University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
The search for perfection is in mind of probably every human being. This search had started Centuries ago not only in the twenty first century but it had developed now due to the influence of the media on people specially women and teenagers. That search of perfection made them thinking of cosmetic surgery as that seemed the easy way to get the shape and the look they wanted, not what GOD had been giving them.
So, what is plastic surgery?
Originally the word plastic surgery came from a Greek word Plastikos, it means the shape or mould. So it has nothing to do with plastic or plastic products.
In my understanding of plastic surgery, it’s type of surgery that repairs the damaged places in the body that got injured or lost organs or tissues of the body. It can be for any part of the body, some people get plastic surgeries for medical reasons but others to fulfill there needs of being perfect and beautiful!
According to a medical dictionary “ plastic surgery is the specialty or procedure concerned with the restoration, construction, reconstruction, or even improvement in the form, function, and appearance of the body structure that are missing, defective, damaged, or misshapen1.” Another definition for it “A special type of surgery that can involve both a person’s appearance and ability to function better2”.
A plastic surgery is the reconstruction or improvement of forms or functions by resection, transplantation, or implantation. Plastic surgery therefore it
includes the reconstruction of defects3.
There are two types of plastic surgery:
“Reconstructive surgery is frequently performed on burn and accident victims. It may involve the rebuilding of harshly fractured bones, as well as skin grafting. Reconstructive surgery includes such procedures as the reattachment of an amputated finger or toe, or implanting a prosthesis. Prostheses are artificial structures and materials that are used to replace missing limbs or teeth, or arthritic hip and knee joints4.” Cosmetics surgery (also called aesthetic):
procedures alter a part of the body that the person is not happy with. General cosmetic procedures include making the breasts larger or smaller, reshaping the nose, and take out pockets of fat from specific spots on the body. Several cosmetic procedures aren’t even surgical in the way that the majority people think of surgery that is cutting and stitching. For example, the use of special lasers to remove unwanted hair and sanding skin to improve severe scarring are two such treatments.
History of plastic surgery:
As the surgical specialties go, you may think that plastic surgery is one of the best known things at this moment, that’s because of the media that covers the celebrity “enhancements” and the never ending chase for the perfect appearance although there is no such thing under the name of perfect appearance. Plastic surgery now has the eyes of the public, as it became for the people something almost interchangeable terms, but in medical field and historical perspective this isn’t so! Cosmetics surgery involves an elective procedures preformed for an aesthetic reasons, but plastic surgery refers to the surgical reconstruction misshapenness of a part of the face or the body, providing the normal appearance and function.
As surgical specialties go you may think that plastic surgery is one of the best known at the moment, civility of media coverage of celebrity “enhancements” and the never ending chase of the perfect appearance. Plastic plus cosmetic surgery has, in the eyes of the public, become almost interchangeable terms, but in medical and historical background this isn’t so. Cosmetic surgery involves optional procedures performed for aesthetic reasons, but plastic surgery refers to surgical reconstruction of deformity, providing normal appearance and function. The specialty developed from its ancient Egyptian origins more than three thousand years ago. It developed geographically, as knowledge spread from epicentres, plus northern India at about 600 BC, Sicily in the 15th century Renaissance, Germany in the 19th century, and lastly Britain in the two world wars.
Evidence of reconstructive surgery exists in Egyptian medical papyruses1 that date back to 1600 BC, describing reconstructive techniques employed by the priest-doctors of the time to restore appearance.
Of these, the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus is the best example, describing case histories and advice for practical management, not like other texts, which outlined grouping of magical and practical methods.
Of the 48 preserved, case 12 describe how to come close to “a break in the chamber of the nose,” including a description of its look and methods of packing the nasal cavity to stop bleeding and reproduce a normal profile. Also included are suturing techniques, which allowed huge lacerations to heal with minimum mark. In the upper echelons of Egyptian culture huge importance was sited on the appearance, as shown by the elaborate death masks of the pharaohs and their daily use of make up. Consequently, a person’s look was changeable, doctors were expected to restore it to normality, and it was this demand that provided the motivation for the foundations of plastic surgery. Though the lack of anesthesia and pain relief and religious forbiddance of invasive surgery limited their work to superficial injuries, doctors were able to perfect basic but highly effective techniques, which continue to be used today.
Reconstructing the nose in India
Just about thousand years later, a Hindu doctor, Susruta, working in northern India close to the modern day city of Varanasi, completed the next step in the progress of plastic surgery, with the introduction of rhinoplasty2. Nasal amputation was common at the time, also through injury on the battlefield or as a punishment, which produced a shocking and deformed appearance.
In response, Susruta developed a reconstruction technique that returned some degree of function and shape, which is expressed in his book, Samhita (about 600 BC). His work had spread fast to Eastern Europe and into the Byzantine Empire, where in AD 700 the emperor Justinian successfully had a forehead rhinoplasty after a disturbing nasal amputation. Surviving statues of Justinian bear scars around the nose and forehead, a testament to the surgery he underwent.
The fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century was vital in preventing the dissemination of this technique all over Western Europe. Lack of demand for procedures other than rhinoplasty in the east meant a lack of driving force for more advancement techniques were just being refined not pioneered.
It was not until the Renaissance in the 15th century that a few developments took place. Italian practitioners were at the front position, as for many medical advances at that moment in time, in particular a Sicilian family of surgeons, the Brancas. Between Branca Senior and his son, Antonius, suturing techniques were advanced, affording minimum scarring, new methods for repairing wounds to ears and lips were recognized, and the aforementioned Indian method was introduced to the West, as Susruta’s text grow to be more widely available. Cosmetic surgery:
Nowadays, cosmetic surgery is one of the most surgeries that people make. As the graph shows the top plastic surgeries that been done in year 2008 (look at figure 1):
As you can see that the most common cosmetic surgery is Breast Augmentation,
subsequently, Lipoplasty, Blepharoplasty, Rhinoplasty and lastly Abdominoplasty.
Breast augmentation: A procedure made to increase breast size. Liposuction: A procedure in which a special instrument called a canula is used to break up and suck out fat from the body. This procedure is also known as lipoplasty. Blepharoplasty: is one of the most popular cosmetic surgical procedures. It’s a procedure to get rid of fat – frequently along with excess skin plus muscle – from the upper and lower eyelids. It can lift drooping upper lids and reduce the puffy eye bags that form below our eyes. Rhinoplasty: A cosmetic procedure used to improve or change the appearance of the nose. Rhinoplasty is commonly referred to as a nose job.
Abdominoplasty: A procedure performed to flatten your abdomen by removing extra fat along with skin, and tightening muscles in your abdominal wall. This procedure is commonly referred to as a tummy tuck.
Advantages and disadvantages of cosmetic surgeries
Really there is nothing at all wrong with you wanting to make your self beautiful, prettier or even wanting to feel better about yourself. Because in our world the image is everything, feeling good and looking good too is really important. The question that you really have to ask yourself is how far would you go to look perfect? Before making any decision, be sure that you are happy with your self inside, because the outside is something can be changed in a moment.
Cosmetic surgery includes a wide range of procedures. Each and every procedure has its own advantages as well as disadvantages. One of the most popular cosmetic surgery procedures is breast implants. They probably make a woman feel more confident of herself and her body, except the implants have a risk of leaking or even bursting and that well require another surgery to fix the problem. Second most popular cosmetics surgery is Liposuction. The noticeable advantage for this procedure is that people can lose a large amount of weight in hours. Also, they might feel better about themselves after having the procedure and keep up a healthier lifestyle. On the other hand, if they gain weight after going under a liposuction procedure the chances of risk is going to increase. Your skin might be at risk of dimpling and that is going to need fat injections to fix that problem. In addition, the body is going to take long time to get used to the new weight plus some people suffer chills and other problems in the weeks and months after having the procedure. Costs
One of the disadvantages of cosmetic surgery is the cost. A simple Botox injection can cost $400 and even more. Breast reductions can range between $3,500 and $6,000 depending on if you are a man or a woman. Facelifts average is about $6,500 and even liposuction costs more than $3,000. A nose job is generally more than $4,000 and eyelid surgery is at least $3,000. These are just a few of the high costs of some of the good number of popular cosmetic surgery procedures.
Although, the costs of those procedures are pretty expensive, there are a few ways to save some money. Nearly all plastic surgeons offer financing options either through their own office or by working with a lender or even a financing company. Many people are able to afford these procedures now and that is by working out low monthly payments. Some cosmetic surgery schools too may offer discount procedures for people who are willing. These procedures are controlled and observed by trained professionals.
In general, cosmetic surgery procedures are safe. The overwhelming majority of customers who go through liposuction, face lifts, breast augmentations or other procedures are happy with the change and experience few negative side effects.
However, some statistics that poses a disadvantage to those considering cosmetic surgery. According to CosmeticSurgery.com, about four percent of cosmetic surgery procedures have some type of complication after completed. Procedures done in Mexico and other countries where they are much cheaper account for many of the surgeries that “go bad,” however it is still something to consider and put in mind.
In order to be qualified candidate for cosmetic surgery, you must follow certain standards. There are some health conditions that you will probably exclude you from being a candidate for cosmetic surgery, including lung disease, hypertension, diabetes, arthritis and malnourishment. These and other problems make risks of cosmetic surgery. On the other hand, if you are a fairly health person, cosmetic surgery can be a remarkable advantage.
Smokers are also not good candidates for cosmetic procedures. Actually, they must quit smoking for two whole weeks before having the procedure in addition; they must also be smoke-free for more two weeks after having the surgery. For some smokers, this may be a tremendous disadvantage to cosmetic surgery.
No surgery is risk free, but unfortunately there is something called complications and side effects of any surgery. Part of the cosmetic surgeon’s job is to educate, tutor and help the people who are planning on having cosmetics surgery properly including knowledge of this into their decision about surgery. In addition you must discuss the risks and all the side effect of the surgery with your cosmetic surgeon. Post-operative Hemorrhage (Bleeding)
Although our body’s have there own mechanisms and surgeon work in concert to stop all the significant bleeding produced during an operation, there are times when bleeding may resume post-operatively. It would be unusual for the bleeding that can complicate the cosmetic surgery to be life threatening, but it certainly can lead to extend the recovery and the need for extra surgery. Cosmetics surgery procedures are frequently form wide areas between tissues, which can cause blood to collect if the bleeding continued in after the operation on the early days. When this happen that could lead to a development of the firm tense clot within the tissues referred to as a “hematoma.” This clot can cause major pain plus it will produce hard swelling with discoloration.
Between all this things that can effect and cause allot of complications, such as uncontrolled high blood pressure, clotting disorders plus the over use of alcohol. This risk of bleeding is decreased with each passing day after having the surgery. Because significant clots can compromise skin vascularity and prevent normal healing, the surgeon him self will usually need to evacuate the collection by opening the wound in a limited way or by re-operating. To reduce your risk for this problem, your doctor will see if you have any bleeding history and he’ll ask you to avoid aspirin for two weeks before having the surgery. You may also help reduce the risk by following the instructions after having the cosmetic surgery, so that might be some kind of a relief.
Post-operative Wound Infection
Wound infections are frequently caused by the patient’s OWN germs. We live in an environment that is filled with organisms that live our skin plus in our guts. When a cut is made in the skin (such as surgical incision), organisms that must kept out are now allowed to get into the tissues. Most of the time the body’s immune system well fight and will destroy the bacteria before they harm the body. In minority cases the germs may grow too fast which will make them increase in number, consequently that will lead those to overwhelm the humans body defenses, which well lead to tissue invasion and infection. The infections are distinguished by swelling plus redness, and it might be accompanied by pus like drainage from a wound and fever with malaise.
The infections are distinguished by swelling plus redness, and it might be accompanied by a puss plus fever and malaise. This infection could be healed by opening a portion or all of the incision. So once the body gains the upper hand after this surgery is done the wound can be closed secondarily, but sometimes it might be allowed to close up the wound by it self. Although when the wound is drained obviously the doctor well take fluid for culture and he’ll make the patient on an antibiotic to effect and fight against bacteria. The antibiotic choice might be changed several days after the surgery, and that is based on the result of the cultures obtained. Skin Death (Slough)
Plastic surgeons often remove and rearrange the tissues; they have to divide some of the supply to those tissues. If in any chance the areas of the skin or fat left without enough circulation to heal, a “slough(4)” will occur, and that well cause tissue discoloring, turning black and that well need must be removed. Slough is common in the elderly, the obese, cigarette smokers and people with blood vessel diseases. Plus, the chances of slough can also rise up by pressure effects of hematoma and the invasive activities of bacteria within an infected wound. Tiny sloughs in cosmetic surgery is not important areas and usually the can be treated with wound care and later scar revision. On the other hand larger areas of slough may be required to go under another surgery to remove the dying tissue and reorganize tissue for the wound closure.
Abnormal Scarring (“Hypertrophic” scars and “Keloids”)
Mainly objectionable scarring after cosmetic surgery is determined genetically. People of certain skin types are more expected than others to suffer from thick, raised “hypertrophic(5)” scars. People who are most risk those of African-American, Mediterranean or Asian background. Something is worth considering, that different areas of the body can heal with several types of scars and your doctor have to educate you with the nature of the scaring that he expect to happen in the area to be treated. General Post-surgical Risks
Lying still during and immediately after surgery can lead to stagnation of the blood inside the veins of the leg and pelvis; sometimes it leads to clotting named Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT). DVT is really serious as it can lead to inflammation that well effect the veins with later scarring of the veins venous incompetence. It have a possibility that clot within a large vein might break free and circulate through the large veins to be trapped inside the lung (this is called “pulmonary embolus”). This is a unique and unusual complication in cosmetics surgery, but this is important to consider it and know about it as it can be life threatening. Patients who are at higher risk to this problem are those who are obese, heavy smokers plus people with a previous history of DVT.
Examples of bad cosmetic surgeries:
Feeling good about your self
The great thing about plastic surgery is that the benefits are not only physical it also emotional, so it help the patient external plus internal. It can be exactly what you really need to improve and develop your self image and look. Having the look or the positive self image could give you a better self confidence, and that might help you to get a better job, trying new things and it will also give you a feeling of well being.
Correct physical defects
In addition, cosmetic surgery has this incredible ability to correct the physical defects. Many people may have physical defects that were done by an accident or bad case of acne as a teenager. Also, there are people who are born with physical defects that had overwhelmed them, bother them and got teased because of it since birth. Cosmetic surgery now have the answer and the solution for there problems.
People who have cosmetic surgeries feel younger and more attractive. This feeling will make them improve there self and there body image and that is something that well surely help feeling good emotionally. You well really enjoy this feeling of satisfactions and that well be the reason for you to get you life in a better place the fits your NEW YOU. Studies showed that people who go under the knife “cosmetic surgeries” are more often to get rewards in their personal career.
Looking beautiful than ever
There are some girls and even boys that when they wake up and look at the mirror they someone not pretty, and doesn’t have only one pretty thing to feel good about comparing there self to celebrities and famous people. So they turn to cosmetic surgeries to give them a look that they well feel satisfied about. Therefore, they look beautiful than ever.
Examples of good cosmetic surgeries:
Cosmetic surgery is just like any other things, it have advantages and disadvantages. People who are planning on having cosmetic surgery should really think twice about it. It is considered a surgical procedure consequently it’s going to have its risks. However, if you are a good healthy person you might be a good candidate for it. People who are willing to take that risk should really think double twice (not only twice), they should really consider the consequences, risks and if they are that kind of people who can live up with some pain after having it done. Cosmetic surgery can really be a solution for you to enhance your self image. Although, there are much less expensive, easy things plus it doesn’t hurt or cause any actual pain. To improve and enhance your look and self image, you can start by living a healthy well being life, that well make you first look better, feel younger, look younger plus live longer. Now you can see that you have three things done by living a healthy life! In addition, you can also consider having a NEW LOOK for your self. So get a new hair cut, a new hair color and go shopping for new clothes that fit the YOUR NEW YOU.
In my opinion, cosmetic surgeries must not be done on any one, but only for people who suffers from deformation or have a problem resulting from an accident. Cosmetic surgery is something not necessary for people to have, because GOD had given us a face and a body that can function and can do its work properly. So you should look to those poor kids and poor people that have deformation and compare your self to them, and then you can really see how you are so lucky to have what you have and not be in there place. You should also thank god every single day for what he gave you and thank him for not putting you in that persons place.
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