Cosmetic surgery Essay

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Cosmetic surgery Essay
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  • University/College:
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  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 4146

  • Pages: 17

Cosmetic surgery

Introduction:

The search for perfection is in mind of probably every human being. This search had started Centuries ago not only in the twenty first century but it had developed now due to the influence of the media on people specially women and teenagers. That search of perfection made them thinking of cosmetic surgery as that seemed the easy way to get the shape and the look they wanted, not what GOD had been giving them.

So, what is plastic surgery?
Originally the word plastic surgery came from a Greek word Plastikos, it means the shape or mould. So it has nothing to do with plastic or plastic products.

In my understanding of plastic surgery, it’s type of surgery that repairs the damaged places in the body that got injured or lost organs or tissues of the body. It can be for any part of the body, some people get plastic surgeries for medical reasons but others to fulfill there needs of being perfect and beautiful!

According to a medical dictionary “ plastic surgery is the specialty or procedure concerned with the restoration, construction, reconstruction, or even improvement in the form, function, and appearance of the body structure that are missing, defective, damaged, or misshapen1.” Another definition for it “A special type of surgery that can involve both a person’s appearance and ability to function better2”.

A plastic surgery is the reconstruction or improvement of forms or functions by resection, transplantation, or implantation. Plastic surgery therefore it
includes the reconstruction of defects3.

There are two types of plastic surgery:
Reconstructive surgery:
“Reconstructive surgery is frequently performed on burn and accident victims. It may involve the rebuilding of harshly fractured bones, as well as skin grafting. Reconstructive surgery includes such procedures as the reattachment of an amputated finger or toe, or implanting a prosthesis. Prostheses are artificial structures and materials that are used to replace missing limbs or teeth, or arthritic hip and knee joints4.” Cosmetics surgery (also called aesthetic):

procedures alter a part of the body that the person is not happy with. General cosmetic procedures include making the breasts larger or smaller, reshaping the nose, and take out pockets of fat from specific spots on the body. Several cosmetic procedures aren’t even surgical in the way that the majority people think of surgery that is cutting and stitching. For example, the use of special lasers to remove unwanted hair and sanding skin to improve severe scarring are two such treatments.

History of plastic surgery:

As the surgical specialties go, you may think that plastic surgery is one of the best known things at this moment, that’s because of the media that covers the celebrity “enhancements” and the never ending chase for the perfect appearance although there is no such thing under the name of perfect appearance. Plastic surgery now has the eyes of the public, as it became for the people something almost interchangeable terms, but in medical field and historical perspective this isn’t so! Cosmetics surgery involves an elective procedures preformed for an aesthetic reasons, but plastic surgery refers to the surgical reconstruction misshapenness of a part of the face or the body, providing the normal appearance and function.

As surgical specialties go you may think that plastic surgery is one of the best known at the moment, civility of media coverage of celebrity “enhancements” and the never ending chase of the perfect appearance. Plastic plus cosmetic surgery has, in the eyes of the public, become almost interchangeable terms, but in medical and historical background this isn’t so. Cosmetic surgery involves optional procedures performed for aesthetic reasons, but plastic surgery refers to surgical reconstruction of deformity, providing normal appearance and function. The specialty developed from its ancient Egyptian origins more than three thousand years ago. It developed geographically, as knowledge spread from epicentres, plus northern India at about 600 BC, Sicily in the 15th century Renaissance, Germany in the 19th century, and lastly Britain in the two world wars.

Egyptian beginnings:
Evidence of reconstructive surgery exists in Egyptian medical papyruses1 that date back to 1600 BC, describing reconstructive techniques employed by the priest-doctors of the time to restore appearance.

Of these, the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus is the best example, describing case histories and advice for practical management, not like other texts, which outlined grouping of magical and practical methods.

Of the 48 preserved, case 12 describe how to come close to “a break in the chamber of the nose,” including a description of its look and methods of packing the nasal cavity to stop bleeding and reproduce a normal profile. Also included are suturing techniques, which allowed huge lacerations to heal with minimum mark. In the upper echelons of Egyptian culture huge importance was sited on the appearance, as shown by the elaborate death masks of the pharaohs and their daily use of make up. Consequently, a person’s look was changeable, doctors were expected to restore it to normality, and it was this demand that provided the motivation for the foundations of plastic surgery. Though the lack of anesthesia and pain relief and religious forbiddance of invasive surgery limited their work to superficial injuries, doctors were able to perfect basic but highly effective techniques, which continue to be used today.

Reconstructing the nose in India
Just about thousand years later, a Hindu doctor, Susruta, working in northern India close to the modern day city of Varanasi, completed the next step in the progress of plastic surgery, with the introduction of rhinoplasty2. Nasal amputation was common at the time, also through injury on the battlefield or as a punishment, which produced a shocking and deformed appearance.

In response, Susruta developed a reconstruction technique that returned some degree of function and shape, which is expressed in his book, Samhita (about 600 BC). His work had spread fast to Eastern Europe and into the Byzantine Empire, where in AD 700 the emperor Justinian successfully had a forehead rhinoplasty after a disturbing nasal amputation. Surviving statues of Justinian bear scars around the nose and forehead, a testament to the surgery he underwent.

The fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century was vital in preventing the dissemination of this technique all over Western Europe. Lack of demand for procedures other than rhinoplasty in the east meant a lack of driving force for more advancement techniques were just being refined not pioneered.

It was not until the Renaissance in the 15th century that a few developments took place. Italian practitioners were at the front position, as for many medical advances at that moment in time, in particular a Sicilian family of surgeons, the Brancas. Between Branca Senior and his son, Antonius, suturing techniques were advanced, affording minimum scarring, new methods for repairing wounds to ears and lips were recognized, and the aforementioned Indian method was introduced to the West, as Susruta’s text grow to be more widely available. Cosmetic surgery:

Nowadays, cosmetic surgery is one of the most surgeries that people make. As the graph shows the top plastic surgeries that been done in year 2008 (look at figure 1):

As you can see that the most common cosmetic surgery is Breast Augmentation,
subsequently, Lipoplasty, Blepharoplasty, Rhinoplasty and lastly Abdominoplasty.

Breast augmentation: A procedure made to increase breast size. Liposuction: A procedure in which a special instrument called a canula is used to break up and suck out fat from the body. This procedure is also known as lipoplasty. Blepharoplasty: is one of the most popular cosmetic surgical procedures. It’s a procedure to get rid of fat – frequently along with excess skin plus muscle – from the upper and lower eyelids. It can lift drooping upper lids and reduce the puffy eye bags that form below our eyes. Rhinoplasty: A cosmetic procedure used to improve or change the appearance of the nose. Rhinoplasty is commonly referred to as a nose job.

Abdominoplasty: A procedure performed to flatten your abdomen by removing extra fat along with skin, and tightening muscles in your abdominal wall. This procedure is commonly referred to as a tummy tuck.

Advantages and disadvantages of cosmetic surgeries

Really there is nothing at all wrong with you wanting to make your self beautiful, prettier or even wanting to feel better about yourself. Because in our world the image is everything, feeling good and looking good too is really important. The question that you really have to ask yourself is how far would you go to look perfect? Before making any decision, be sure that you are happy with your self inside, because the outside is something can be changed in a moment.

Disadvantages
Various Procedures:

Cosmetic surgery includes a wide range of procedures. Each and every procedure has its own advantages as well as disadvantages. One of the most popular cosmetic surgery procedures is breast implants. They probably make a woman feel more confident of herself and her body, except the implants have a risk of leaking or even bursting and that well require another surgery to fix the problem. Second most popular cosmetics surgery is Liposuction. The noticeable advantage for this procedure is that people can lose a large amount of weight in hours. Also, they might feel better about themselves after having the procedure and keep up a healthier lifestyle. On the other hand, if they gain weight after going under a liposuction procedure the chances of risk is going to increase. Your skin might be at risk of dimpling and that is going to need fat injections to fix that problem. In addition, the body is going to take long time to get used to the new weight plus some people suffer chills and other problems in the weeks and months after having the procedure. Costs

One of the disadvantages of cosmetic surgery is the cost. A simple Botox injection can cost $400 and even more. Breast reductions can range between $3,500 and $6,000 depending on if you are a man or a woman. Facelifts average is about $6,500 and even liposuction costs more than $3,000. A nose job is generally more than $4,000 and eyelid surgery is at least $3,000. These are just a few of the high costs of some of the good number of popular cosmetic surgery procedures.

Although, the costs of those procedures are pretty expensive, there are a few ways to save some money. Nearly all plastic surgeons offer financing options either through their own office or by working with a lender or even a financing company. Many people are able to afford these procedures now and that is by working out low monthly payments. Some cosmetic surgery schools too may offer discount procedures for people who are willing. These procedures are controlled and observed by trained professionals.

Safety

In general, cosmetic surgery procedures are safe. The overwhelming majority of customers who go through liposuction, face lifts, breast augmentations or other procedures are happy with the change and experience few negative side effects.

However, some statistics that poses a disadvantage to those considering cosmetic surgery. According to CosmeticSurgery.com, about four percent of cosmetic surgery procedures have some type of complication after completed. Procedures done in Mexico and other countries where they are much cheaper account for many of the surgeries that “go bad,” however it is still something to consider and put in mind.

Requirements
In order to be qualified candidate for cosmetic surgery, you must follow certain standards. There are some health conditions that you will probably exclude you from being a candidate for cosmetic surgery, including lung disease, hypertension, diabetes, arthritis and malnourishment. These and other problems make risks of cosmetic surgery. On the other hand, if you are a fairly health person, cosmetic surgery can be a remarkable advantage.

Smokers are also not good candidates for cosmetic procedures. Actually, they must quit smoking for two whole weeks before having the procedure in addition; they must also be smoke-free for more two weeks after having the surgery. For some smokers, this may be a tremendous disadvantage to cosmetic surgery.

Risks
No surgery is risk free, but unfortunately there is something called complications and side effects of any surgery. Part of the cosmetic surgeon’s job is to educate, tutor and help the people who are planning on having cosmetics surgery properly including knowledge of this into their decision about surgery. In addition you must discuss the risks and all the side effect of the surgery with your cosmetic surgeon. Post-operative Hemorrhage (Bleeding)

Although our body’s have there own mechanisms and surgeon work in concert to stop all the significant bleeding produced during an operation, there are times when bleeding may resume post-operatively. It would be unusual for the bleeding that can complicate the cosmetic surgery to be life threatening, but it certainly can lead to extend the recovery and the need for extra surgery. Cosmetics surgery procedures are frequently form wide areas between tissues, which can cause blood to collect if the bleeding continued in after the operation on the early days. When this happen that could lead to a development of the firm tense clot within the tissues referred to as a “hematoma.” This clot can cause major pain plus it will produce hard swelling with discoloration.

Between all this things that can effect and cause allot of complications, such as uncontrolled high blood pressure, clotting disorders plus the over use of alcohol. This risk of bleeding is decreased with each passing day after having the surgery. Because significant clots can compromise skin vascularity and prevent normal healing, the surgeon him self will usually need to evacuate the collection by opening the wound in a limited way or by re-operating. To reduce your risk for this problem, your doctor will see if you have any bleeding history and he’ll ask you to avoid aspirin for two weeks before having the surgery. You may also help reduce the risk by following the instructions after having the cosmetic surgery, so that might be some kind of a relief.

Post-operative Wound Infection
Wound infections are frequently caused by the patient’s OWN germs. We live in an environment that is filled with organisms that live our skin plus in our guts. When a cut is made in the skin (such as surgical incision), organisms that must kept out are now allowed to get into the tissues. Most of the time the body’s immune system well fight and will destroy the bacteria before they harm the body. In minority cases the germs may grow too fast which will make them increase in number, consequently that will lead those to overwhelm the humans body defenses, which well lead to tissue invasion and infection. The infections are distinguished by swelling plus redness, and it might be accompanied by pus like drainage from a wound and fever with malaise.

The infections are distinguished by swelling plus redness, and it might be accompanied by a puss plus fever and malaise. This infection could be healed by opening a portion or all of the incision. So once the body gains the upper hand after this surgery is done the wound can be closed secondarily, but sometimes it might be allowed to close up the wound by it self. Although when the wound is drained obviously the doctor well take fluid for culture and he’ll make the patient on an antibiotic to effect and fight against bacteria. The antibiotic choice might be changed several days after the surgery, and that is based on the result of the cultures obtained. Skin Death (Slough)

Plastic surgeons often remove and rearrange the tissues; they have to divide some of the supply to those tissues. If in any chance the areas of the skin or fat left without enough circulation to heal, a “slough(4)” will occur, and that well cause tissue discoloring, turning black and that well need must be removed. Slough is common in the elderly, the obese, cigarette smokers and people with blood vessel diseases. Plus, the chances of slough can also rise up by pressure effects of hematoma and the invasive activities of bacteria within an infected wound. Tiny sloughs in cosmetic surgery is not important areas and usually the can be treated with wound care and later scar revision. On the other hand larger areas of slough may be required to go under another surgery to remove the dying tissue and reorganize tissue for the wound closure.

Abnormal Scarring (“Hypertrophic” scars and “Keloids”)
Mainly objectionable scarring after cosmetic surgery is determined genetically. People of certain skin types are more expected than others to suffer from thick, raised “hypertrophic(5)” scars. People who are most risk those of African-American, Mediterranean or Asian background. Something is worth considering, that different areas of the body can heal with several types of scars and your doctor have to educate you with the nature of the scaring that he expect to happen in the area to be treated. General Post-surgical Risks

Lying still during and immediately after surgery can lead to stagnation of the blood inside the veins of the leg and pelvis; sometimes it leads to clotting named Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT). DVT is really serious as it can lead to inflammation that well effect the veins with later scarring of the veins venous incompetence. It have a possibility that clot within a large vein might break free and circulate through the large veins to be trapped inside the lung (this is called “pulmonary embolus”). This is a unique and unusual complication in cosmetics surgery, but this is important to consider it and know about it as it can be life threatening. Patients who are at higher risk to this problem are those who are obese, heavy smokers plus people with a previous history of DVT.

Examples of bad cosmetic surgeries:

Advantages

Feeling good about your self
The great thing about plastic surgery is that the benefits are not only physical it also emotional, so it help the patient external plus internal. It can be exactly what you really need to improve and develop your self image and look. Having the look or the positive self image could give you a better self confidence, and that might help you to get a better job, trying new things and it will also give you a feeling of well being.

Correct physical defects
In addition, cosmetic surgery has this incredible ability to correct the physical defects. Many people may have physical defects that were done by an accident or bad case of acne as a teenager. Also, there are people who are born with physical defects that had overwhelmed them, bother them and got teased because of it since birth. Cosmetic surgery now have the answer and the solution for there problems.

Feel younger

People who have cosmetic surgeries feel younger and more attractive. This feeling will make them improve there self and there body image and that is something that well surely help feeling good emotionally. You well really enjoy this feeling of satisfactions and that well be the reason for you to get you life in a better place the fits your NEW YOU. Studies showed that people who go under the knife “cosmetic surgeries” are more often to get rewards in their personal career.

Looking beautiful than ever

There are some girls and even boys that when they wake up and look at the mirror they someone not pretty, and doesn’t have only one pretty thing to feel good about comparing there self to celebrities and famous people. So they turn to cosmetic surgeries to give them a look that they well feel satisfied about. Therefore, they look beautiful than ever.

Examples of good cosmetic surgeries:
Conclusion:
Cosmetic surgery is just like any other things, it have advantages and disadvantages. People who are planning on having cosmetic surgery should really think twice about it. It is considered a surgical procedure consequently it’s going to have its risks. However, if you are a good healthy person you might be a good candidate for it. People who are willing to take that risk should really think double twice (not only twice), they should really consider the consequences, risks and if they are that kind of people who can live up with some pain after having it done. Cosmetic surgery can really be a solution for you to enhance your self image. Although, there are much less expensive, easy things plus it doesn’t hurt or cause any actual pain. To improve and enhance your look and self image, you can start by living a healthy well being life, that well make you first look better, feel younger, look younger plus live longer. Now you can see that you have three things done by living a healthy life! In addition, you can also consider having a NEW LOOK for your self. So get a new hair cut, a new hair color and go shopping for new clothes that fit the YOUR NEW YOU.

In my opinion, cosmetic surgeries must not be done on any one, but only for people who suffers from deformation or have a problem resulting from an accident. Cosmetic surgery is something not necessary for people to have, because GOD had given us a face and a body that can function and can do its work properly. So you should look to those poor kids and poor people that have deformation and compare your self to them, and then you can really see how you are so lucky to have what you have and not be in there place. You should also thank god every single day for what he gave you and thank him for not putting you in that persons place.

References:

1. Williams , Lippincott. “plastic surgery .” 28th. Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, 2006. Web. .

2. Dowshen, MD, Steven . “Plastic Surgery.” (2009): 1-5. Web. .

3. Gerber, Diane, and Marie Czenko Kuechel. 100 Quetions and answers about plastic surgery . 1st. 5. Canada: Jones and Bartlett Publishers,Inc, 2005. 1-2. Print.

4. J. Frey, Rebecca. “plastic surger.” New-York: 2008. Web. .

5. “Cosmetic Surgery Glossary of Terms .” 29 Harley Street, London W1G 9QR: Royal College of Surgeons , 2008. Web. .

6. E.Panfilv, Dimitrije . Cosmetic Surgery Today. 1st. German: Library of congress cataloging in publication data, 2003. 1-6. Print.

7. M.Engler, Alan . Body Sculpture. 2ed. 3. New York: Hudson Publishing, 1998. 6-9. Print.

8. Bullivant , Elizabeth. “A brief history of plastic surgery .” Britain: University of Birmingham, 2007. Web. .

9. Lisa A., Ennis. “Cosmetic Surgery .” Dictionary of American History . New York: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. Web. .

10. Hagy, Chad. “Advantages & Disadvantages of Cosmetic Surgery .” eHOW (2008): n. pag. Web. 3 Apr 2010. .

11. “Uncover The Advantages Of Cosmetic Surgery .” http://www.cosmeticsurgerya-z.com. N.p., 7/5/2007. Web. 3 Apr 2010. .

12. Beverly Hills Plastic Surgery News. 2009, Web. 3 Apr 2010. .

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Cosmetic surgery Essay

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Cosmetic surgery Essay
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  • University/College:
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  • Words: 319

  • Pages: 1

Cosmetic surgery

Successful plastic and cosmetic surgeries procedures give a completely new look to the individual by addressing particular aesthetic concerns. Facial aging signs can be corrected by face-lifts and face implants. Similarly, contouring options available for other body parts help women achieve their cosmetic goals. Often, some of these procedures remove physical discomfort and contribute to an overall sense of wellbeing. For instance, less neck pain, bra strap grooving and lower back pain is experienced by women after breast reconstruction surgery. Apart from being able to wear a wide variety of clothes, women can exercise and play sports comfortably after surgery.

Psychological: Cosmetic surgery for women brings psychological benefits as well. Women feel more confident and energetic after the surgery, knowing that they look much better. It gives a solid boost to their self-esteem. The benefits associated with cosmetic surgery for women far outweigh the risks. So more women choose to undergo the procedures and achieve better looks. The prime concern is to find a skilled and experienced plastic surgeon specialized in providing the procedure you want.

Reasons for the Popularity of Cosmetic Plastic Surgery One of the main reasons for the growth of popularity of cosmetic surgery for women is that it can be provided for various body parts, such as face, eyelids, eyebrows, breasts, chin, tummy and hips.

There is nothing wrong with wanting to make yourself beautiful or wanting to feel better about yourself. In a society where image is everything, feeling and looking good is important. The question to ask yourself is how far would you go to look perfect? Before you consider something as drastic as cosmetic surgery, make sure you are happy with who you are on the inside, because the outside can change at a moment’s notice.

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  • University/College:
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  • Words: 1591

  • Pages: 6

Cosmetic Surgery

Cosmetic Surgery is a widely accepted practice among men and women. You can have anything done to yourself as long as you have the money. With the advancement in today’s technology, more men and women are flocking to have expensive cosmetic procedures done. The percentage of men and women getting some type of surgery done to themselves are drastically different. Women have the highest number on the chart for having cosmetic surgery and men don’t even come close to their numbers. Men and women share the same types of surgery like: breast augmentation, liposuction, Botox and even laser hair removal. Teenagers are slowly starting to climb the charts more every year.

The average age for teenagers are between 16-18 years old. Teenage girls and boys go for procedures like; microdermabrasion, chemical peels and nose jobs. Some people believe that it is immoral to have surgery to change your appearance while other people believe that it is all right to have a tattoo. What is the difference between having surgery to change a defect in your appearance and having a tattoo? There is no difference, one can be removed and the other cannot. Every year, the average American spends millions of dollars on the many different types of cosmetic procedures available.

Many women would like to have surgery done to enhance the look of their bodies. Most women go through the agonizing pain of surgery for a needed boost in their self confidence. What do you see when you look in the mirror? For most women, they see imperfection and room for improvement. Often time’s people try to change themselves in order to make others happy. Cosmetic Surgery is so popular with the average American, it makes you wonder what our society will look like in 10 years. The most common surgical procedures done for women are; Breast augmentation, and Liposuction. In the year 2007, more than 399,440 women had a breast augmentation and 398,848 women had liposuction ( Mann 2007). Another type of cosmetic procedure people have done are non-surgical procedures.

Non-surgical simply means aesthetics are not necessary to be used in order to have the surgery done. Hyaluronic acid treatments, and Botox were the most popular non-surgical procedures for women. Hyaluronic is just a fancy word for skin treatments or acne treatments. Botox procedures essentially paralyze the muscles in the face to eliminate wrinkles and lines in patients by preventing the muscles from contracting (Sommerfeld 2007). The number of non-surgical procedures women have done are dramatically higher than surgical procedures simply because they are more affordable. Over 2,775,176 women have had Botox injections and over 1,448,716 have had some type of skin treatment done (Mann 2007).

Not only are women wanting to change their appearance, men have also jumped on the band wagon. Men are increasingly changing the things they do not like to see. Men and women between the ages of 35 and 50 had the most cosmetic procedures in 2007, a lot of them being men because it is around the time they are going through their mid life crisis. In the earlier years, men were not as concerned about the way they looked, the way they smelled or the fact that they were going bald. With the influx of women coworkers in the job force men have become more self conscious about their looks. The better you look the more attention you receive. The two main surgical procedures men have done every year are liposuction and rhinoplasty.

In the year 2008, more than 31,453 men had liposuction done on themselves to appear thinner to the opposite sex, and over 30,174 men changed their facial appearances by getting rhinoplasty done ( ASAPS 2007). The top Non-surgical procedures men have done are: Botox and Laser hair removal. Ironically, while some men are having hair removed from one part of their bodies, they are having hair transplanted to another part of their bodies. Hair transplants are another surgical procedure that is used widely among men and women. Men who are balding and have receding hair lines are having hair put back in order to look and feel younger. Over 225,099 men have received Botox injections and 309,692 men have had laser hair removal on some part of their body ( ASAPS 2007).

Cosmetic Surgery is not only for adults, teenagers are jumping at every opportunity that comes along. Due to the parents having so much cosmetic surgery done, they are influencing their teenagers saying it is all right to have cosmetic surgery if you do not like the way you look. The most popular procedures for teenagers were: Laser hair removal, Microdermabrasion, chemical peel, ear reshaping, and Rhinoplasty. Of those cosmetic procedures, 2 out of the 5 were actual surgical procedures ( Mann 2007). There is a difference between having cosmetic surgery to enhance your appearance and having cosmetic surgery to reconstruct a cleft lip, big ears and a collapsed nose. Having reconstructive surgery can benefit a child immensely simply by bringing up their self-esteem. In today’s society, some children ridicule other children who’s facial features are unattractive or physically impaired.

The long-term physical and emotional phenomenon of many popular cosmetic surgeries, including implants and liposuction are unknown ( Zuckerman 2005). Teenagers are unaware of the health risks they face everyday by going tanning, smoking and drinking. Even though teenagers don’t want to accept the fact that tanning is bad for you health, they do not realize that tanning can actually lead to more cosmetic surgery not to mention skin cancer and wrinkles. Cigarettes and drinking make young adults prematurely age in their facial features making them look older than they really are causing another reason for cosmetic surgery. If they are unaware or choose not to pay attention to these risks then they are less likely to pay attention to the risks of cosmetic surgery ( Zuckerman 2005).

In 2007, Americans spent more than $13.2 billion on cosmetic procedures alone. Of that $13.2 billion, $8.3 billion was spent on surgical cosmetic procedures, while $4.7 billion was spent on non-surgical procedures (Mann 2007). According to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, the number of cosmetic surgery procedures has jumped 457% since they began gathering these statistics in 1997. Over 11.7 million cosmetic surgical and non-surgical procedures were performed in the United States, of those procedures, 91% were performed on women. (Mann,2007). That is a whopping 10.6 million procedures done a year, an increase of 1 percent since 2006 ( Mann 2007).

Before, men would stand by and let the women get all the cosmetic changes done to themselves and now they are slowly being put on the map. In fact, men had 9% of cosmetic procedures done in 2007, with the number of total procedures increasing 17 percent since 2006, to just over 1 million ( Mann 2007). Teens aging from 16 to 18 years old had less than 2% of the cosmetic surgery procedures. Either this information is not enough to be put on it’s own chart, or it is already incorporated with the men and women.

With the expense of having surgery and all the recovery time you have to take, it makes you wonder how far a person is willing to go for happiness. Some people think getting surgery is disgraceful and immoral, while others think it is all right to have a tattoo. What is the difference between having a tattoo and having a nose job? The only difference would be that, a tattoo can be removed while some of the surgical procedures people get cannot. They are for life, you cannot undo what you already did if you do not like the outcome. Every day more men and women are spending thousands of dollars fixing things they do not like about themselves. They are letting their children know that it is all right to have surgery because they are not developing fast enough, or get their nose done because it’s too big.

I have nothing against the doctors that perform these surgeries, it is their job. With out these specific doctors, we would not be able to survive in the cruel world we live in today. They are here to help those of us who really need it, and help those who want it. Does having cosmetic surgery truly make you feel better about yourself, does it make you sleep better to know that you can try to look like someone your not? Does having surgery on the outside make people like you better, even though you are the same person on the inside? Either way you look at it, having cosmetic surgery only changes what you look like on the outside, and if this does not make your self-esteem higher, then your problem goes much deeper than surgery.

Mann, D. (2007) Statistics on Cosmetic Surgery from ASAPS. Retrieved March 26, 2009, from http://www.yourplasticsurgeryguide.com/trends/charts-graphs.htm

American Society For Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. (2009). Liposuction no longer the most popular surgical procedure according to new statistics. Retrieved March 26, 2009, from http://www.earthtimes.org/article/show/liposuction-no-longer-the-most,750221.shtml

Sommerfeld, J. (2002). Liposuction Safety Concerns Assuages. Retrieved April
10, 2009, from http://www.nowfoundation.org/issues/health/whp/whp_fact1.html

Zuckerman, D. (2005). Teenagers and Cosmetic Surgery. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from http://www.ourbodiesourselves.org/book/companion.asp?compid=102&id=1

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Cosmetic Surgery

Introduction

“The development of plastic surgery in recent years has opened larger opportunities for health care professionals to offer a wide range of services to its customers, while the growing popularity and high demand on the services of plastic surgeons stimulated the rapid development of this field of medicine worldwide.” according to Thompson (2011). “In fact,” he continued “nowadays, plastic surgery becomes accessible to a larger number of people and, instead of the elitist surgery available to only a limited number of people, plastic surgery become accessible to large number of patients.” This means that cosmetic surgery becomes more popular and available for people in developing and developed countries to be able to have those kind of services for their desires. On the one hand, cosmetic surgery brings happiness to people who have the right cosmetic surgery. On the other hand, it also influences many negative results from those actions. Many people take the advantages from this to satisfy their demand but they are totally wrong decisions to do that.

Negative results to teenagers

Teenagers are not allowed to do cosmetic surgery as they are not growing up properly. “There were 174,851 cosmetic surgeries done on teenagers that were 18 years old or younger in 2005” a study from Harvard University wrote about Teenagers with Cosmetic Surgery in 2010. This number shows that teenagers trend to get a beautiful body. Parents should pay more attention to their children and be their consultant for them before they have operation. The writer also claimed that: “I believe that cosmetic surgery should not be the ultimate answer for teenagers. I agree with the critics of cosmetic surgery that say teenagers are not old enough to make such a mature decision and that there needs to be more guidelines that will help stop most of them from making a wrong decision”.(“Teens and Cosmetic Surgery”).

Health Risks

People who have cosmetic surgery, may die if they go with wrong doctors or lack of information before their operations. According to Alpert (2006), “People have risked and lost their lives and limbs, and suffered devastating disfigurement and scarring as a result of plastic surgery gone wrong. The worst outcomes are rare, but risk is nonetheless a reality.” After the cosmetic surgery, patients’s healths’ will be affected. Moreover they may have risks to get some disease of blood, heart attacks

Psychology issues

How do you feel if your friends or neighbors keep gossip about your comestic surgery? And what do you think if your boyfriend or girlfriend get jealous or upset with the attraction from you to people? John, an psychologist expert from University of Washington indicated that: “Depression, increased stress, feelings of disappointment, shame, or embarrassment can become issues when a cosmetic procedure fails to resolve the issues that motivated the individual to have the procedure.” It is important to understand that while cosmetic surgery can bring you some rewards, it will not change your life, your problem or your relationship. There is nothing called physical perfection.

Unsatisfactory Results

Based on the research from Stanford University in 2008, not every surgery is successful. The unsuccessful surgery is very subjective. Unsatisfactory results may leave pain or patients may think about the next cosmetic surgery operation.

Conclusion

In conclusion, cosmetic surgery leads to many problems in the future that could affect you physically and mentally. Let think very carefully and consider about the negative results you may have before you get the cosmetic surgery. In my opinion, a happy life can not come from the cosmetic surgery. People will respect you from your inner beauty. Be you are and be yourself. Let try to have a healthy life by improving yourself, learn how to treat people well, do exercises and enrich your knowledge about society and the world. For sure you will have a wonderful life then

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Cosmetic Surgery Essay

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Cosmetic Surgery Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1229

  • Pages: 5

Cosmetic Surgery

“I wish I had a twin, so I could know what I’d look like without cosmetic surgery” a quote by Joan Rivers. She is an American famous person who has done so many cosmetic surgeries. Rivers most likely said this quote because she regretted about all of the cosmetic surgeries that she had. Cosmetic Surgery is a phenomenon that has increased over the past few years and became popular in everywhere on the world. Moreover, many people have been thinking of doing it because it sounds interesting that people can change how they look likes or to improve a normal part of their body appearance.

One of the biggest reasons of why cosmetic surgery is so popular is that people are striving to become physically perfect. However, those people are not aware of the risks that can result from these kinds of surgeries. Cosmetic surgeries affect the emotions of people who go under the knife and make them addicted to it. Also, it is dangerous and isn’t worth the risk. Patients will possibly suffer from depression, and encounter emotional difficulties that are hard to overcome after cosmetic surgery. This psychological pressure lasts for a long time and sometimes forever.

For example, Olesen mentions that one of the disadvantages of cosmetic surgery is including depression (3). Also, Iverson says that there are studies that say cosmetic surgery cause undesirable feeling for patient (1). As for my own experience, a year and half ago my sister have done a cosmetic surgery in her nose. She didn’t like how she looks like, so she felt so bad about herself and didn’t want to see anyone of her friends. So, my father had to take her to psychiatrist to make her feel better.

Thus, these examples indicate that cosmetic surgeries cause the patient so much depression and that is really a big problem that might affect the patient life. Because the patient unused to the new look or difference, the patient might stay secluded and stop socializing with friends and people for long time. Also, the bandaging wouldn’t take off before three months. Furthermore, the patient cannot judge the result before six months until it takes its natural form. So, between the periods after the surgery until the result takes its natural form the patient would stay long time without knowing how the result looks like.

And that is going to let the patient in a state of depression because prevent the patient to communicate with people . In some cases the result fails to improve and the appearance looks worse than before the surgery. Under this circumstance, the patient goes to another level of emotional effects of depression to the feeling of isolation forever. Thus, it would be hard for the patient to adjust whether he/she likes the result or not because the patient has to undergo days or months of healing process. Sometimes, that wound take forever to heal.

In sum, cosmetic surgeries certainly let the patients feel depressed and affect their emotions. Although cosmetic surgery causes a lot of emotional depression, this is not the only reason. One very serious addiction that is often overlooked is cosmetic surgery addiction. Unlike drug addicts who suffer from chemical addiction, cosmetic surgery addicts experience mental obsession to alter their bodies and faces. For instance, Sciarretto says Michael Jackson’s mother admitted that he was addicted to cosmetic surgery (1).

Another example, Dr. Samuels states, “After one surgery, addicts will find a reason to have a second, then a third and so on in their quest for ‘perfection’. The results they are after are unattainable”(4). In addition, Frankr states, “plastic surgery shouldn’t be undergone because it can lead to addiction”(3). Hence, these three examples show cosmetic surgery is a serious problem that can really make patient to become addicted to it. Many of patients begin their journey simply wanting to correct a few specific anatomical issues, but progress to addiction after completing their initial surgical desires.

When the patient does one cosmetic surgery and like the result of it, he or she would find a reason to do it again to look better. Similarly, if the patient doesn’t like the surgery result also would do it again until to get satisfied with the results of the surgery. Thus, in both cases whether the patient like the result or not would get addicted. In addition, once the first surgical operation was already done, second, third, fourth, and even more is easy to follow. The patients are always looking for perfection and would never satisfy with their looks because this is the nature of human.

As has been noted, Michael Jackson is an evidence to prove this theory. Michael got addicted and he transforms his appearance hundred and eighty degrees. So, cosmetic surgery is grave problem that patient should be aware of before doing it because it have the ability to let the patient obsessed about it. As the case with any kind of surgery, cosmetic surgery does involve risk that in some cases death. In addition, isn’t worth the risk because it could take person’s life forever for unnecessarily reason. For example, Frankr says, “Just like any surgery, plastic surgery can be dangerous.

They involve anesthesia, wound healing and other risks”(2). Another example, John writes an article about a woman named Kathleen Kelly Cregan who died while she was having a cosmetic surgery. So, these two examples show that cosmetic surgeries are not easy and carry risks that might lead to death. A risk that should be taken into consideration is that when cosmetic surgery is undergone and uses anesthesia. Anesthesia is put on a patient to sleep, and to numb the body so the patient won’t feel pain during the surgery.

Even though anesthesia prevents pain during the surgery, it has its risks. There is no guarantee that the patient will wake up from the anesthesia, patient can fall into a coma, if not given the right amount of it and if not put in the right place. Furthermore, there is no surgeon who can guarantee that the surgery would succeed. There are always risks of things going amiss. I guarantee that if Cregan knew she would die because of a cosmetic surgery she wouldn’t do it because she could live without it.

Doing cosmetic surgery isn’t worth the risk because it’s unimportant surgery that many people could live a happy life without it. Also, it carries risks that could take patient life forever. Cosmetic surgery being so popular and the idea of it sound good. However, many people are not aware of the side affects that can bring into their life. Additionally, it could turn patients life into depressed. Patients always want to perfect in their appearance, which is impossible to reach because this is the nature of human. Cosmetic surgeries have so many disadvantages and I just mentioned few of them.

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Cosmetic Surgery Essay

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Cosmetic Surgery Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1748

  • Pages: 7

Cosmetic Surgery

Cosmetic surgery is not solving the problem at route. The problem is the perception that the mind has on what is important. All cosmetic surgery is doing is changing the appearance but not the mental state. Someone who has such a mental disposition to these illnesses will have their offending extremity changed, but they will ultimately always find something they are not happy with. Instead of cosmetic surgery, these people should be offered psychological help. Cosmetic surgery only masks the inner problem. Only in some cases, does it help individuals.

Candidates seeking plastic surgery should be routinely screened for mental health problems because of the risk to health, botched surgery, and the need for nobler causes rather than vanity. Plastic, reconstructive, and cosmetic surgery refer to a variety of operations performed in order to repair or restore body parts to look normal, or to change a body part to look better (Espejo 21). They all share common techniques and approaches but have their differences. Plastic surgery is known to repair a body after disfiguring accidents or severe burns such as car accidents or house fires (22).

Reconstruction surgery is performed to improve function such as to correct birth defects, infections, or illnesses like breast cancer or tumors (22). It is most likely to be performed in a hospital and be covered by insurance unlike cosmetic surgery where it is not covered by insurance and is done in a surgeon’s office. Cosmetic surgery procedures are performed in order to enhance a person’s appearance to please them (22). It is practice by a variety of doctors from different medical fields.

Examples of popular cosmetic surgeries are, Abdominoplasty: reshaping and firming of the abdomen, breast augmentations: increasing breast size, and Rhinoplasty: reshaping of the nose. All three of these procedures are used to reshape, repair, lift, or tuck certain areas of the body or face. Mental health screenings should be mandatory because of possible psychiatric disorders, risk for suicide, and an unstable mental health status. Researchers have discovered that “22% of all deaths were associated with suicide, psychological disorders, and/or drug and alcohol abuse” (Espejo 76).

Breast implants have led to the tripled suicide rates in women and is higher for women forty-five and older (75). Due to possible psychiatric disorders increased screening and monitoring need to take place. Counseling could be in order too because drug and alcohol dependence is usually in use for women (76). Screening the mental health status of a candidate for mood or body image disorders would assure that they are psychiatrically stable and would clear them for surgery. In addition to mental health screenings, observing office behavior of a potential client may caution the surgeon to reconsider them.

Under an hour long consultation should take place, which could be a fraud of who they really are by just trying to impress the surgeon to receive the plastic surgery. Therefore, patients who behave differently around a nurse need to be noted and risky behavior such as appointment changes, outside appointments, and only wanting to speak with the surgeon (77). All surgeries, including plastic, reconstruction, or cosmetic surgery, involve risks. General surgical risks are infections, bleeding, reactions to anesthesia, and scarring (Alagna 31).

Reactions to anesthesia can result in brain, nerve, or eye damage, a stroke, heart attack, or death (31). All three forms of these surgeries can leave appalling scars on the body, varying in color and taking longer than normal to fade. If scars remain visible further surgery can be done to correct the scar or steroids can be used (33). Plastic surgery risks include the general risks as well as others. These risks include pneumonia, pain, anemia, fat embolisms, rejection of skin grafts, and numbness (31-32).

There are risks of fatal surgeries that can occur by having heart difficulties, reacting to medications, and flu like symptoms (33). More in depth common procedure risks are known to follow after procedures such as breast augmentation and liposuction. Breast augmentation is a common surgery in women to increase the size of their breasts. Liposuction is a technique of removing excess fat from under the skin by suction. In 1992 the FDA banned silicone implants from breast augmentation because “they could lead to health problems” and “will need them removed within ten years” (Petersen).

This ban was due to rupturing implants and the potential to cause disease. Rupturing and leaking is not the only threat of breast augmentation because they could be uneven, cause pain, scar or capsule, or swell (Alagna 36). All of these risks can lead to multiple surgeries and thousands of dollars. Liposuction is one of the most common killers in plastic surgery by deaths resulting 1 in 5,000 (38). Blood clots and heart failure are the main causes of death. These surgical procedures can result in complications ranging from an unattractive or unnatural final result, to scarring or even death.

The general population of all women wants the Hollywood look for a bargain deal. They always believe that the horror stories they hear on television will never happen to them but botched plastic surgery can happen to anyone if the right precautions are not taken. Unfortunately precautions are not taken because there are horror stories of botched surgeries. Due to liposuction going wrong, many deaths have occurred because of cardiac arrest, too much tumescent fluid, and blood clots (Alagna 50). One woman named Sandra Ciuffreda shared her horror story about having about five gallons of fat removed.

Once out of surgery she had become fragile and discovered she was left with a very noticeable scar (51). Other stories have been shared by women who have had cosmetic surgery gone wrong. An eighteen year old named Julia had undergone two nose jobs with scars left behind and has had her lips redone three different times (52). Another woman named Ellen Ross also encountered botched cosmetic surgery. It began with her just wanting thinner thighs but then was manipulated into thinking she needed her breasts done as well. Ross experienced terrifying results saying, “I had lumps next to my breasts” (53).

In order to correct this surgeon’s mistake she had to undergo eight separate surgeries due to infections and scars and was put back thousands of dollars (52). A graph displays where only XXIII percent of patients come back for more surgery and only XXXVIII percent have multiple procedures done at once nationwide (Tevlin). This can conclude that the surgery was either bad or unneeded. In order to avoid these horror stories, research plastic surgery, have a thorough consultation to be informed about how to stay safe and request for a second, and ask the plastic surgeon about his or her experience and medical training.

There is more to experiencing plastic surgery than just for vanity. It can be utilized for more noble causes such as birth defects, disfiguring injuries, reconstruction, and health benefits. Children with birth defects such as cleft palate or ear deformities can benefit from a “healthy dose” of plastic surgery procedure to correct their defect (Oshaba). Most cleft palates are repaired through specialized plastic surgery techniques, improving the child’s ability to eat, speak, hear and breathe, and to restore a more normal appearance and function. They will be able to grow up feeling more normal due to plastic surgery.

Plastic surgery procedures are considered for reconstruction of deformities or from trauma from an accident or illness. Patients who have been in a car wreck can have reconstruction surgery to fix the damaged parts with parts from someone else (Espejo 22). Reconstructive plastic surgery is also accepted in cases where illness such as cancer have women seeking reconstructive breast surgery or to relieve back pain if painfully too large. It can benefit your health if you are overweight. Many people have suffered from obesity and then lost enormous amounts of weight leaving them the need to repair their body or have trouble losing weight.

Dr. Jerome Muhumuza a medical doctor says, “…cosmetic surgery can help save your life or at least reduce the risk of health complications” (Oshaba). A gastric bypass is one of the recommended surgeries for those who are overweight or just liposuction in general (Oshaba). A gastric bypass is a surgical operation that involves reducing the size of the stomach and reconnecting the smaller stomach to bypass the first portion of the small intestine so as to restrict food intake and reduce caloric absorption in cases of severe obesity.

All surgeries previously mentioned are ways to improve one’s health. Plastic surgery can also encourage and promote a strong, positive self-image with people with clinically proven depression (Weintraub). Even a small change on the outside can create an extraordinary change on the inside, allowing an individual’s self-confidence to flourish. Therefore, there is a connection between mood, self-esteem and depression. Plastic surgery can be very beneficial by not only enhancing self-esteem, but curing depression.

By just treating someone with Botox a change can occur within them (Weintraub). Surgery, whether it is plastic, reconstruction, or cosmetic has its pros and cons. It can lead to a lot of problems in the future that could affect you physically and mentally, and it has become a doorway to beauty for some people. Many have succumbed to the risks; therefore proper research and preparation are necessary for the surgery. There have been many people that have gone through it and feel worse after and keep striving for perfection but end up becoming a statistic.

In some cases, cosmetic surgery does help individuals. Procedures like skin grafts on burn victims, or the correcting of an abnormal feature on the human body. These procedures help people feel more normal. This is how cosmetic surgery was first used. Then people started to use cosmetic surgery, not to look merely normal, but to look perfect. This type of surgery is not healthy and that is why mental health screenings should be mandatory due to health risks, botched surgeries, and the need for nobler causes.

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