University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Dr. Jose Rizal
Every Filipino should know the national hero’s life, his youth, his brilliant works, as well as his love life, and the role he played in the Philippine Revolution. Every Filipino should know his dreams and aspiration for his country and for his fellowmen and the magnitude and intensity of his love for the land of his birth. Filipino should know how he suffered, endured, and died.
Activity 1 :
You are required to read the Rizal’s Life, Works and Writings in order to answer the following questions:
Instruction : Give the important events and incidents happens on the following topics briefly and concise.
1. Jose Rizal’s Birth & Early Childhood
a. The birth – June 19, 1861, Calamba, Laguna Philippines. b. Parents – Francisco Engracio Rizal Mercado y Alejandro II and Teodora Morales Alonzo Realonda y Quintos. c. Children – SATURNINA RIZAL, PACIANO RIZAL, NARCISA RIZAL, OLYMPIA RIZAL, LUCIA RIZAL, MARIA RIZAL, JOSE RIZAL, CONCEPCION RIZAL, JOSEFA RIZAL, TRINIDAD RIZAL, SOLEDAD RIZAL. d. Family – FRANCISCO MERCADO and TEODORA ALONSO
Childhood – Jose Rizal was born to the wealthy Mercado-Rizal family in Calamba, Laguna of the Philippines. The Mercado-Rizals were considered one of the most prestigious Filipino families during their time. Jose Rizal came from the 13-member family consisting of his parents, Francisco Mercado II and Teodora Alonso Realonda, and nine sisters and one brother. His parents were leaseholders of a hacienda and an accompanying rice farm by theDominicans. From an early age, Jose Rizal Mercado showed a precocious intellect. He learned the alphabet from his mother at 3, and could read and write at age 5.
2. Early Education
a. Education in Biñan – Rizal had his early education in Calamba and Biñan. It was a typical schooling that a son of an ilustrado family received during his time, characterized by the four R’s- reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion. Instruction was rigid and strict. Knowledge was forced into the minds of the pupils by means of the tedious memory method aided by the teacher’s whip. Despite the defects of the Spanish system of elementary education, Rizal was able to acquire the necessary instruction preparatory for college work in Manila. It may be said that Rizal, who was born a physical weakling, rose to become an intellectual giant not because of, but rather in spite of, the outmoded and backward system of instruction obtaining in the Philippines during the last decades of Spanish regime.
b. Gomburza Execution – Night of January 20, 1872, about 200 filipino soldiers and workmen of the Cavite arsenal under the leadership of Lamadrid. Filipino sergeant , rose in violent mutinity because of the abolition of their usual privilege. Father Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora were executed at sunrise of February 17, 1872 by order of governor General Izquierdo. c. The martyrdom of Gom-Bue-za truky insoured Rizal to fight the evils of Spanish tyranny and redeem his oppressed people. Rizal dedicted his second novel, EL Filibusterismo d. Mother’s Imprisonment – Some days after my return to Kalamba, my parents decided that I should remain, and that later I should go to Manila. I wanted to study with a teacher of the town, even though I could learn no more than multiplication, so I entered the village school.
At this time, an uncle of mine, Don José Alberto, returned from Europe. He found that, during his absence, his wife had left his home and abandoned her children. The poor man anxiously sought his wife and, at my mother’s earnest request, he took her back. They went to live in Biñan. Only a few days later the ungrateful woman plotted with a Guardia Civil officer who was a friend of ours. She accused her husband of poisoning her and charged that my mother was an accomplice. On this charge, the alcalde sent my mother to prison. I do not like to tell of the deep grief which we all, nine sisters and brothers, felt. Our mother’s arrest, we knew, was unjust. The men who arrested her pretended to be friends and had often been our guests. Ever since then, child though I was, I have distrusted friendship. We learned later that our mother, away from us all and along in years, was ill. From the first, the alcalde believed the accusation.
He was unfair in every way and treated my mother rudely, even brutally. Finally, he persuaded her to confess to what they wised by promising to set her free and to let her see her children. What mother could resist that? What mother would not sacrifice life itself for her children? hey terrified and deceived my mother, as they would have any other mother. They threatened to condemn her if she did not say what they wished. She submitted to the will of her enemies and lost her spirit. The case became involved until the same alcalde asked pardon for her. But this was only when the matter was before the Supreme Court. He asked for the pardon because he was sorry for what he had done. Such was his meanness that I felt afraid of him. Attorneys Francisco de Marcaida and Manuel Masigan, Manila’s leading lawyers, defended my mother and they finally succeeded in having her acquitted. They proved her innocence to the judges, her accusers and her hosts of enemies. But after how much delay? — After two and a half years.
e. Studies at Ateneo de Manila – To enter the Ateneo a candidate was subjected to an entrance examination on Christian doctrine, reading, writing, grammar, and elementary arithmetic. Jose did not take his entrance examinations Jose did not remain in Manila but returned first to his town to celebrate the fiesta of its patron saint; it was then that his father changed his mind and decided to send him to the Ateneo instead.
f. Jesuit Education System – The Jesuits were considered the best educators of Spain, and perhaps of Europe, and so, when they were permitted to return to the Philippines, although their power to administer parishes was restricted except in the remote regions of Mindanao, the privilege of founding colleges, they had to apply to the City of Manila for subsidies. That is why the college which began to function in the year 1865, was called the Ateneo Municipal. g. Studies in Ateneo de Manila
1. 1st year – From the first days Jose learned to systematize his work; he fixed a program of what he had to do in the twenty-four hours of the day and did not in the least deviate from it. Thus he disciplined his will and subjected it to the commands of his reason.
As a newcomer, Jose was at first put at the tail of the class, but he was soon promoted and kept on being promoted so that at the end of one month he had attained to the rank of Emperor. At the end of the term he obtained marks of excellent in all the subjects and in the examinations. He had reason to feel proud of his advancement; and so when he went home on vacation that year, he ran alone to see his mother in the prison and tell her the happy news.
He must have uttered this exclamation on learning from his mother that they had played her a mean trick. The judge, who was a blind partisan of the friars having been a domestic of theirs, told her that if she confessed her culpability he would release her at once. With the desire to see her children again, she pleaded guilty; but the judge, instead of releasing her, convicted her. In a few months the judge asked her forgiveness for what he had done because according to him his conscience hurt him, but the case had no remedy because it was already on appeal.
2. 2nd year – The second year, Jose had the same professor as in the previous year; but instead of lodging outside the City, he resided at No. 6 Calle Magallanes. At the end of the term he obtained a medal, and upon returning to his town, he again visited his mother in jail alone. This was three months before her release. 3. 3rd year – The rejoicing that her release produced in his spirit had much influence on the result of his studies in the third year, for he began to win prizes in the quarterly examinations.
About that time he devoted himself to reading novels, and one of those he enjoyed most was Dumas’ (father) The Count of Monte Cristo. The sufferings of the hero of the twelve years. He also asked his father to buy him a copy of The Universal History by Cesar Cantanu, and according to himself he profited much from its perusal. 4. 4th year and last year – The family, who saw in Jose great aptitude for study, decided to place him as intern or boarding student in the college the following year. In the corner of the dormitory facing the sea and the pier Jose passed his two years of internship.
In the fourth year of his course he had Fr. Francisco Sanchez as professor. Jose describes him as a model of rectitude, a solicitude, and love for the student, and his studied mathematics, rhetoric, and Greek, and he must have progressed much, for at the end of the year he-obtained five medals, which pleased him immensely because with them I could repay my father somewhat for his sacrifices.
His aptitude for poetry revealed itself early, and from that time on he did not cease to cultivate it.
3. Secret Mission
a. Travel for Spain – The departure of Jose Rizal for Spain was kept secret from Spanish authorities, friars and even to his parents especially to his mother because she would not allow him to go. Only handful of family members and trusted family friends were informed. In order to avoid detection, he used the name Jose Mercado, name of his cousin in Calamba. Before his departure, he scribbled farewell letters to his parents and his sweetheart Leonor Rivera. b. Life in Madrid – Avoid detection by the Spanish authorities and the friars, His parents did not know because he knew, they would not allow him to go. The kind Jesuit priests letter of recommendation to the members of their Society in Barcelona. c. Travel in Europe
1. Paris – During his first summer vacation in Madrid, rizal went to Paris, gay capital of France. The prices of food, drinks, theatre, tickets, laundry, hotel and transportation were too high. Leannec Hospital where rizal observed the Dr. Nicaise treating his patients. Larboisiere Hospital where Rizal observed the eamination of different diseases of women. On march 1883 Rizal joined the Masonic Lodge called Acacia in Madrid. 2. Heidelberg – February 1, 1886 Rizal reluctantly left gay Paris for Germany. 3. February 3, 1886 Rizal arrived in Heidelberg, a historic city in Germany famous for its old university and romantic surroundings. Chess Player’s Club wherein the students made Rizal as a member because of being a good Chess player Dr. Otto Becker distinguished German ophthalmologist where Rizal worked – University Eye Hospital. April 22, 1886 Rizal wrote a fine poem: “ A Las Flores de Heidelberg “