University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
This final seminar fulfills the Upper Division writing requirement, thus, the CW requirements incorporate the needed activities and products needed for writing requirement fulfillment. After selection of a topic, students will conduct literature and other searches, prepare an outline, annotated bibliography, first draft, and ultimately a final version of their papers. The papers will be presented in class in a colloquium setting at the end of the quarter. According to the Guidelines for Upper Division Writing Courses, papers should total 4,000 words or more of finished work.
The Writing Board has recommended Writing from A to Z, custom fourth edition by Ebest et al. (McGraw-Hill 2003) as a standard handbook for the campus. Each paper should have a title, your name and student ID, and include an abstract (a concise, but complete summary of your paper), introduction, and then you may divide it into discussion sections as you please. The paper should end with a Summary/Conclusion and a Literature Cited section. For a long paper such as yours, please cite in the narrative and provide complete citations for at least ten peer-reviewed references (books and journals).
The references should be arranged alphabetically in a `Literature Cited` section, and every reference must be cited (i. e. referred to) in the narrative of the paper. You may use the citation system of your choice, but be consistent. Don’t switch and use one part of the time, then another. I recommend using chapter 4 of Pechenik (5th ed. ), p. 67-74 for citation instruction and formatting suggestions. -direct quotation is not allowed in this paper; it has be paraphrased (in your words). -Be careful in citing sources. You must cite all the sources through out the paper. Global warming Introduction
Electronic wastes or ‘e-wastes’ seem to be a challenge to today’s modern age. E-wastes are several electronic items or devices such as computers, printers, mobiles, PDA’s, copiers, etc, which may contain hazardous substances and may have a negative effect on the environment. Most people think that Electronic wastes are only material that is utilized to package electronic goods and devices. However, it is important to note that E-wastes not only include the electronic device that may not be required after several years of use, but also the packaging that is utilized for covering these electronic devices by the manufacturer.
E-wastes contain a lot of metallic substances, such as iron, copper, silver, cadmium, selenium, chromium, gold, aluminum, mercury, lead, etc, which could have a negative effect on the environment. The amount of metallic substances that are contained in e-wastes may be as high as 60 %. The presence of several other pollutants may be as high as 3 %. When such substances are discarded without treating them, they would have a serious impact on the environment. Usually such electronic items are meant to be reused, recycled or restored. However, with people actually discarding them, they are adversely affecting the environment.
In today modern age, information technology has really made the earth a very small place. We are able to communicate with one another from one place in the earth to another. However, every form of advanced technology would be having a negative effect on the environment. Thesis statement In today’s electronic and information technology age, is the management of E-wastes critical for the sustenance of the environment. The extent the problem is affecting the environment and the scale of the problem needs to be assessed today and for the future. Besides, a solution to the problem of managing e-wastes also needs to be determined. Problem
Usually, the task of disposing off the product would be that of the consumer. However, the manufacturer would also be responsible to a reasonable extent to ensure that the product is properly disposed off, as they are the only people who know the content of the electronic waste. Besides, the since the manufacturer knows the contents of the electronic waste, they would have to inform the consumer and also create some amount of awareness in them as to how the product has to be disposed off (Green Peace, 2008). Producers of E-waste Today, most of the homes and businesses in developed nations have at least a television and a computer.
It is very essential that the business should have a computer in order to conduct business and to communicate with other organizations. However, these computers or televisions cannot function perpetually. Hence, they need to be replaced sooner or later so that their functioning could be replaced with another unit. Another potential problem would be to utilize more advanced versions. Manufacturers are constantly coming up with newer versions, which overall has a very disastrous effect on the environment. People are constantly considering upgrading to a higher version.
In the US alone, every year more than ten million computers or television are discarded as they may be considered unwanted, obsolete, or unusable. This figure is enormous and is much more than actually anticipated (CIWMB, 2007, Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality, 2001). Amount of E-wastes generated The huge amount of e-wastes generated seems to be an important issue for Jim Harford, DEQ Hazardous Waste Compliance Assistance Specialist. He feels that about that more than 97 % of the computers that are actually generated as e-wastes can be recycled or reused.
If this 97 % of the computers are either recycled or reused, then there would be a significant amounts of e-wastes generated. He considers, that once actually a computer or for that matter any electronic device is not required, immediate considerations should be made to actually reuse or recycle it rather than thinking of it as some sort of waste product. He feels that every year, the amount of electronic devices that end up in landfill, is not only a waste of resources, but also more importantly a negative effect on the environment. The environment is at a serious threat if so many e-waste products are actually generated.
One of the major culprits he considers to be seriously affecting the environment is the cathode ray tube, which contains about 5 to 8 pounds of lead and significant quantities of cooper, silver, cadmium, chromium, selenium, etc. The cathode ray tube is utilized in computers and in television. Jim Harford feels that currently no legislation actually addresses these issues of cathode ray tubes being disposed off by homes. Jim Harford feels that if no legislation is actually formed then within a few years the landfill would get occupied. This means to be a challenge to environmental organizations, government, NGO’s, etc.
The only option present to residents is to dispose off e-wastes into the regular trash bin (CIWMB, 2007, CIWMB, 2008, Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality, 2001). The CIWMB considers that the government and other agencies could speculate investing in managing e-wastes as it is much safer than managing the industrial wastes. In the California laws, if the wastes have any characteristics such as toxicity, corrosiveness, reactivity and ignitability, etc, then it is hazardous in nature and requires proper environmental management.
The wastes need to be considered as hazardous. In this way several items that are usually disposed off as e-wastes can be included as hazardous items (CIWMB, 2007). Australia is also having a problem with their e-waste generation. More than half the number of houses has a TV and one –third the numbers of houses have a computer in Australia. Australia is found to be a very technology loving nation. They are open to any form of technology that offers advantages. However, the mounting problem is regarding the constant generation of e-wastes.
Old systems and electronic items need to be handled effectively. People in Australia have very computer savvy attitudes. Most of the Australians are ready to accept changes, and this has lead to Australia being in the top ten countries that have advanced communication systems. Australians spend a lot in terms of per capita income on electronic systems. Australia also generates a lot of e-wastes, which needs to be handled more effectively in order to prevent degradation of the environment. Previously, Australia was a very unpopulated region in the world.
People had big houses and used their garages to dump the unwanted stuff. However, today in Australia, cities and towns are crowded, and people do not have space to keep the items that are utilized less frequently. Hence, people are frequently dumping their unwanted electronic gadgets, which are having a rather serious impact on nature. In the year 2006, more than 1. 6 million computers were dumped into the landfill, 1. 8 million put in storage spaces and only 0. 5 million recycled. People already had 5. 3 million stored in garages and in storage spaces in houses (The Lab ABC, 2008).