which are poisonous and can kill the roots of trees (Carwardine, 2000).

This study intent to: (1) know the effect of global warming worldwide thus knowing the global warming and doomsday and; (2) widen our knowledge about the ozone slayer and do the humans are the reasons of causing global warming or if its just a natural process that the earth goes through. II. Literature Review Ozone is an unstable oxygen that occurs naturally in the atmosphere (also called isothermal region), the upper portion of the atmosphere above 7 miles where clouds are rare.

The ozone layer absorbs the dangerous ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays while it allows the needed safe light to pass through. Though easily broken down by other gases in the stratosphere, it is constantly being repaired by the sun’s rays. However, man is destroying the ozone layer which serves as a protective umbrella against the sun’s harmful rays. In fact, the ozone layer is destroyed faster than the sun’s rays can produce it. It is being destroyed by industrial gases like CFCs (Johnston, 2000). CFCs was discovered by Thomas Widgley Jr.

, a chemist working at the Frigidaire Division of General Motors but were discovered hazardous in 1974—only after 44 years of use, used as coolants in refrigerators and air conditioners and aerosol propellants in spray cans, medical sterilizers, cleaning solvents for electronic components and raw materials for making plastic foams such as coffee cups. CFCs are estimated to account for 14 percent of global warming. It is dismaying to know that ozone depletion can be found in the south (Antarctica) and north (Greenland) poles (Dolan, 2006).

According to British scientist Joe Farman, 40 percent of ozone depletion can be found in the South Pole. At the South Pole is a huge vortex with clouds composed of tiny ice particles, giving chlorine millions of tiny spaces through which it can perform its deadly dance with ozone even faster (Simpson, 2000). Both holes at the poles are seasonal, opening and closing each year. In the northern hemisphere, a more populous region, ozone depletion rate is between three percent and seven percent for 17 years, as compared previously to only three percent for100 years.

On the other hand, what are the effects of Ultraviolet-B rays to human beings and the ecosystem in general? To humans, they can cause skin cancer and cataract and damage the immune system. To the ecosystem, they can kill planktons (basic element of the ocean food chain), destroy plant life and crops and change global wind and weather patterns. In 1978, Canada, Sweden, the United States and other countries banned the use of CFCs in aerosols. However, other uses of CFCs were found, effecting an increase in its production. The US still uses one-fourth of the world’s annual supply of CFCs (Turner, 2000).

However, in September 1987, 24 nations cooperated for the first time to solve this environmental problem and passed the Montreal Protocol. The agreement issued a call for developed nations to freeze the use and production of CFCs while cutting 50 percent of use and production by 1999. Still, the CFCs currently rising through the troposphere will take seven to 10 years to drift up to the stratosphere. The troposphere is the portion of the atmosphere that is below the stratosphere, extending outward about seven to 10 miles from the earth’s surface (Bellamy & Gifford, 2000). III.

Methodology In order to accomplish this study, the researcher used two different methods to make the investigation more informative, accurate, and successful. Aside from gathering information through internet, the researcher gathered information through statistics, charts, and observation. IV. Results and analysis During the earliest times, the life-styles of our ancestors were very simple. The air they breathed was clean. The streams were clear and free of harmful organisms. They used natural fertilizers for their agricultural crops. The surroundings were free of household throwaways.

Today, there has been a tremendous growth in science and technology. Such advances have brought about changes in terms of new products, improved equipment, and more effective methodologies. Unfortunately, this same technology which made life easier for us produced wastes which are now affecting the quality of our surrounding, air, water, and land. Factories and motor vehicles send tons of pollutants into our air. Excessive air pollution poses a danger to our health and environment. It can likewise cause stunted growth and even death to our plants.

Out streams are polluted by discharges from industrial plants that use chemicals. Garbage and sink wastes are carelessly thrown in our surroundings. Synthetic fertilizers and insecticides pollute our land and farm products (Johnston, 2000). At the same time, the burning of fossil fuels, particularly coal and oil, produces sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides which are hazardous to the atmosphere. Findings show that a single smokestack may produce as much as 500 tons of sulfur dioxide a day. When these gases combine with oxygen and moisture, sulfuric acid and nitric acid are formed (Jenner, 1999).

The rain will carry the acids to the ground (acid rain) which may cause the depletion of calcium and magnesium in the soil, elements needed by plants for the formation of chlorophyll and wood, or it may cause the release of aluminum in the soil, which are poisonous and can kill the roots of trees. Moreover, nitrous oxide or “laughing gas’ is a colorless gas with a sweet taste and odor that is used as an anesthetic in minor surgery that H2O is responsible for about 6 percent of the human contributes to greenhouse warming.

Methane or “cow gas,” on the other hand, makes up about 18 percent of human contributions to greenhouse effect. Cattle, sheep, goats, and other cud-chewing animals give off methane, in burps and flatulence as they digest (Cairncross, 2002). Experts said that what is happening right now is not a matter of adding a few degrees to the average temperature of a community. A rise of this magnitude may cause life, for without the environment, creatures on earth cannot survive (Davidson, 1999). CFCs are estimated to account for 14 percent of global warming.

Experts said that what is happening right now is not a matter of adding a few degrees to the average temperature of a community. A rise of this magnitude may cause life, for without the environment, creatures on earth cannot survive With these, are we all aware of the extent of the damages brought about by modernization? Have we contributed to such environmental dilemma? What have we done to minimize such danger to our lives? How can we take care of our environment? We must undertake measures to preserve our resources and minimize utilization of energy before it’s too late.

Our fight against pollution is an initial step toward conserving our environmental resources and energy. We must all join hands for this common goal. If present day emissions of greenhouse gases continue, it is estimated that the rate of increase in global mean temperatures will reach about 0. 30 0C per decade. This will mean a likely increase of 1 0C above the present level by the year 2025, and 30 0C before the end of the next century. A. Resolution a. ) Recycling and Reuse of Solid Wastes Solid wastes are now viewed as a potential resource which must be recovered and reused whenever possible.

Since disposal forest resources are rapidly being depleted, recycling solid wastes offer a solution to both. Consider the element phosphorus. Mined from phosphate ores, it is manufactured into fertilizers. It enters the plant tissues and we obtain it when we eat plant as vegetable. This is later excreted and joins the sewage system. The sewage system sludge can be used directly as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Used bottles can be used over and over again. Durable plastic containers can be saved for more household uses.

Tires can be recapped and used again. Old clothing materials are used as kitchen towels and bags (see Environment Matters: Industry’s Guide to the Issues, the Challenges and the Solutions, 1999). If the materials cannot be used over several times, then they can be shredded and converted into a new form. Old newspapers are repulped into new paper. Broken glasses are ground and manufactured into new ones. Tires are processed to raw rubber. Protein leftovers are manufactured into animal feeds. b. ) Conserving our Forests

Every now and then we receive alarming news about our forests being denuded. Big logging concessionaires indiscriminately cut down trees without undertaking reforestation measures. Without trees, the soil is loosened and rapid erosion occurs. As a result fertile topsoil is washed away, which makes growth of other forms of vegetation almost impossible. We suffer great loss of timber, wildlife, and other forest products. But the greatest danger is the occurrence of floods and global warming that cause losses of food, properties, and lives (Davidson, 1999).

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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1780

  • Pages: 7

Global Warming

In this entire article I will be discussing global warming, especially its effects on glaciers and on environment. Before discussing the effects of global warming it is important to understand what actually global warming is? It is defined as an average increase in earth’s temperature due to which the frequency of disasters like droughts floods and earthquake increases which accounts for the accumulation of green house gases in the atmosphere. There are various reasons for global warming and one of the most alarming causes is green house gases which include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous and water vapor.

In recent years the proportion of these gases has increased massively due to industrialization and modernization. Now a question arises that how industrialization led to this massive increase? And the answer is excessive use of road vehicles which emit loads of carbon dioxide besides this we have cut all the plants by roadside which could take in carbon dioxide. Another reason is intense deforestation, which has further increased the ration of carbon dioxide in air. Also burning of fossils for the purpose of generation of electricity is one of its causes. What are Glaciers?

Glaciers are formed by snow which overlap over the period of time forming a thick ice mass. These ice masses with the rise in temperature begins to melt and again forms a fresh layer of snow and this how the glacier gets bigger over time. They have been the largest source of fresh water and reservoirs after oceans. Glaciers are there in each continent of the world. Effects of global warming on Glaciers: In recent years the worrying factor is rapid melting of glacier due to increased temperature as compare to snow which replaces it, however if this continues the glacier will vanish soon.

This is one of the serious effects of global warming thus resulting in a change in the mountain environment and which in turn is likely to bring about an intense change in the climatic condition of earth which will further bring change in habitats. Melting of glaciers will considerably increase the water level of seas and oceans because of which small countries are expected to sink and the water will overwhelm on the coastal areas. Like glaciers of national parks are shrinking inch by inch, day by day with the passage of time like all other glaciers around the world due to warm temperature.

The change are not sever or harmful on day to day basis but will result in huge and devastating disasters over decades. Besides, glaciers add beauty to the environment and warm temperatures are melting these glaciers and eroding the natural beauty. More than half of the well known glaciers of national park have shrunk while many of the small glaciers of park have disappeared. Antarctica has and will suffer a lot from melting glaciers. Increased temperature in Antarctica region have warmed to 4.

5 degrees Fahrenheit in last few years which is considered as the highest and most rapid increase around the world. Another astonishing fact is the collapse of ice- shelves in Antarctica which had been stable for 20,000 years. Melting of glaciers worldwide has become a hot issue these days and its prevention cost is extensively high and is estimated at 3% of world GDP. Another argument by a Chinese glaciologist zhang wenjing is, glaciers are able to absorb heat during the global warming process and can reverse the effects of global warming.

He further added that 20 square million kilometers of world’s glaciers and huge oceans will not let this phenomenon to increase rapidly. However another report claims that Himalaya glaciers are retreating by 10 to 15 meters on yearly basis due to rise in temperature and can have adverse effects on the social, economical and ecological system of its inhabitant as they are the main source of water. Effect on Environment: Effect on climate: Scientists believe that by 2050 the temperature of the globe will heat up within 2 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit.

Scientists have developed models to forecast the change in temperature simpler models are able to forecast variation within a region whereas typical models are expected to measure changes across hundreds of thousands of square miles and it has predicted that all the European countries are anticipated to follow a similar climatic projection despite of the fact that each country has unique rainfall, seasonal and snowfall patterns. Furthermore the summers in mid-latitude will become drier. These effects may disrupt the civilization and biosphere. As the temperature increases the oceans will evaporate more yielding more clouds and rainfall.

According to an author jonathan wiener of “The Next One Hundred” every year 500,000 of water rise and fall between sky and ocean and it is believed that about 25,000cubic kilometers will increase as a cause of global warming. The excessive amount of rain is expected to fall in areas where it is not required, subtropical areas are probable to experience heavy rainfall and floods whereas temperate zones will face droughts. On contrary for countries like Canada warmer climate indicate extended growing seasons with comparatively more rainfall which will ensure improved crop production in many areas.

However in Western Europe and California snow packs are estimated to melt soon bringing in more rainfall and river water especially in spring season leaving behind a drier weather for crops when required essentially. Birds and Animals: Global warming is likely to affect the length of season, winters will become too short. This will imbalance the entire system and will greatly affect bird and animals as in winter birds get hide and definitely it will further disturb their feeding schedule and time particularly in young birds and the accessibility of food for them.

Some animals consider climatic changes as a signal for migration or preparing themselves for other season but global warming will give rise to confusion in animals because of this chance of losing their migratory routes increases. Farmers: The farmer plant seeds according to the season and nature of the crop keeping in mind the desired amount of rain necessary for its production as mentioned earlier that global warming enhances the probability of cyclones, droughts, thunderstorm and other natural disasters which heavily affect the yield production.

Moreover, by climatic changes the seasons get affected and so the rainfall because of which it is hard to predict the sowing and harvesting timings of the crop. This will lead to the scarcity of food and will have hazardous effects on living lives and will create panic in the society. Species: Due to global warming species are getting extinct like golden toad and harlequin have vanished and there is a great threat to number of other species to disappear as a result of global warming seeing that for many species cold weather is more conducive, hence global warming is creating trouble for their survival.

a number of variation has been observed in animals as they respond significantly to warmer climate. Their behavior pattern shows that they have began to shift their population toward north and higher altitudes. A study was conducted in California on small butterfly and approximately 150 areas were catered, study showed that the number of butterfly decreased in southern region as compared to northern regions which proves that butterfly prefer cooler zones. Increase in Diseases:

As of global warming numerous diseases have emerged, they are the product of amplified temperature because bacteria can live better in an elevated temperature and also multiplies easily in favorable conditions like mosquito production have increased which in turn add to malaria disease due to this global warming. Now we can well imagine how dangerous this global warming could be? We are gathered around so many diseases which are nothing but simply an effect of global warming and we are unaware of the fact that our live is also endangered.

If it continues to happen the life expectancy will decrease and death rate is estimated to double up to 300,000 deaths per year within 25 years particularly in high altitude regions. Effect on Vegetation: Global warming will also affect the availability of vegetation on the earth surface like tundra vegetation is soon expected to alter to temperate, cold and evergreen forest and woody type of forest will increase as a reason of increased precipitation. Hence there will be a drastic change in the variety of vegetation available in an area and this is expected to bring a change in inhabitant of that area.

Effect on marine life: Marine life is very much sensitive to the changes, changes in climate; sea level and length of the seasons stamp an adverse affect on these innocent lives. A survey was conducted to check the responsiveness of marine live to the changes in water level and it was found that many of the marine species tend to disappear or die due to increase in water surface, few of the specie for whom warm water is favorable their population can strike gigantic levels. Most threaten changes are predictable to reflect in coral reefs and they are probable to die off.

This melting of polar ice will end up harming many animals. Acidified water: Oceans all around the world absorb carbon dioxide produced by all living organism, burning of fossils and through all other human activities that gather on the bed for the formation of limestone or chalk. It is said that oceans have observed 50% of all carbon dioxide evolved from human activities ever since 1800.

Carbon dioxide when combined with water forms a weak acid called carbonic acid and green house gases have said to lower the PH ( acidity) of water by 0. 1to8.2 units on a 14 points scale and it is expected to decline further by 0. 5 by 2100. Increased acidification will have an injurious affects on corals and other marine lives especially ones with calcium carbonate shells, and also in the reproduction of fishes and their food planktons.

References.

Glaciers Melting and Species Extinction. mht Global warming – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. mht http://www. rpi. edu/~ngok/Global%20Warming/effects. html http://www. sierraclub. org/energy/articles/glacier. asp http://www. effectofglobalwarming. com/ http://www. bloggernews. net/1749

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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 622

  • Pages: 2

Global Warming

Every day we go about our own business. Many of us never take the time to look around and see how we are affecting our earth’s atmosphere. Everywhere you look today you are bound to see some factory or machinery polluting our air. Just think how many times you have seen those large semi trucks or big fossil fuel factories emitting thick dark smoke into the atmosphere. We need to come to reality and realize that all that polluting we have been doing over the last half-century is finally catching up to us.

It is very easy to detect through scientific research that our earth’s climate is changing, Time magazine reports in its 2004 issue that the earth’s average temperature is increasing at a steady rate. Yes, we all have heard the term “global warming”, however many people don’t know in depth what global warming is, or how our actions will affect our earth if we don’t respond to the issue. If we can educate ourselves on what global warming is and how it will affect us in the near and far future, we can then begin to change our old habits of polluting and create new habits and goals to living in a much healthier and cleaner environment.

During the earliest times, the life-styles of our ancestors were very simple. The air they breathed was clean. The streams were clear and free of harmful organisms. They used natural fertilizers for their agricultural crops. The surroundings were free of household throwaways. Today, there has been a tremendous growth in science and technology. Such advances have brought about changes in terms of new products, improved equipment, and more effective methodologies. Unfortunately, this same technology which made life easier for us produced wastes which are now affecting the quality of our surrounding air, water, and land.

Factories and motor vehicles send tons of pollutants into our air. Excessive air pollution poses a danger to our health and environment. It can likewise cause stunted growth and even death to our plants. Out streams are polluted by discharges from industrial plants that use chemicals. Garbage and sink wastes are carelessly thrown in our surroundings. Synthetic fertilizers and insecticides pollute our land and farm products. At the same time, the burning of fossil fuels, particularly coal and oil, produces sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides which are hazardous to the atmosphere.

Findings show that a single smokestack may produce as much as 500 tons of sulfur dioxide a day. When these gases combine with oxygen and moisture, sulfuric acid and nitric acid is formed. The rain will carry the acids to the ground (acid rain) which may cause the depletion of calcium and magnesium in the soil, elements needed by plants for the formation of chlorophyll and wood, or it may cause the release of aluminum in the soil, which are poisonous and can kill the roots of trees. How can we take care of our environment?

We must undertake measures to preserve our resources and minimize utilization of energy before it’s too late. Our fight against pollution is an initial step toward conserving our environmental resources and energy. We must all join hands for this common goal. Furthermore, of all issues affecting humanity, climate change is the most pervasive and truly global, posing a very real and serious threat to our environment. Climate change is the alteration of the pattern of global climate that may be due to human activity that alters the composition of the atmosphere.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 2441

  • Pages: 10

Global warming

Global warming refers to the increase in the average global temperatures which is caused by greenhouse effects that arise due to greenhouse gases. Energy from the sun heats the earth’s surface and some is absorbed as some is radiated back in to space. The greenhouse gases, which include carbon dioxide, nitric acid and methane form a layer or “blanket” between the earths’s surfaces to rise.

The gases can penetrate into the earth and into the atmosphere and they control how much energy is retained or radiated through infrared radiation. Other greenhouse gases include fluorinated industrial gases like hydrofluorocarbors (HFC’s), Perfluorocarbons (PFC’s) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Water vapor is also considered a greenhouse gas. Although the greenhouse effect is beneficial because it ensures that the earth is not very cold by retaining some heat on the earth’s surface, influencing it negatively would be harmful.

According to a report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), which was carried out by scientists from the UK Hadley Center and funded by the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs showed that human activity is the primary cause of observed climate changes. Human beings influence the global climate when they emit key greenhouse gases, which include carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Industries that emit such gases in their production process contribute to the global climate change. (http://www. defra. gov. uk/environment/climate)

According to a documentary aired on the National Geographic Channel in Britain on August 9th 2003 titled ‘what’s up with the weather’ the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere were at repay high levels in the past 450,000 years. There has been a long debate in the U. S on whether the current climate change is as a result of human activities. With some arguing that global warming is politicized to attract attention of the masses. Supporters of the idea that global warming causes climate changes and is all due to man’s activity face criticism and ridicule.

Despite the allegations global warming effects are here with us we can not deny. Butterflies are moving towards the North where there are higher attitudes and there are concerns that the diversity of wildlife could decline in future. Long term trends towards earlier spring are being observed as flowering and reproduction of plants and birds’ species has reduced their long processes. All these are evidences that climate is changing which can be attributed to global warming. Although man cannot change his behavior at least he can try to adapt to fit in well into the environment without harming it.

(Houghton, 2005) Causes Global warming is caused by natural factors and human activities. It is observed that after industrialization came about there has been more warming in the earth’s crust. Therefore man’s activities in contributing to global warming cannot be underscored. He may directly lead to global warming by releasing directly into the atmosphere the greenhouse gases for instance when burning coal or he can do it indirectly by using products that promote emission of greenhouse gases. (Hardy, 2003) In the face of globalization energy is very important.

Most industries are adopting electricity as a source of energy as it is clean, efficient and convenient. In 2002 about 40% of the carbon dioxide emission in the atmosphere was as a result of burning fossil fuels for generating electricity. Coal burning accounts for 93% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and thus contributes to global warming. (Micheal, 2005) The transportation sector also contributes to global warming. According to the 2004 US emission Inventory vehicles with poor gas mileage contributed a lot to global warming .

This occurs as gasoline is being heated in internal combustion of cars and light trucks. This sector contributes to approximately 20% of US total emissions of carbon dioxide. Aviation industry also contributes to global warming to a tune of 3. 5%. This is predicted to be 5 times more by 2050 by the United Nation Intergovernmental panel due to the fact that the flow of air transport is increasing with lowered fares because of competition. Light duty vehicles like SUV’s and minivans sales increase impacted more on the greenhouse effects since driving intensified due to the affordability this led to demand for more gas.

Man constructs building structures that takes up heat and takes long to cool down contributing more heat reserved in the earth’s surface. Building more structure translates into retaining more heat and this eventually leads to global warming. Land use practices contribute to global warming. Trees are vital in ensuring natural regulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. They also form a cover that affects the radiation process by determining what levels of heat will be retained or radiated. Human settlement is a reason for continued deforestation.

As population levels rises more and more forests are cleared. Trees are also cut for logging purposes. Trees absorb CO2 from decaying trees and plants. They provide timber for construction purposes they are also cut to paper production. Deforestation contributes to approximately 25% of CO2 in to the atmosphere. Today there is much wastage of papers for instance toilet paper and serviettes this leads to global warming due to the fact that more trees will be cut for paper production. This eventually leads to global warming. Man’s activity at home can also cause global warming.

Technology has brought about invention of electronic devices all of which require energy and electricity is mostly the preferred. The technology is useful as it ensures that time and energy is saved by a large proportion. Appliances like lawnmowers and heaters in houses precipitate the burning of more coal to provide electricity and this leads to global warming. http://www. epa. gov/climate/climatechange/emmisions/ind-home. html Composition of waste products by man causes the production of methane, which is a greenhouse gas. According to U. S Environmental Protection Agency each pound of trash thrown away emits approximately 0.

94 pounds of CO2 during decomposition. Global warming occurs naturally due to the amount of heat produced by the sun. Changing variations in the earth’s orbit around the sun may affect the time and amount of solar energy received on the earth. This will affect the amount of energy reflected and absorbed. Orbital variations are believed to be behind the ice ages. Aerosols which are fine particles and droplets that are suspended into the earth’s surface affect the amount of solar energy that is reflected or absorbed and are thus contributors of global warming.

The social effects caused by extreme effects of global warming include poverty and changing attitudes due to shock. Exposure to such calamities is destructive to man’s health as it causes death, injury as well as stress related disorders. Standards of living lower for the affected people as their houses and means of earning are destroyed. At the times of such disasters they are deprived of social needs. Social evils could arise as such calamities create disorder in society. Due to disaster effects the affected may in changing topography cause disputes among nations. (O’Hare at al, 2005). Effects

The effects of global warming are detrimental and it’s feared to be contributing to current climate changes. It is associated with the frequent floods, drought and hurricane patterns that are facing the world today. According to the World Metrological Organization the 90’s had higher temperatures and are thus considered the warmest decade. Extreme weather patterns are believed to result from the warming of the climate. More hurricanes and drought are expected to arise due to global warming. There will be longer spells of heat or intense rainfall depending on which part of the earth one is.

Scientists point out that the Northern European region could experience colder weather and the Arctic could begin sending fresher waters to the further South cutting off the Gulf Stream and making countries like Britain warmer. The Himalayan glaciers are also feared to retreat resulting to water scarcity in the long run. (Hodges, 2000) Super storms are feared to increase with global warming. The recent case of hurricane in the Caribbean Islands and parts of the South Eastern United States is a good example. It led to massive destruction of property resulting from such catastrophic events.

Again lives were lost and people’s livelihood was affected with some children rendered orphans and homeless. Disruptions in temperatures would result to extinction of species of animals and plants, which will not be able to adapt to the new conditions. The overall effect will be massive extinction will lead to environmental crisis. It will also lead to sudden collapse of biological systems. Global warming can cause a vicious circle in the sense that accumulation of greenhouse gases will destroy the ozone layer which will cause mechanism causing more warming.

Again on reaching a certain level huge amount of carbon dioxide trapped in the permafrost causing disastrous effects on the earth’s surface. The sea levels are also expected to rise as the polar caps begin to melt. This will have detrimental effects on people near coasts or major rivers as will have be displaced. Climate change could result due to global warming . It is feared that pests and diseases would increase causing negative effects on crops and humanity. Diseases like malaria would result due to flooding especially in less developed countries. Agricultural production could be negatively affected being a threat to food security.

Floods for instance will wash away crops while change of climate will have negative implications on crops that are unable to adapt. Prevention of global warming Since man is a key contributor he should be at the forefront in the process of curbing global warming. At the individual level people can use alternative sources of energy for their appliances for instance solar energy, which doesn’t have very adverse effects Burning coal to produce electricity should be replaced by hydroelectric power, wave energy or solar energy which are all environmentally friendly. (Micheal, 2005)

Preserving energy by switching off the unused switches and sockets translates to reduced demand for electricity and burning up of coal. It will be a positive movement in preventing global warming. Replacing inefficient homes will ensure less wastage to energy loss and properly insulting homes will ensure less wastage of electrical energy. Buying vehicles with proper gas mileage will ensure that the gas is not lost in the internal combustion heat of cars. Efficient cars promote efficient use of energy thus reducing global warming. Another cause of global warming is industries that produce nitrous oxide which is an important greenhouse gas.

Man creates it during nitric acid production and in nylon productions. Nitric acid is used by man for important use like in fertilizer production and for cars with catalytic converters. Fertilizers are important in agriculture as they boost the production. The fertilizer industry also creates employment in its production, distribution and sale. Human beings therefore have to come to find ways to address the two opposing issues to establish a balance. Traffic jam contributes to global warming and is caused by family members using different vehicles even when going towards the same direction.

This can be reduced by family cars being used to transport all members. Again public transport use will contribute to a greater effect the reduction of global warming. Lesser amount of gas will be used and flow of transport will be manageable. Alternative methods or modes of transport can also be adapted like walking, bicycles, motorbikes or using public transport. Developing organic farming will reduce the emission of green house gases that would otherwise be produced through fertilizer production. Introducing other packaging materials rather than nylon paper bags will also reduce global warming effects.

This is because production of nylon paper bags produce nitric dioxide, which is a green house gas. Recycling is also an important act in ensuring that the global temperatures do not rise. It will reduce the production process that results in emission of greenhouse gases. Reduced waste disposal will also reduce global warming as there will be reduced decomposition. Lack of clear government legislations on illegal logging has contributed to deforestation at higher levels contributing to global warming. If such countries form clear and strict restrictions they would be solving the world at large from increased warming.

International companies should be regulated by international environmental rules and regulations to ensure that deforestation and emission of greenhouse gases is reduced Since poor communities clear forests for cultivation and grazing purposes. The developed countries should assist them so that they do not destroy the environment which results to global effects. Planting more trees will ensure natural CO2 regulation. Abatement measures will ensure that industries in a country do not carelessly affect the global temperatures by production of greenhouse gases.

It will ensure that companies do not make excessive profits at the expense of the environment. Continued information dissemination about effects and causes of global warming will remove the arrogance or ignorance that could result from lack of such knowledge. Incorporating environmental studies and especially on global warming in the school’s curriculums will see to it that students understand the plight of global warming to mankind at an early age. Investment in low carbon technologies will go along way in ensuring that the adverse effects of global warming are not felt.

It will see to it that the adverse effects of global warming are not felt. It will see to it that lesser greenhouse gases are released in to the atmosphere. The media can play a vital role in disseminating the important of environmental conservation through changes man’s behaviors. There are those believes that global warming is a wide spread imagined risk. People should use vehicles that emit lesser amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere “sporty vehicles” should be substituted for cheaper and better efficient ones which emit less carbon dioxide. (http://www. pce. govt. nz/reports/pc-report-glosary. html)

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1608

  • Pages: 6

Global Warming

Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of both the earth’s near surface air and the oceans. The temperature increase began in mid twentieth century and is predicted to continue into the future. For example during the last hundred years ending in 2005, the earth’s surface air temperature increased with the earth’s surface air temperature increasing by 0. 74I +/- 0. 180C (Thomas, C. D, 2004). The increasing global temperature causes changes an example being the sea level rise, which is consequently expected to increase the occurrence of extreme weather events (hurricane, floods, famine).

In addition, the amount and pattern of precipitation is affected by increasing global temperature. The effects of global warming have been in the past disastrous and may be very disastrous even in the future. Other climatic change effects include, low agricultural yields, trade routes, glacier retreat, species extinctions and disease vectors increase. The paper will discuss the causes of global warming, the effects and measures that have been taken to reduce it. Discussion Causes of Global warming

The greenhouse gases emissions have greatly contributed to global warming and still continue to be a threat even in the modern world. Examples of greenhouse gases are, carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor and nitrous oxide. Carbon dioxide emissions may come from the power generating plants, vehicles, airplanes and industrial pollution. Carbon dioxide from the power plants stems from the electricity generation through fossil fuels burning. Coal as a raw material accounts for a high percentage of the carbon dioxide emissions due to its use in the electricity utilizing industry.

For example in 2002, 40% of U. S. carbon dioxide emissions was estimated to be from fossil fuel burning. As compared to the natural gas ,coal emits much more carbon per unit of energy. Fuel used by vehicles through internal combustion engines emits carbon dioxide by burning of the gasoline. Examples of cars and light trucks that have internal combustion engines include the minivans, sport utility vehicles, pick-up trucks and jeeps. The vehicles with poor gas mileage contribute most to global warming with the aviation industry causes an estimated 3.

5 per cent of the global warming, according to the United Nation’s Intergovernmental Panel. It is also estimated that carbon dioxide emissions may come from structural buildings though in much smaller amounts. Methane ranks second after carbon dioxide as a green house gas that contributes to global warming and it is considered to be more than 20 times effective in trapping heat compared to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere . Sources of methane gas include the rice paddies, fossil fuel production and bogs (through bacteria).

Water vapor can be termed as the most powerful greenhouse gas, though its increase is a result of other greenhouse gases. Two-thirds of heat is held by the water vapor, where the heat has been trapped by all the other greenhouse gases. Another greenhouse gas is the Nitrous Oxide (N2O), commonly known as the ‘laughing gas’. The oceans and rain forests are natural producers of nitrous oxide. The man-made sources of nitrous oxide include the nylon and nitric acid production, agricultural use in farms, cars with catalytic converters and organic matter burning.

All these greenhouse gases have contributed greatly to increase in global temperatures with a high percentage being as a result of human activities. Another human activity that encourage warming apart from fossil fuel burning is the deforestation of natural habitats, (Ruddiman, W. F. 2005). The increase in demand for fuel has encouraged cutting and burning of about estimated 34 million acres of trees each year. Millions of acres of the rain forests are being lost every year from deforestation activities where burning of trees for fuel emits carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and f reduces the absorption rate of carbon by the forests.

Natural sources of global warming include the ocean emissions and frozen wetlands of the North Pole and South Pole,( Ruddiman, W. F. 2005). Permafrost in frozen wetlands have carbon trapped in the soil which is released into the atmosphere after the soil layer is thawed due to human interference. Volcanic eruptions have also been recorded to emit high amounts of carbon in the atmosphere that may contribute to global warming. Effects of Global warming. The effects of global warming are numerous and varied , both to the environment and human life.

One major effect of global warming is the extreme weather conditions whereby the increase in precipitation is related to the temperature increases. Changes in climate results to natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, storms and even famine (Hansen, J. 2000). Most recently, the hurricane Katrina in USA that caused death and property damage has been said to probably have occurred as a result of global climatic changes. There has been an increase in the storm strength, indicated by the hurricane intensity of the proper dissipation index (Emmanuel . K, 2008).

The local climates are destabilized, a good example being the temperature rise of 10c to 30C in the northern hemisphere Arctic region with glaciers retreating or disappearing over the many years of global warming. Glacier retreats have been observed in Andes, Alps, Himalayas, Rocky mountains and North Cascades. The sea level rises with temperature rise due to warming, which affects the coastal ecosystems (both in the ecosystem functioning and survival of aquatic species). In addition, warming reduces the ocean’s ability to absorb carbon dioxide through the natural processes.

For instance, absorption of carbon dioxide from living organisms (dissolved gas or skeletons of marine creatures that become limestone). High levels of carbon dioxide from industrial wastes in water , forms carbonic acid which lowers the water P. H. Increased acidification may have detrimental effects on the corals and other marine organisms with calcium carbonate shells (Larry, O. 2006). Economic costs of global warming emerge from damages on property and infrastructure, plus human and animal diseases and other health disorders from pollution (gas emissions).

In the agriculture sector, crop yields have reduced due to side effects of high levels of ground level Ozone gas while the rain-fed agriculture is affected by the vulnerability of climatic conditions caused by global warming. Global warming combined effects can be very harsh to people or states that lack resources to mitigate them. Furthermore, ecosystems are predicted to change in future, if global temperature continues to rise and some species may be at a risk of extinction. However, increased temperature and carbon dioxide may be said to have a positive effect of improving ecosystems productivity (Thomas, C.

D. 2004). Global warming has been recognized as a major environmental threat where the problem of global warming was high on the agenda of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992. There were great concerns for countries to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, a greenhouse gas considered to greatly contribute to global warming. In 1997, nations that had signed the UN framework convention on climate change in Rio de Janeiro met again in December , 1997 in Japan’s city of Kyoto.

Carbon emission limitation from industrial nations was encouraged, especially in the US. The Kyoto protocol was signed with the objective of reducing green house gases and member countries have the responsibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Another meeting in November 2005 in Montreal Canada acted as a starting point for formal talks on mandatory post – 2012 reductions in greenhouse gases. The most recent meeting of the nations that signed the Kyoto Protocol was held in Nairobi, Kenya in November 2006 where calls were made for measures to be implemented to stop or reduce global warming.

Other measures that have been taken to reduce the emissions are, the manufacturing of fuel-efficient vehicles to reduce emissions from fuel-combustion which also cuts down the high dependence on oil as a source of gas emissions. Conclusion Global warming is considered a great environmental threat in the modern world and in the future. The effects of climatic changes have been estimated to be very costly compared to the current situation. It is therefore the initiative of all nations in the world to cooperate to solve this problem before it is too late. Recommendations

Industrial pollution that produce greenhouse gases should be prevented or reduced by using better methods of disposing the gases other than releasing them into the atmosphere. Nations should join the organizations that advocate for global warming solutions to encourage these nations to reduce the levels of gas emissions; especially the developed countries. Human activities that cause climatic changes need to be controlled for example deforestation should be stopped. Every one of us is prone to the effects of global warming, hence our responsibility to solve this problem.

References Emmanuel .K, 2008 “Hurricanes and Global warming: Results from downscaling IPCC AR 4 simulations” Bulletin of the American Meteorological society 89; 347-367 Larry . O. 2006. Rising Ocean Acidity Threatens Reefs. Discovery News http://dcs. discovery. com/news/2006/07/05/acidocean-pla. html Retrieved on May 22, 2008 Ruddiman . W. F. 2005. “How Did Humans First Alter Global Climate? ” Scientific American 292(3). 46-53 Hansen J. 2000. Climatic Change: Understand Global Warming. One World: The Health and Survival of the Human Species in the 21st Century Health Press Thomas . C. D, 2004. “Extinction risk from climate change” Nature 427 (6970): 145-138

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1622

  • Pages: 6

Global Warming

Large tracts of forests worldwide are now being cleared. Some are already cleared for industrial or agricultural purposes. The remaining trees may not be enough to absorb the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide is used by plants to manufacture food. It is also called a greenhouse gas. This kind of gas retains heat longer compared to other gases. Surface temperature rises as more trees and plants are cut or destroyed. The resulting high surface temperature due to the accumulation of the carbon dioxide is referred to as the greenhouse effect.

Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere acts like the glass in a greenhouse. It traps heat from the environment. It causes air temperature to rise. The glass of the greenhouse prevents warm air from escaping (Williams 63-66). The air temperature inside the greenhouse rises as a result. This would lead to global warming. Moreover, global warming pertains to an increase of the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans in these present days. During the 20th century, the atmospheric temperature of the earth increased 0. 6 ± 0. 2 °Celsius.

The upsurge amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are the major causes of the component of warming. They are produced through the burning of agriculture, fossil fuels and land clearing and may precede to an upsurge in the greenhouse effect. There is an initial assumption that a greenhouse effect possibly takes place because of the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius during 1897(Jenner et. al 258). In addition, climate sensitivity denotes to the equilibrium response to upsurge greenhouse gases and different anthropogenic and “natural climate forcing” (Davidson 325).

This will be revealed through observational and model researches. The said sensitivity is generally showed through the temperature response that is anticipated “from a doubling of CO2 in the atmosphere” (Davidson 325). There is a report in 2001 from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that evaluates the climate sensitivity between the scales of 1. 5–4. 5 °C. The intents of this paper are to: (1) understand what global warming really is; (2) know about the historical warming of the earth; (3) figure out the causes of the global warming and; (4) find out the expected effects of global warming.

II. Background A. What is global warming? Global warming is defined as “the increase of average world temperatures as a result of what is known as the greenhouse effect” (Bellamy et. al 145). This would mean that it is an intense upsurge of world temperature which is the outcome of so- called greenhouse effect. There are many factors why the world is experiencing global warming. And one of these factors is the human activities like cutting down of trees that are supposedly be the one absorbing the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

There are gases in the atmosphere that portray as glass in the greenhouse which permits sunlight to warm the surface of the earth but trap the heat when it “radiates back into space”( Bellamy et. al 157). When the greenhouse gases formed in the atmosphere, the earth starts to get warmth. Nowadays, most countries experienced global warming. It is one the outcomes of people’s irresponsibility because humankind tends to destroy the forest by cutting the old trees and never replaces them. The graph below shows the global temperatures from 1860 to 2000. Moreover, the earth’s surface is warmed by the Sun and radiates heat back into space.

Gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, methane and CFCs in the atmosphere trap some of this heat, and warm the lower atmosphere. The atmosphere radiates heat back to Earth. This is called the “greenhouse effect”, and without it the Earth would be so cold that life could not exist. But many scientist fear that the huge amounts of these “greenhouse gases” released into the atmosphere by industrial processes and burning fossil fuels are warming the earth so much that they will eventually upset the world’s climate, and cause sea levels to rise. In addition, some scientists predict that the earth’s temperature could rise 3 °C by 2070.

After this, the rise will level off and the temperature will stabilize (Bellamy et. al 163). If the Antarctic ice sheet melted, sea levels could rise; threatening low-lying areas such as the US coast. B. The earth’s energy balance. But for the greenhouse effect, life on Earth would not exist. The Sun emits radiation to the Earth. If we could imagine a flat surface at the top of the atmosphere, that radiation is about 340 watts per square meter (340 W/m-2). Just over 100 W/m-2 is reflected out again by atmospheric aerosols and clouds, and the Earth’s surface, leaving some 240 W/m-2 that heat up the surface of the Earth (Carwardine 76-77)

. The system must be in balance—energy “in” must equal energy “out”—so the Earth needs to re-radiate this amount back into the atmosphere. But the amount actually re-radiated depends on the Earth’s surface temperature: the hotter the surface is the more it will emit radiation. The outgoing radiation takes the form of “long wave” infrared thermal radiation. If the system balanced “naturally”, then the Earth’s surface would have a temperature of about –19° C (-66° F) since at this temperature 240 W/m-2 would be emitted (Carwardine 98).

Obviously, something else must be happening because at such low average temperatures life would not exist. The Earth’s surface is very much warmer than this “natural” level (around 15° C/59° F) and hence far more radiation is emitted than the 240 W/m-2. What happens is that a lot of the Earth’s re-radiation bounces back to the Earth’s surface because it gets absorbed mainly by water vapor and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Water vapor, CO2, and a few other minor gases act like a “blanket”. The balance is secured as follows: Incoming solar radiation: + 340 W m-2 Reflected from clouds, the Earth’s surface, etc.

: – 100 W m-2 Net incoming radiation absorbed by the Earth = + 240 W m-2 Outgoing radiation: – 420 W m-2 Greenhouse effect: + 180 W m-2 Net outgoing (thermal) radiation = – 240 W m-2 The way the system balances, then, is that the Earth’s surface warms up compared to what would happen if the Earth was not surrounded by a blanket of greenhouse gases. C. The anthropogenic greenhouse effects. The greenhouse effect refers to the way in which gases in the Earth’s atmosphere warm the Earth like the glass roof of a greenhouse—by letting sunlight in but keeping the reflected heat energy trapped inside (Johnston 550).

These naturally occurring gases, notably carbon dioxide and water vapor, are called greenhouse gases. III. Discussion A. Historical warming of the earth During 1860-1900, global temperatures on seas and on lands had experienced great upsurge of temperature by 0. 75 °C as recorded in the instrument temperature record. Beginning in 1979, the land temperatures had doubled which was the same as the ocean temperatures. And in that year, the temperatures below the troposphere had upsurge between 0. 12 and 0. 22 °C every 10 years as recoded in the satellite temperature measurements.

It was believed before that world temperature was stable two thousand years in the past 1850 with the assumption that temperature was stable maybe because of the regional wavering like the Little Ice Age or Medieval Warm Period (“Temperature record of the past 1000 years”. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia). The graph below illustrates the reconstructions of Northern Hemisphere temperatures for the last 1000 years as stated to several older articles. B. Causes of the global warming There many causes why global warming is happening at present. These causes are generally or mostly based on man’s conduct.

The causes why there is global warming because of the release of carbon dioxide from power plants, emitted cars, trucks, airplanes, buildings, methane, nitrous oxide, deforestation, city gridlock and carbon in atmosphere and ocean . C. Effects of global warming The great effects of global warming to our environment and for humankind are plentiful and wide-ranging. The major effect of global warming is the upsurge global average temperature. It also leads to “rising sea levels, altered patterns of agriculture, increased extreme weather events, and the expansion of the range of tropical diseases” (Johnston 554).

The anticipated climate changes are also one of the effects of global warming. Not only that, it also affects the weather condition. IV. Conclusion Global warming has great effects to our environment especially to humankind. Global warming has many factors why it is occurring. One of these reasons is deforestation. Deforestation makes our environment warmth because of the remaining small amount of trees that are unable to absorb the large amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and because of this; carbon dioxide traps the heat in the environment that causes the temperature to rise because it stops warm air to escape.

References:

1. Bellamy, D. and Gifford, J. 1999. Wilderness Britain? a Greenprint for the Future. Sparkford: Oxford Illustrated. Popular work by leading biologist and environmental campaigner. 2. Carwardine, M. 2002. The WWF Environment Handbook. London: Macdonald Optima. Attractively illustrated handbook for the general reader. 3. Davidson, J. 2000. How Green is your City? Pioneering Approaches to Environmental Action. London: Bedford Square Press. Guide to community action for urban renewal.

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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 852

  • Pages: 3

Global Warming

Global Warming is an issue that concerns almost everybody worldwide: it is the primary cause for the erratic and sometimes devastating weather that is experienced around the world. Global warming is causing the rise in sea level which in turn causes the flooding of coastal areas and areas with low elevation. Is global warming really happening today? Scientists with the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) believe it is so. It is indisputable that there has been a rise in the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere during the last century, which scientists think may be one of the causes of global warming.

II. Discussion A. Global Warming and doomsday Will global warming spell doom for our world? Scientists believe this to be so. “Much depends on what actions we take now and in the coming years. ” Meteorologist Jagadish Shukla of the University of Maryland found out that deforestation would cause rainfall in the Amazon River to decline by more than 26 percent from the current 2. 5 m. to about 1. 8 m. a year. At the same time, the burning of fossil fuels, particularly coal and oil, produces sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides which are hazardous to the atmosphere.

Findings show that a single smokestack may produce as much as 500 tons of sulfur dioxide a day. When these gases combine with oxygen and moisture, sulfuric acid and nitric acid is formed. The rain will carry the acids to the ground (acid rain) which may cause the depletion of calcium and magnesium in the soil, elements needed by plants for the formation of chlorophyll and wood, or it may cause the release of aluminum in the soil, which are poisonous and can kill the roots of trees (Carwardine, 2000). According to Dr.

Sadik, UN population fund’s director, said that the more people increased pressure on already stressed lands, forests and water supplies. Other sources of climatic change were attributed to some forms of gases such as nitrous oxide, methane and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) (Cronin, 2001). Nitrous oxide or “laughing gas’ is a colorless gas with a sweet taste and odor that is used as an anaesthetic in minor surgery that H2O is responsible for about 6 percent of the human contributes to greenhouse warming.

Methane or “cow gas,” on the other hand, makes up about 18 percent of human contributions to greenhouse effect. Cattle, sheep, goats, and other cud-chewing animals give off methane, in burps and flatulence as they digest. CFCs was discovered by Thomas Widgley Jr. , a chemist working at the Frigidaire Division of General Motors, used as coolants in refrigerators and air conditioners and aerosol propellants in spray cans, medical sterilizers, cleaning solvents for electronic components and raw materials for making plastic foams such as coffee cups.

CFCs are estimated to account for 14 percent of global warming. Experts said that what is happening right now is not a matter of adding a few degrees to the average temperature of a community. A rise of this magnitude may cause life, for without the environment, creatures on earth cannot survive (Davidson, 2003). B. Recommendations a. ) Recycling and Reuse of Solid Wastes Solid wastes are now viewed as a potential resource which must be recovered and reused whenever possible. Since disposal forest resources are rapidly being depleted, recycling solid wastes offer a solution to both.

Consider the element phosphorus. Mined from phosphate ores, it is manufactured into fertilizers. It enters the plant tissues and we obtain it when we eat plant as vegetable. This is later excreted and joins the sewage system. The sewage system sludge can be used directly as fertilizer or soil conditioner. b. ) Conserving our Forests Every now and then we receive alarming news about our forests being denuded. Big logging concessionaires indiscriminately cut down trees without undertaking reforestation measures. III. Conclusion

Of all issues affecting humanity, climate change is the most pervasive and truly global, posing a very real and serious threat to our environment. Climate change is the alteration of the pattern of global climate that may be due to human activity that alters the composition of the atmosphere. If present day emissions of greenhouse gases continue, it is estimated that the rate of increase in global mean temperatures will reach about 0. 3o C per decade. This will mean a likely increase of 1o C above the present level by the year 2025, and 3o C before the end of the next century.

Reference:

1. Carwardine, Mark (2000). The WWF Environment Handbook. London: Macdonald Optima. Attractively illustrated handbook for the general reader. 2. Cronin, Helena (2001). The Ant and the Peacock: Altruism and Sexual Selection from Darwin to Today. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapters 2, 3, 4 (pp. 7-110). 3. Davidson, Joan (2003). How Green is your City? Pioneering Approaches to Environmental Action. London: Bedford Square Press. Guide to community action for urban renewal.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 352

  • Pages: 1

Global Warming

Every day we go about our own business. Many of us never take the time to look around and see how we are affecting our earth’s atmosphere. Everywhere you look today you are bound to see some factory or machinery polluting our air. Just think how many times you have seen those large semi trucks or big fossil fuel factories emitting thick dark smoke into the atmosphere. We need to come to reality and realize that all that polluting we have been doing over the last half-century is finally catching up to us.

It is very easy to detect through scientific research that our earth’s climate is changing, Time magazine reports in its 2004 issue that the earth’s average temperature is increasing at a steady rate. Yes, we all have heard the term “global warming”, however many people don’t know in depth what global warming is, or how our actions will affect our earth if we don’t respond to the issue.

If we can educate ourselves on what global warming is and how it will affect us in the near and far future, we can then begin to change our old habits of polluting and create new habits and goals to living in a much healthier and cleaner environment. Furthermore, global warming is the primary cause for the erratic and sometimes devastating weather that is experienced around the world. Global warming is causing the rise in sea level which in turn causes the flooding of coastal areas and areas with low elevation.

I can personally say that as a young individual, I should do something about it before it is too late. Global warming may affect my health, if not resolved, and may take my life at risk if nature starts to avenge of what people doing. I need to recycle and reuse my solid wastes and encourage everyone to conserve our forests by not cutting down trees without undertaking reforestation measures.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 936

  • Pages: 4

Global Warming

The global carbon cycle is one of the most important biogeochemical cycles in nature and should be considered with special emphasis because of constantly increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Basically, the term “global carbon cycle” describes the movement of all forms of carbon, which is the fourth abundant chemical element in our universe and essential for the structure and/or energy production for every living organism, between the atmosphere, oceans, biosphere and geosphere.

Two main parts of the carbon cycle can be distinguished, i. e.the geological carbon cycle (with a turnover time in the range of millions of years), and the biological carbon cycle (which operates at time scales ranging between days and thousands of years). In short, in the geological cycle, processes like weathering and erosion are forming carbonates from atmospheric CO2 and water which are reacting with minerals in the earth’s surface and eventually washed the into the oceans where they settle in sediments. The much faster carbon turnover in the biological cycle includes processes like photosynthesis and respiration, both key phenomena of life.

2. A greenhouse gas is a gas in the atmosphere that allows sunlight enter the atmosphere and reach the earth’s surface, but then prevents a certain portion of the reflected radiation (mainly this is the infrared or “heat” part of the spectrum) to leave the atmosphere towards open space again. Due to this effect, a “greenhouse” effect, similar to that wanted and used in agricultural greenhouses to grow plants faster and earlier due to warmer temperatures, develops and gradually heats up the atmosphere.

This leads to global warming with all the negative effects discussed in the next paragraph. CO2 is both, a naturally occurring and man-made greenhouse gas, that together with other natural (water vapour, methane and nitrous oxide) and man-made substances (e. g. gases used for aerosols and cooling liquids) is responsible for global warming, the man-made amount of atmospheric CO2 however alarmingly rising. 3.

“Global warming” describes the slight, but constant and gradual elevation of our atmosphere’s temperature, especially realized as a man-made effect within the last decades. Although times of global warming have repeatedly occurred on our planet long before humans could contribute (e. g. ice-age and warming periods), the dramatic increase of man-made atmospheric CO2 due to industrialization, excessive agriculture, and transportation leads, due to the previously described greenhouse effect, to a global rise in temperatures.

With growing certainty that rise is understood to be responsible for an increasing occurrence of catastrophic events such as changes in weather (storms and hurricanes, heavy rain and snow, desertification), elevation of sea level (flooding), or melting of glaciers and arctic ice shelves. 4. There are diverse causes of global warming including natural processes such as carbon dioxide exhausting from rotting organic matter, atmospheric water vapour or natural gases like methane.

However it is more and more agreed that the recent dramatic increase in global warming is mainly caused by a man-made elevation in atmospheric CO2 by transportation, agriculture and industries. Such elevated concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere and all their negative effects (see above) not only cause global warming by direct influence, but also interact with natural processes, altogether outbalancing the global carbon cycle and destabilizing our climate with unpredictable consequences. 5. The Kyoto Protocol has been signed by the United Nations on Dec.

11th 1997 in Kyoto, Japan with the intention to set measures against progressive climate changes. For the first time in history, the participating nations (until today 136 nations signed and ratified the protocol) agree on threshold levels and the reduction of the production of greenhouse gases within the protocol’s validation period from 2005 until 2012. 5. Unfortunately shaming poor. The United States signed the Kyoto protocol when it was initiated, but (together with Australia) never ratified the agreements.

However, Australia started to ratify the agreements in the year 2007 after a change in their government, leaving the USA (who under President G. W. Bush shows no intention to ratify the contract in the near future) back in shame alone… 6. Of course YES! The US considers itself as one of the world’s leading nations. Doubtlessly it is one of the world’s leading industrial nations, which is good for wealth and progress, but also implies a big responsibility, since due to its industry the US is also one of the leading producers of CO2.

Thus, the US contributes a major part to the worldwide greenhouse effect and therefore to global warming as well. So why does the US not act responsible in terms of environmental issues? Profit and industrial interests are a strong power worldwide and very often refuse sustainable actions and environmental care, but in contrast to the US the other nations who signed the Kyoto Protocol at least start acting responsible.

To my opinion it is a shame for the US to ignore alarming facts and signs of global warming and not even try to show some responsibility for our planet and future generations. So, even if the Kyoto Protocol is certainly not the final solution to growing environmental challenges, it is a beginning and can be the start of a sustainable and more responsible human future. However, to allow that beginning, cooperation and good will of all nations, including the US is essential.

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 2062

  • Pages: 8

Global Warming

Global warming pertains to the increase in temperature of the atmosphere based on the entrapment of gases that are emitted from activities on the surface of the earth. The increase in temperature is a direct result of the greenhouse effect, which involves heat that originated from the sun, which is entrapped within the atmosphere due to several factors. Scientists have determined that the atmosphere’s temperature has increased since the industrial revolution, which has maximized the use of chemicals in manufacturing various kinds of materials in industry.

There are four principal gases that have been identified to be primarily responsible for the onset of global warming. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is accountable for approximately half of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (Pearson and Palmer, 2000). This gas is a by-product of fossil fuel combustion, which involves burning of coal, natural gas and oil. It is also generated from deforestation activities, which have increased for expansion of industrialization areas.

Trees utilize carbon dioxide in their photosynthetic reactions, but it there are fewer trees in the environment, less CO2 is removed from the atmosphere, leaving the environment with excess amounts of CO2. Another gas that has been determined to be responsible for global warming is chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are the primary constituent of plastics and aerosols, as well as refrigerants in air conditioners. Chlorofluorocarbons make up approximately 25% of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Thirdly, methane gas (CH4), which comprises approximately 12% of the greenhouse gases, is also accountable for global warming.

Methane gas is released during the decay of organic matter, as well as in the stomachs of cattle, sheep and termites, yet, most of the gas is currently generated by industrial companies. Lastly, nitrous oxide (N2O) is responsible for approximately 6% of the greenhouse gases. It is a by-product of industries, as well as nitrogen fertilizers, volcanic eruptions and livestock manure. Global warming may result in regional changes in the weather, which will be more obvious if the weather were compared from one decade to another, and not on a daily basis.

However, scientists have hypothesized that when the temperature of the surface of the earth has reached a highly critical level, such high temperature will cause severe and drastic changes to the atmosphere, affecting the oceans and will severely alter the weather patterns in a matter of years. Changes in the weather may include increasingly hot days and less cool days. The water levels will go down, exposing more land surface during the summer. Even higher latitude regions will be warmer by 40%.

In addition, the amount the precipitation, be it rain or snow, will also increase, in the form of stronger storms and very intense typhoons and hurricanes. The El Nino events may also be more increase due to global warming. Global warming not only affects the weather, but it will also affect natural habitats. Higher levels of CO2 may facilitate the growth of forests, facilitating them to flourish and bloom. The warmer ocean waters will be helpful to fish and algae in the high seas. However, those organisms in higher elevations will find difficulty in surviving in warmer environments.

Higher temperatures in oceans may kill corals, which are the nurseries for fishes and other aquatic organisms. For the human population, global warming may cause more incidents of infectious diseases such malaria, as well as systemic health problems such as heat stroke and respiratory diseases. Currently, the world is confused as society is ignorant of the detailed effects of global warming. Society is aware the summers are now longer and more intense and winters are envious of summer’s wrath, unleashing a fury that rivals the intensity of the heat.

This is actually what global warming does. It confuses the world and now currently has also succeeded in confounding scientists. From a scientific point of view, global warming can be understood as a global environmental phenomenon which is characterized by an increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s near-surface air and oceans (Smith and Reynolds, 2005). There is certainly no doubt that global warming has a very detrimental effect on the environment as it causes rising sea levels and alters the amount and pattern of precipitation that areas all over the world get.

These environmental changes are also the projected causes of other ecological changes such as increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events which in turn creates changes in agricultural yields, glacier retreat, reduced summer stream flows, species extinctions and increases in the ranges of disease vectors. Based on the current scientific projections, the temperature of the world is expected to increase by 1. 1 to 6. 4 °C (2. 0 to 11. 5 °F) between the years 1990 and 2100.

While most of the studies and projection models that have been utilized for these estimates cover the period up to the year 2100, global temperature warming and sea level rise are expected to continue for more than a millennium even if no further greenhouse gases are released after this date (Haigh, 2003). This is due to the melting of the polar ice caps which is estimated to continue due to the changes that have already occurred in the world’s temperature. One proposal to answer to the problem of global warming is a lot simpler in theory than it is in practice.

Given the rate of economic growth of many of the developing countries and the shift of production to the lesser developed countries, the implementation of any global protocols is easier to imagine than to implement (Torn and Harte, 2006). Greenhouse gases, which are cited as one of the main causes of global warming, are most commonly emitted from the highly industrialized countries and the less developed countries which rely heavily on industrial machinery for production. The problem in this scenario is that by cutting back on the emission of greenhouse gases, a majority of the world’s production of most major goods will be affected.

The economic costs not to mention the technological impediments that preventing the shift to more environmentally friendly methods make the reduction of these greenhouse gases extremely difficult (Rudiman, 2005). There have been steps that have been taken to reduce the levels of greenhouse gases. In order to address the situation of global warming, many countries have participated in the world’s primary international agreement on combating global warming which is the Kyoto Protocol.

An amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol binds signatory countries to reduce their emissions of CO2 and five other greenhouse gases. In the alternative, it allows these countries to engage in emissions trading if they are able to maintain or increase emissions of these gases. The problem with this protocol, however, is that it exempts developing countries from meeting emission standards in Kyoto. Some of the countries that have been excluded from this list are China and India, who are ranked as the second and third largest emitters of CO2, behind the United States.

It is clear therefore that even despite these actions much more work is needed in order to address the problem. The implementation of international protocols and requiring countries to meet certain environmental standards is certainly a big step towards addressing this issue. More intergovernmental cooperation is also another prospective answer to this problem. The more developed countries should also take the lead in encouraging the shift away from more traditional methods of production towards more environmentally friendly methods through the award of grants and exchange of technology (Torn and Harte, 2006).

The creation of a body that is designed to not only specifically develop policies regarding this issue but also be given the power to enforce these policies will allow for the more efficient reduction of these greenhouse gases. It is unclear just how effective these policies may be but the fact that is clear is that in order to address this issue, each and every person in the world must take part in reducing the emission of these greenhouse gases which is the main cause of this problem (Gore, 2006).

Simple steps such as taking the public transport or walking instead of taking carbon monoxide emitting vehicles will go a long way. There are many things that people can do in order to contribute to the improvement of the current environmental condition. It does not take a lot and it all starts with the awareness of the gravity of the situation. While the general scientific consensus is that global warming is real and its overall effects are detrimental, there are still some prominent scientists who feel that the severe effects of global warming have been sensationalized.

Certain members of society take the idea of global warming with the normal temperature and that the temperature of the surface of the Earth has not severely increased over the last one hundred years. They claim that the temperature data collected in the 1970’s were taken in urbanized areas using different kinds of thermometers, hence the temperature readings were influenced by human error and do not precisely show drastic temperature changes in the surface of the Earth as well as in the oceans.

It is therefore important the satellite data be acquired for the coming next decades in order to generate robust and reliable temperature readings that society and the scientific world will acceptable without any doubts on its credibility and efficiency. It is also of prime importance that scientific and legislative bodies prove that global warming does actually occur as a result of carbon dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere.

Geological scientists have gather substantial fossil evidence that prove that carbon dioxide concentrations have increased on the surface of the Earth, which thus results in a warmer surface, but the direct connection between the increase in carbon dioxide and the temperature increase at the actual in situ settings should still be observed. Most of the information and generalizations that scientists have collected were based on laboratory conditions where most of the components of the setup were easily regulated and controlled, such as humidity and temperature.

There are currently a number of models that may be used in forecasting average surface temperatures on the Earth, but there is still a need to also design a model that could predict the amount of human-made emissions that could trigger the same features that cause global warming. There is quite a huge number of people in society that still do not understand the climate changes and what triggers such disturbances in our current weather. Every country is now aware of the causes and effects of global warming on the ecosystem.

There has been great speculation that global warming is both a natural and a man-made phenomenon. Whatever the cause is, it is imperative that every citizen understands what global warming is and what measures can be taken in order to minimize, avoid or prevent the increase in accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

References Gore A (2006): An inconvenient truth: The planetary emergency of global warming and what we can do about it. Rodale Books. Haigh JD (2003): The effects of solar variability on the Earth’s climate. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 361(1802):91-111.

Lean JL, Wang YM and Sheeley NR (2002): The effect of increasing solar activity on the Sun’s total and open magnetic flux during multiple cycles: Implications for solar forcing of climate. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(24):2224. Rudiman W (2005): How Did Humans First Alter Global Climate? Sci. Am. , March 2005 issue. Smith TM and Reynolds RW (2005): A global merged land–air–sea surface temperature reconstruction based on historical observations (1880–1997). J. Clim. 18(12): 2021-2036. Torn M and Harte J (2006): Missing feedbacks, asymmetric uncertainties, and the underestimation of future warming. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33(10):L10703.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 2028

  • Pages: 8

Global Warming

Every day we go about our own business. Many of us never take the time to look around and see how we are affecting our earth’s atmosphere. Everywhere you look today you are bound to see some factory or machinery polluting our air. Just think how many times you have seen those large semi trucks or big fossil fuel factories emitting thick dark smoke into the atmosphere. We need to come to reality and realize that all that polluting we have been doing over the last half-century is finally catching up to us.

It is very easy to detect through scientific research that our earth’s climate is changing, Time magazine reports in its 2004 issue that the earth’s average temperature is increasing at a steady rate. Yes, we all have heard the term “global warming”, however many people don’t know in depth what global warming is, or how our actions will affect our earth if we don’t respond to the issue. If we can educate ourselves on what global warming is and how it will affect us in the near and far future, we can then begin to change our old habits of polluting and create new habits and goals to living in a much healthier and cleaner environment.

This study intent to: (1) know the effect of global warming worldwide thus knowing the global warming and doomsday and; (2) widen our knowledge about the ozone slayer and do the humans are the reasons of causing global warming or if its just a natural process that the earth goes through. II. Background A. What is global warming? Global Warming is an issue that concerns almost everybody worldwide: it is the primary cause for the erratic and sometimes devastating weather that is experienced around the world.

Global warming is causing the rise in sea level which in turn causes the flooding of coastal areas and areas with low elevation. Is global warming really happening today? Scientists with the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) believe it is so (Mank, 2005). It is indisputable that there has been a rise in the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere during the last century, which scientists think may be one of the causes of global warming. The climate change however is not a direct result of the rise in greenhouse gases. B.

Global Warming and doomsday Will global warming spell doom for our world? Scientists believe this to be so. “Much depends on what actions we take now and in the coming years. ” Meteorologist Jagadish Shukla of the University of Maryland found out that deforestation would cause rainfall in the Amazon River to decline by more than 26 percent from the current 2. 5 m. to about 1. 8 m. a year (Bellamy & Gifford, 2000). At the same time, the burning of fossil fuels, particularly coal and oil, produces sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides which are hazardous to the atmosphere.

Findings show that a single smokestack may produce as much as 500 tons of sulfur dioxide a day. When these gases combine with oxygen and moisture, sulfuric acid and nitric acid is formed. The rain will carry the acids to the ground (acid rain) which may cause the depletion of calcium and magnesium in the soil, elements needed by plants for the formation of chlorophyll and wood, or it may cause the release of aluminum in the soil, which are poisonous and can kill the roots of trees (Carwardine, 2000). III. Discussion A.

Ozone Slayers Ozone is an unstable oxygen that occurs naturally in the atmosphere (also called isothermal region), the upper portion of the atmosphere above 7 miles where clouds are rare. The ozone layer absorbs the dangerous ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays while it allows the needed safe light to pass through. Though easily broken down by other gases in the stratosphere, it is constantly being repaired by the sun’s rays. However, man is destroying the ozone layer which serves as a protective umbrella against the sun’s harmful rays.

In fact, the ozone layer is destroyed faster than the sun’s rays can produce it. It is being destroyed by industrial gases like CFCs (Johnston, 2000). CFCs were invented in 1930 but were discovered hazardous in 1974—only after 44 years of use. CFCs, which are found everywhere, are used in foamed plastic production (insulators, cups, fast-food containers), spray propellants, coolants (refrigerators, air-conditioners) and solvent cleaner (electronic equipment). It is dismaying to know that ozone depletion can be found in the south (Antarctica) and north (Greenland) poles (Dolan, 2006).

According to British scientist Joe Farman, 40 percent of ozone depletion can be found in the South Pole. At the South Pole is a huge vortex with clouds composed of tiny ice [articles, giving chlorine millions of tiny spaces through which it can perform its deadly dance with ozone even faster (Simpson, 2000). Both holes at the poles are seasonal, opening and closing each year. In the northern hemisphere, a more populous region, ozone depletion rate is between three percent and seven percent for 17 years, as compared previously to only three percent for100 years.

What are the effects of Ultraviolet-B rays to human beings and the ecosystem in general? To humans, they can cause skin cancer and cataract as mentioned earlier and damage the immune system. To the ecosystem, they can kill planktons (basic element of the ocean food chain), destroy plant life and crops and change global wind and weather patterns. In 1978, Canada, Sweden, the United States and other countries banned the use of CFCs in aerosols. However, other uses of CFCs were found, effecting an increase in its production.

The US still uses one-fourth of the world’s annual supply of CFCs (Turner, 2000). However, in September 1987, 24 nations cooperated for the first time to solve this environmental problem and passed the Montreal Protocol. The agreement issued a call for developed nations to freeze the use and production of CFCs at the 1986 level while cutting 50 percent of use and production by 1999. Still, the CFCs currently rising through the troposphere will take seven to 10 years to drift up to the stratosphere.

The troposphere is the portion of the atmosphere that is below the stratosphere, extending outward about seven to 10 miles from the earth’s surface (Bellamy & Gifford, 2000). B. Cause and Effects During the earliest times, the life-styles of our ancestors were very simple. The air they breathed was clean. The streams were clear and free of harmful organisms. They used natural fertilizers for their agricultural crops. The surroundings were free of household throwaways. Today, there has been a tremendous growth in science and technology.

Such advances have brought about changes in terms of new products, improved equipment, and more effective methodologies. Unfortunately, this same technology which made life easier for us produced wastes which are now affecting the quality of our surrounding air, water, and land. Factories and motor vehicles send tons of pollutants into our air. Excessive air pollution poses a danger to our health and environment. It can likewise cause stunted growth and even death to our plants. Out streams are polluted by discharges from industrial plants that use chemicals.

Garbage and sink wastes are carelessly thrown in our surroundings. Synthetic fertilizers and insecticides pollute our land and farm products (Johnston, 2000). At the same time, the burning of fossil fuels, particularly coal and oil, produces sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides which are hazardous to the atmosphere. Findings show that a single smokestack may produce as much as 500 tons of sulfur dioxide a day. When these gases combine with oxygen and moisture, sulfuric acid and nitric acid are formed (Jenner, 1999).

The rain will carry the acids to the ground (acid rain) which may cause the depletion of calcium and magnesium in the soil, elements needed by plants for the formation of chlorophyll and wood, or it may cause the release of aluminum in the soil, which are poisonous and can kill the roots of trees. Nitrous oxide or “laughing gas’ is a colorless gas with a sweet taste and odor that is used as an anesthetic in minor surgery that H2O is responsible for about 6 percent of the human contributes to greenhouse warming.

Methane or “cow gas,” on the other hand, makes up about 18 percent of human contributions to greenhouse effect. Cattle, sheep, goats, and other cud-chewing animals give off methane, in burps and flatulence as they digest (Cairncross, 2002). CFCs was discovered by Thomas Widgley Jr. , a chemist working at the Frigidaire Division of General Motors, used as coolants in refrigerators and air conditioners and aerosol propellants in spray cans, medical sterilizers, cleaning solvents for electronic components and raw materials for making plastic foams such as coffee cups.

CFCs are estimated to account for 14 percent of global warming. Experts said that what is happening right now is not a matter of adding a few degrees to the average temperature of a community. A rise of this magnitude may cause life, for without the environment, creatures on earth cannot survive (Davidson, 1999). CFCs are estimated to account for 14 percent of global warming. Experts said that what is happening right now is not a matter of adding a few degrees to the average temperature of a community.

A rise of this magnitude may cause life, for without the environment, creatures on earth cannot survive Are we all aware of the extent of the damages brought about by modernization? Have we contributed to such environmental dilemma? What have we done to minimize such danger to our lives? How can we take care of our environment? We must undertake measures to preserve our resources and minimize utilization of energy before it’s too late. Our fight against pollution is an initial step toward conserving our environmental resources and energy. We must all join hands for this common goal.

Furthermore, of all issues affecting humanity, climate change is the most pervasive and truly global, posing a very real and serious threat to our environment. Climate change is the alteration of the pattern of global climate that may be due to human activity that alters the composition of the atmosphere. If present day emissions of greenhouse gases continue, it is estimated that the rate of increase in global mean temperatures will reach about 0. 30 0C per decade. This will mean a likely increase of 1o C above the present level by the year 2025, and 30 0C before the end of the next century.

A. Resolution a. ) Recycling and Reuse of Solid Wastes Solid wastes are now viewed as a potential resource which must be recovered and reused whenever possible. Since disposal forest resources are rapidly being depleted, recycling solid wastes offer a solution to both. Consider the element phosphorus. Mined from phosphate ores, it is manufactured into fertilizers. It enters the plant tissues and we obtain it when we eat plant as vegetable. This is later excreted and joins the sewage system. The sewage system sludge can be used directly as fertilizer or soil conditioner.

Used bottles can be used over and over again. Durable plastic containers can be saved for more household uses. Tires can be recapped and used again. Old clothing materials are used as kitchen towels and bags (see Environment Matters: Industry’s Guide to the Issues, the Challenges and the Solutions, 1999). If the materials cannot be used over several times, then they can be shredded and converted into a new form. Old newspapers are repulped into new paper. Broken glasses are ground and manufactured into new ones. Tires are processed to raw rubber. Protein leftovers are manufactured into animal feeds.

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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 754

  • Pages: 3

Global Warming

Global warming is the increase of Earth’s surface temperature due to the effect of greenhouse gases. The main causes of global warming is the greenhouse effect, fossil fuels in cars, and global emission. Global warming is having an effect on our environment such as rising seas, changes in rainfall patterns, and etc. What we can do to stop this is, lower down emissions, cut greenhouse gases and so on. This paper will focus on what global warming is doing to our environment.

The greenhouse effect is one of the things causing global warming. The greenhouse effect is the warming that happens when gases in the earths atmosphere gets trapped with heat. An example of a greenhouse effect is, sunlight passing through transparent windows. The reason it happens is because gases absorb ultra violet heat that is radiated into space. When it is radiated carbon dioxide absorbs this heat and the more carbon dioxide there is in the atmosphere, the air gets warm. If the air gets extremely hot the world will be destroyed because animals and plants will die.

Another thing that is causing global warming is fossil fuels in cars. Coals and gas are burned to make electricity, cooking, and warming or cooling our homes. Even though we are using these for our own benefits it is harming our environment and later it will have an effect on us. Fossil fuels are made from remains from other plants, and animals that was buried in the Earth for millions and millions of years. Did you know that a long time ago, that heat and pressure has made these remains into fossil fuels that everyone calls coal and gas? Well today, these fossil fuels are burned so that they can release energy that was stored inside of them. When they are burned the carbon inside of them are released in the air and creates carbon dioxide which is also bad for our environment. Burning petrol’s that are in cars, pollute the air we breathe and is harming both us and the environment but yet we still use it.

Global emissions are also one of the things that is causing global warming. Global emission is, worldwide air pollution. Global emissions jumped 3 percent in 2011 which make a huge difference.. There are emissions from factories, greenhouse gases, or global greenhouse emissions. The things that cause global emissions are, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides, and hydro fluorocarbons. .This can create smog, and acid rain. Emissions seems to be one of the greatest causes of global warming. This is happening because Earth is surrounded by a layer of gases. Global emissions includes heat creating-gases so when this is released, it rises and becomes trapped by the atmosphere. These trapped gases seem to be responsible for increasing temperatures on Earth.

The effect that is having on our environment is rising of seas, changes in rainfall patterns, melting glaciers, spread of disease, warming seas, glaciers shrinking, droughts, and severe rainstorms. Rising sea levels are due to the melting of the polar ice caps, as well as an increase in occurrence and severity of storms and other severe weather events. The cycle of global warming is changing the climate that all living things have come rely upon. Global warming is making the Earth more humid which causes abnormal temperature and because of it, the weather is changing. The temperature of the Earth has raised 0.4 and 0.8 degrees Celsius in 100 years because of global warming. Glaciers are shrinking because the Earth is warming up. When the seas were warming up, the population of planktons decreased. When the Earth spins, the hat spins with it and the Earth is collecting moisture over the seas. Due to these droughts, farmers are having a difficult time planting, growing, and making a living.

This paper covered on what global warming is doing to our environment. As it had said in the paper, global warming changed Earths climate, causing the weather to change. The temperature of the Earth has raised 0.4 to 0.8 degrees Celsius in the past 100 years. The things that are often affecting the earth is the effect on greenhouse gases, fossil fuels in cars, and global emissions. Global emissions jumped 3 percent in 2011. Since global warming is harming our environment, we can all work together to find a way to help our environment.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 599

  • Pages: 2

Global Warming

Picture in your mind a world in which the temperature is at least ten degrees higher than it is today, where they’re supposed to be snow you can see a green valley and all the major cities are covered by water. This imaginary picture is not too far from the truth. This essay will discuss the effects of global warming as a life threatening condition causing extreme heat waves, glacier retreat and sea level rises.

The first effect of global warming is the dramatic increase of temperature all over the globe. The actual readings show a global warming of around 0.6 degrees Celsius over the entire 20th century. Furthermore, any micro change in the temperature can generate severe weather conditions like rain and tornados also, some areas may experiment extreme heat waves that could derivate in death by dehydratation. Other contributors for the changes in temperature are the greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases are naturally generated by solid waste in the form of methane gas. The human generated ones that comes from automobile exhausts and heaters from homes including factories wastes. Although, greenhouse gases are mainly natural the real problem resides in the excess of this gases overheating the planet.

With the change in temperature previously indicated, there is a second effect of global warming, glacier retreat. Places traditionally known by snow or cold weathers now report less amounts of snow and a rise in temperature for example, in the Chimborazo volcano, Ecuador, the snow of the glacier is retreating at a rate of 0.5 meters each year also Antarctica reported to have the warmest year in all history. Remember that most of the water for human consumption comes from the glaciers, when they melt over controlled conditions the water resulted from the melting goes to rivers. Moreover, if the melting continues and the glacier disappears there is a good chance that there will be no more water to drink.

Continuing with the effects of global warming and as a result of the previous two appears the rise of the sea levels. At this moment the sea levels increase in a ratio of 1.8mm to 2.4mm per year and the predictions indicate that this ratio is increasing rapidly to 3.8mm per year. If the tendency continues most of the major cities located near the coast are on the risk of disappearing by the water. The two factors that lead to the increased levels in sea are, the first thermal expansion: as oceans water warms it expands and second each year enormous blocks of ice, talking about in some cases of kilometers of ice, from the poles melt into the sea as a result of the increased temperatures provoking the rise in water levels.

In conclusion, global warming effects are related in a chain reaction. So, because of the extreme temperature changes people could die and, the glaciers and poles experiment an enormous reduction. Also, because of the first two effects the level of the oceans begins to rise. The future or our civilization depends on how these effects are addressed, because of what it is important to reduce the consumption of gas or oil for heating houses, keep our vehicles in good conditions to reduce greenhouse gases, better if the bicycle is used instead of the car. I hope our nations and citizens make conscience about this threat to our lives and begin to work together in solutions to the problem.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 511

  • Pages: 2

Global Warming

It relates to an average increase in temperature of Earth, which successively creates changes in climate. A humid earth may trigger transformation in rainfall patterns, a wide spectrum of effects on plant, a surge in sea level, changes in the life pattern of humans and wildlife. Scientists are of the view that main reason for global warming is due to human activities. One of the evidence of global warming may be observed at Montana’s Glazier National Park in U. S. A , where smaller than of 30 of the original 151 glaziers remain and that too with the reduction in size.

As per meteorological statistics, the average global temperature has swelled by 1 degree Fahrenheit since the commencement of this century. According to scientists, if greenhouse gas emission is not properly controlled, then there is a possibility of increase of global temperature by 2 to 8 degrees at the end of the 21st century. Global warming comprises of the following activities viz. lengthening of growing seasons , drastic change in the environment , thawing of permafrost , earlier break-up of ice on lakes and rivers , shrinking of glaziers , early flowering of trees and shifts in plant and animal ranges .

3. CLIMATE CHANGE Climate can by explained as the total of all weather happening over a period of years in a particular place. The term climate includes regular weather sequences like spring, winter, fall and weather, average weather conditions and special weather incidents like floods, tornadoes, hurricanes etc. Climate inform one what would be the pattern of climate in the place usually one reside. For instance, New Orleans is having a humid climate, San Diego is famous for its mild climate, Seattle is renowned for its rainy climate and Buffalo is prominent of snowy climate.

It is to be observed that though all the above places are situated in America, but still they are having dissimilar climate . Hence, climate is not identical for whole country and it may differ. 4. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION: Arrhenius discovered that all the coal which was being burned was actually affecting Earth’s outer atmosphere due to huge amount of emission of carbon dioxide and other pollutant gasses. Thus, the so emitted carbon dioxide and other gasses had trapped solar heat in the atmosphere like as the glass roof and fortifications of a greenhouse trap heat.

Arrhenius discovered that ever increasing industrialization would definitely going to add much more gasses to the Earth’s atmosphere, making global temperatures to swell to several degrees in the years to come. Carbon dioxide which is the major greenhouse gas transpires naturally, as do other greenhouse gases like nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor. It is to be noted that without greenhouse gasses, the earth will be too cold to habitat. U. S. A, China and European Union emit almost 50% of the world’s carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. U. S. A, Australia and Canada have the highest per-capita emissions.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 935

  • Pages: 4

Global Warming

Climatic change and global warming have formed the center of environmental movements since creation of United Nations Environment Program at the first Climatic Conference at Stockholm in 1972. Although initially considered not more than a fad, today the issue of global warming and climatic change comes foremost in policy planning of all the major nations and corporate houses. With Rio Earth Summit, Kyoto Protocol and numerous other global meet and summits, the world has seen documented evidences towards the dangers of global warming and climatic change putting them in the forefront of international priority issues (Environment Europa).

Global Warming The issue of global warming, which commands concern as other major international problems of terrorism, economic crisis, and poverty, has a unique dimension of its own- it is one area that has transformative and longest- possible impact term on the future of entire world. It’s not the result of a single event or agency, and hence cannot be contained by a single step or nation as well.

The exponential increase in consumption and production levels of goods, minerals and natural resources since industrial revolution of 18th century is universally considered as the major contributing factor in creating the conditions of global warming, and a joint will to curb the wasteful consumption pattern and resource mis-use is the only way out of it (Johansen, 2002). Cause of the Global Warming: The chief characteristics of the economic growth post the industrial revolution was the consistent increase in rate of consumption of energy resources (Dahl, 1998).

The increase in industrial activities necessarily implied corresponding increase in energy consumption, as since its inception, the industrial system has been completely energy driven. With further emergence of industrial nations and mass- urbanization, energy requirements continued to surpass one unprecedented level after another (Johansen, 2002). In last 150 years, the world has not merely seen extravagant increase in the consumption of energy resources but also a massive population explosion where number of people inhabiting the earth has grown six times from billion in 1850 to 6. 5 billion by 2005.

The population explosion coupled with industrial expansion nullified all the prospects of reducing the consumption rates or emission rates (Environment, Europa). Today the entire structure of human world depends exclusively on utilization of the energy, the majority of which comes through exploitation of fossil fuels that include coal, liquid petroleum, and natural gases. This giant rate and quantity of energy consumption has put world to the crisis of global warming that has potential to create problems for humanity and accompanying life forms. As discussed earlier, much of the warming has occurred due to consumption of fossil fuels.

Fossil fuels are essentially hydrocarbon compounds and although they are extremely rich in energy content, their extraction from deep oil wells, refinement and use involve release of harmful and poisonous gases at each step of process, that dangerously increased contents of carbon di-oxide, sulfur oxides, nitrous oxides and chlorine compound in environment, changing the chemical composition of land, air and water (UNEP, Annual Report, 2008). The use of fossil fuels has been always and necessarily accompanied by release these gases in the atmosphere with their release quantity being directly proportional to the scale of their use.

As a burgeoning human population started to rely extensively on fossil fuels to meet its expanding needs, the concentration of carbon dioxide, methane, and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur increased exponentially to the level that they started to affect atmosphere and global temperature, giving rise to greenhouse effect and phenomena of global warming. Global warming, as an empirical instance, was factually corroborated in late in 1980s and early 1990s, although in theory it was predicted quite earlier by leading scientists and environmentalists.

The years since 1987 started to show the veracity of these predictions as global average annual temperature soared higher every passing year and 1998 became the warmest year in the recorded years. More ominously, the second and third most warmest years in recorded history were 1995 and 1993, confirming to scientists, environmentalists and people that the rise in global temperature was not a sudden phenomena, or an aberration, but a systematic process that would compound in the absence of any effective policy and action (Johansen, 2002; UNEP, Annual Report, 2008)).

The issue of global warming has since then assumed international proportion as people have started to realized that the warming is a consequence of the largely unstructured paradigm of development, consumption, and growth followed over past 200 years, a problem that has been deeply embedded in the socio-cultural and economic system of the world (Environment, Europa).

Climatic Change: Climatic Change comes as direct fallout of the global warming. It is estimated that effects of warming would lead to rapid meltdown of polar snow-caps, rise in ocean levels around the world, erratic weather behavior, depletion of rain-forests, unpredicted rainfalls and consequently a long term change in climate that may create a period of enormous stress and struggle in world.

Identifying climatic change as a long term problem, with potentials for serious damages to the natural environment, global ecological balance and world economy, international groups and global decelerations have called for firm and urgent international effort to meet the challenge and work towards reducing emission of greenhouse gases, ensure safe disposal of hazardous wastes and ensure safe and continued supply of energy (Ramnathan and Barnett, 2003). s

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 365

  • Pages: 1

Global Warming

There are many causes of Global Warming. The destruction and burning down of tropical forests , traffic clogging up the city streets , rapid growth of unplanned industries, the use of CFCs in packaging and manufacturing products, the use of detergents etc. cause Global Warming. Besides, overpopulation, deforestation are the causative factors of Global Warming. The setting up of mills and factories in an unplanned way has a great effect on environment. These mills and factories produce black smoke which gets mixed with air and increases the amount of CO2.

Burning of Gas such as Methane (CH4) and fuel also increase CO2­ in the environment. Killing animals like birds, big cats, lions, tigers is also a alarming cause of Global Warming.

The effects of Global Warming is very dangerous for our existence and survival. The sun’s scorching heat comes to earth in a direct way. Therefore, the earth’s surface becomes seriously heated. Agriculture, forestry and fishery is seriously be damaged. This can catastrophically reduce mankind’s ability to grow foods, destroy wildlife. Global Warming also cause sea-water to swell up.

All species are important for maintaining ecological balance. If one is lost, the whole natural environment changes. To prevent the dangerous effects of Global Warming necessary steps should immediately be taken.

People should not be allowed to cut off trees which causes deforestation. Rather they should be advised and suggested to plant more and more trees in accordance with their capability and convenience. Forests also control the natural balance. People should be made aware of it. Mills, factories, brick-fields should be set up in a very good planned way. There should be well drainage system to pass away waste materials, wastages and poisonous chemicals.

The alarming world’s climate is very dangerous for mankind and ecological balance. Unless Global Warming is not controlled, no men, animals will be able to live, grow and thrive. So, we should try maintain the ecological balance to decrease the effects of Global Warming.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1652

  • Pages: 7

Global warming

Global warming and climate change has been a recent topic that has made many people recognize environment as a vital part of their survival. The proposed introduction of the emission trading scheme in Australia has come as a result of this great concern that is being put on the environment. However, this action has been greeted by a lot of contention in Australia which is not supposed to be the case. According to research done by the Australian institute of management, results suggest that many people do not know what emission trading is which has led to 50% of the population that was interviewed to disagree with this move by the government.

Its contentiousness with respect to the business fraternity is not valid as it will lead to efficiency in production and the acquisition of more profit. The implementation of cleaner production mechanisms in response to emission trading scheme will also reduce health risks to workers in the coal mines and those living in adjacent environments. The question that is raised is whether emission trading scheme be rejected for the benefit of population that does not know about it or be implemented with respect to the minority that understand its benefits.

Introduction Climate change is a current global issue that has come to rock the headlines of many media institutions all over the world. The issue of global warming that has become severe over the past decade has been attributed to the constantly increasing concentrations of green house gases in the atmosphere. The high concentration of green house gases that has been attributed to high combustion of fossil fuels has been described by scientists as the major threat to the extinction of mankind and his species on Earth.

The high concentration of green houses gases especially of carbon dioxide has exponentially increased that has caused abrupt increases in the temperatures across the world. This abrupt increase in temperatures in the globe has caused climate change to ensue that has been characterized by changing weather patterns in different regions across the world. Regions that were receiving minimal rainfall are now facing situations of drought while regions that had adequate rain are now experiencing floods.

Both of these cases as threatening the survival of mankind and the other species that inhabit the Earth. It is with this effect that the Kyoto protocol came into force in 2005 to spear head the efforts in controlling global warming and climate change. A number of strategies were developed in this conference that was held in Kyoto, Japan such as the emission trading scheme which is the focus of this text. The emission trading scheme is a strategy that aims at making industries and other manufacturing companies reduce the amounts of pollutants into the environment.

The emission trading scheme has already been incorporate by the government of Australia and it is due to become full force in 2010. It has been said by many business people in Australia that the emission trading scheme would make businesses incur losses which is not the case. This paper looks at the positive sides of the emission trading scheme in supporting the policy in Australia, despite it contention it will not have any significant impacts for business and society as it is thought. The proposed emission trading scheme to be implemented for Australia is not a contentious issue as such as many people may think.

The reason for the contention is not from the negative impacts that it is though to have on business and the society, but it is on the act that many people do not know anything about the emissions trading scheme. It is often known that people will always try to stop any activity that they do not have knowledge about. The emissions trading scheme was discussed in Kyoto Japan and led to the formation of the Kyoto protocol. (Almster, 2000) The conference was held by environmental experts in discussing the issue of global warming and climate change and how it could be manage.

The resolutions, one being the emission trading scheme was develop. The fact hat this scheme was brought forth by educated people means that the strategy is one that is due to work in combating climate change and therefore the fact that it is not known by the business fraternity should not be the basis of shutting the idea down. According to a survey that was done by the Australian Institute of management, it was established that 94% of the Australian population came to know about the emission trading scheme from the media.

Out of these people who have come to know about the emission trading scheme from the media, 50% believe that it is going to affect business negatively which would be directed to consumers of the products and services of these businesses. This ideology has been based by interpretations made by the media that has made this issue become contentious. Environmental expert know the consequences of their proposals and therefore, would not impose strategies that would harm business as the field of environment is focused on sustainable development.

(Broase & Stevenson, 1998). Therefore, the lack of public knowledge about what the emission trading scheme is, is what has led to the contention of its implementation. If the public could be educated by this strategy, then they would see the benefits it present with no or minimal side effects on business and society. The idea that business will become expensive has been shown by the fact that the costs of fuel will increase. If the costs of fuel increase, then the costs of electricity will consequently increase and cause the costs of production go higher.

This will also be passed down to consumers from the high electricity bills that they would be receiving monthly. This is said that it s going to impact on the society by making the living standards of the Australian people go down because their money will be going to paying of bills that leave them with little money for other things. Coal is the major source of fuel that is used to produce electricity in the whole of Australia which is further exported to other nations. Coal is known to be one of the, major polluting fossil fuels due to its high concentration of carbon.

(Morrison & Wallace, 2002). Once combusted, the coal releases a lot of smoke and increases the concentration of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere, a green house gas. Because of the high polluting potential of coal, many people have become sceptical that the use of coal in Australia and in the world would decline and consequently led to use of other alternative sources of fuel that are less polluting but also known to be expensive. (Broase & Stevenson, 1998), (Svensin, & Howard, 2003)

Due to the reduction in the use of coal, coal miners in Australia will lose their jobs and make their societal lives miserable. However, this has been said basing on lack of information because as of May 13, 2009, the government of Australia had allowed a whooping 2. 5 billion dollars towards the investment in low-emission coal. This would not in other words reduce the emission of carbon dioxide gas that is the main pollutant in addition to maintaining the jobs of the many people who depend on the coal mining industry as a source of their livelihoods. (Coal mining.

org, 2009)This in addition to the 400 million dollars already disbursed in the creation of low-emission coal will ensure that Australia continues to be the world leader in production of clean coal. The idea that the implementation of the emission trading scheme in Australia would lead to losses being incurred by businesses is baseless as it is just rumoured by people who do not have facts on this issue. The implementation of the emission trading scheme will require the Australian industries and manufacturing companies to invest in cleaner production equipment.

The change in equipment from the ones that have been long used by Australian companies is what is raising the contention about this policy. The use of cleaner production equipment has been shown to be more efficient in the long run as companies that run on this technology have made a lot of gains in protecting the environment and consequently making more profit compared to their old technologies referred to as end-of- pipe.

Studies have shown that the use of cleaner production are not only beneficial for protecting the environment but, they also bring in economic benefits as well as health benefits to workers and people living around the industries. For example in china, the use of cleaner production technologies on a tanning industry from environmental impact assessment studies done by the institute of environmental studies at the national university of Columbia showed that it had the advantage of increasing productivity, profitability and maintaining the health condition of the workers and the people who lived in the surrounding environment of the company.

(Santos et al, 2007) In another study to exemplify the benefits of emission trading scheme to cleaner production, the Chinese environmental authority in collaboration with the World Bank and UNEP fostered cleaner production mechanisms in companies in China from 1993. After the establishment of these mechanisms, audits were done in about 30 companies. The studies came up with the findings that the annual economic benefits of these companies had total 3 million US dollars with pollution load being reduced to an average of 3040%. (World Bank, UNEP & NEPA 1996)

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Global Warming Essay

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Global Warming Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1241

  • Pages: 5

Global Warming

Within the next fifty years the US may experience shifting and changing length of the seasons, changes in vegetation including habitat and diversity, changes in precipitation intensity and distribution, a rise in sea-level, an increase in storm intensity and an increase in erosion events. Shifting seasons The principle sources for this idea were: Global Warming in the Temperate Zone, Geography Chapter 2, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Summary for Policy Makers, Alaska Survey (Us Global Change Research Program) Why? As global warming effects advance, colder seasons become milder and of shorter duration.

“Climate … refers to the annual pattern of atmospheric conditions in a place (Lew 2004). “ Since the seas change temperature more slowly than land, an increase in temperature of the sea would maintain warmer patterns for longer periods of time Impact on Physical Geography “Throughout the temperate zone, changes are being recorded in where and when plants bloom and thrive. (Global Warming in Temperate Zone 2007)” Another effect is that as the temperature rises, the altitudinal zonation normally present (Lew 2004) becomes attenuated.

In some areas, the top zones are disappearing, the temperature variations no longer dip far enough to maintain snow caps, glaciers or other physical attributes wildlife depend upon (. Global Warming in Temperate Zone 2007). Impact on Human Geography Changes in seasonality have not yet had much affect upon the lower United States human geography. Change in seasonality has had profound impact upon populations in Alaska and Canada. “[The Inuit’s] winter hunting and fishing is limited severely by loss of ice (Global Warming in the Arctic 2007). ”

Seasonal use of Ice roads, loss of sea-ice and lengthening summers all will have a profound impact on trade and national defense ( Climate Change: “Alaska” 2000). According to the IPCC report there is little that can be done to immediately reverse this trend as temperatures will continue to increase on inertia of the GHGs already in the atmosphere (Alley 2007) . Changing vegetation and Ecology The principle sources for this idea were: Global Warming in the Temperate Zone, Geography Chapter 2, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Summary for Policy Makers, Alaska Survey (Us Global Change Research Program)

Why? The changes in seasonality and accompanying changes in temperature constitute changes in climate (Lew 2004). Plant organisms and their distributions are usually sensitive to climate changes. Impact on Physical Geography “Climate has a direct impact on the biogeographic distribution of the natural vegetation in a region (Lew 2004). ” Observed changes in altitudinal zonation are expected to accelerate if temperatures continue to rise rapidly (Global Warming: Temperate Zone 2007). Impact on Human Geography

This effect is not likely to have an immediate impact on humans, though there may be some benefit from a longer growing season and perhaps a larger farmable area. Changes in Precipitation The principle sources for this idea were: Geography Chapter 2, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Summary for Policy Makers, Regional Overview (Us Global Change Research Program) Why? Warmer air can carry more moisture. As temperature rises it increases the vapor pressure of water and causes increased evaporation. When precipitation occurs it is likely to be more intense, dumping more water in less time than would normally be the case.

Impact on Physical Geography “Precipitation is very likely to continue to increase on average, especially in middle and high latitudes… in the form of heavy downpours. (US Global Change, “Water overview” 2000). “ Combined with seasonality, this means that some areas will become wetter and stay wetter longer than normal. Impact on Human Geography The resulting conditions may yield increased productivity, pest populations and disease. Introduce competition for water as the distribution and rates of precipitation change (US Global Change, “Water overview” 2000).

Changes will very likely exaggerate conflicts in regions where fresh water is reduced by increasing evaporation and changes in precipitation (US Global Change, “Water overview” 2000). Sea Level changes The principle sources for this idea were: Geography Chapter 2, IPCC report, and Global Warming in The Artic, Rising Sea Levels Why? Sea level changes are occurring from increasing mean temperatures. The types of sea level rise include volume increases due to thermal expansion, increasing output from rivers due to increased precipitation, and increased outflow from melting glacier and icecap reserves.

Impact on Physical Geography Loss of shoreline from movement of sea, submergence of low lying islands loss of wetlands and delta areas due to increased salinity in mixed water environment. Impact on Human Geography Should ice cap melting experience a surge it is possible for a rapid increase in sea-levels of 4-20 feet to occur over a short time. A rise of that size would inundate the cities forcing many to migrate away and shutting down important commercial centers, possibly permanently.

Damage could by mitigated by building dikes, tidal dams and changes to building codes requiring use of higher situated building sites, most of these protective measures are not permanent solutions. Storm intensity increases The principle sources for this idea were: Geography Chapter 2, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Summary for Policy Makers, Regional Overview (Us Global Change Research Program) Why? This is related to the causes for increased precipitation, the oceans get warmer, which makes more evaporative pressure.

Storms, such as hurricanes forming over water will gather more flow more quickly than they would ordinarily. The storms develop higher winds (larger volume of air is ready to enter convection) and increases in precipitation (more warm moist air,