CORPORAL PUNISHMENT Essay

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CORPORAL PUNISHMENT Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1759

  • Pages: 7

CORPORAL PUNISHMENT

Positive Effects of Corporal Punishment

Corporal punishment in regards to spanking has been used for hundreds of years in educational systems and in house holds and is still legal in all fifty states for parents to use in there household because it is an effective way to punish a child for wrong behavior. Even though in the last couple of decades this topic has been very controversial, many countries and educational systems have decided to outlawed corporal punishment because of the belief that it has created more and more violent behavior in children. But, there is still no direct link to spanking causing children to have more violent behavior. However, if youth violence and dysfunction is increasing at the same time that corporal punishment is decreasing, we should be open enough to consider whether the two trends are related. Maybe there is no connection. But maybe lawmakers and child welfare workers should pay more attention to the research suggesting that physical discipline can be helpful in certain contexts (Larzelere,2005). The whole reason for ‘punishment’ is to stop a behavior from happening again by applying an unpleasant stimulus immediately after a bad behavior has occurred. Therefore, we use corporal punishment because it is a method of punishment called punishment by application which spanking is applied to the child after a bad behavior, preventing it from happening again, which also help implement discipline.

But corporal punishment is being apposed because other studies say it promotes more anger and aggression in juveniles, but places where it has been totally outlawed have shown different results. For instance, after Sweden outlawed spanking, violent behavior did not decrease. Instead, there has been substantially more violence in Sweden than ever before– violence by children, violence by parents, and violence by society in general (Grusec, 1994). That being said, there is no direct link to corporal punishment being the cause of violence increase because this shows it did just the opposite. But research does show that it could be linked to something else, journalist Patricia Hersch tells of the ‘deluge of adolescent dysfunction sweeping the nation, manifesting itself in everything from drugs, sex, and underachievement to depression, suicide, and crime’; and it is being seen in younger and younger children. About 20% of kids now ‘have some sort of developmental, learning, or behavioral disorder.’ And as the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development warns, ‘substantial numbers of American youth are at risk of reaching adulthood unable to meet adequately the requirements of the workplace, the commitments of relationships in families and with friends, and the responsibilities of participation in a democratic society.’(Hersch, 1998) And a lot of this is being caused by the lack of parenthood and how parents are raising their kids now days with substantially fewer parents staying home with their kids and we have become addicted to TV, movies, and videogames (Rosemond, 1989). Parents don’t have to attend to their kids as much because they just put a T.V. or some kind of videogame system in front of them to keep them occupied. Thus, giving the kids less interaction with other people and their parents, which can lead to bad relationships and also antisocial which leads to aggression as well. So we see all these things that easily effect our children and their behavior but people still try to link all of it back to corporal punishment when we should look at the big picture.

A common misunderstanding is how to use corporal punishment correctly, and the primary goal most parents have in administering corporal punishment is to stop children from misbehaving immediately (Gershoff, 2002) and is indeed a good method when used correctly. When a parent is using corporal punishment out of anger, frustration, or aggression, the child will learn that same action you apply on them. Therefore, the punishment can be classified as abuse to an extent and when pain is being forced on a child out of your own aggression and anger they learn those same attributes and those later on cause behavioral problems down the road. But when used just to stop a specific behavior with out trying to inflict pain on the child is when it is most effective, and yes spanking is a primitive discipline method. But a child’s mind is also primitive. As researchers like Dr. Jean Piaget of the University of Geneva have popularized, kids learn from the tangible to the intangible—from the concrete to the abstract. It is during the tangible, concrete stages when physical discipline seems to be the most helpful (Fuller, 2010). Thus, when using corporal punishment correctly and not abusively, the child understands immediately at a younger age. It is just like a dog, you need to train them at a very young age for the training to be most effective. Same thing goes for children because at a young age is when it becomes concrete, and just like dogs again, and when they start getting older it’s harder to get children to obey, and you cant teach a dog new tricks.

But statistics from Sears, Maccoby, and Levin (1957) show that they found that 99% of the children they studied experienced CP at least occasionally. If that’s true and corporal punishment causes aggression, promotes violent activities, and learning disabilities like people say then why doesn’t everyone have aggression, behavior problems, and learning disabilities? They don’t because spanking is to be better at controlling aggression than mental punishments like timeout, reasoning, scolding, “non-contact” punishment, privilege removal, love withdrawal, or diverting. Also showing that calm and controlled spanking, and spanking in response to defiance, is uniformly more beneficial than other punishments. (Larzelere,2005)

Growing up in a household where corporal punishment was definitely used by my parents, I feel my experience has had a huge impact on me because it has honestly helped me now more than anything. I say that because at a young age I learned fast what was right and wrong and have always been able to pick up onto things fast, and as I grew up I might have had some family problems and what not but I feel like me being disciplined at such a young age, it has kept with me all along. And I’m not just disciplined because I think I will be punished or something, but I have learned to be more, I’ve learned to be self-disciplined, and being disciplined has helped me in school, sports, living life on a daily basis, and my future. And that is another reason I believe corporal punishment is effective; it teaches discipline at such a young age, and with discipline comes responsibility, and these two traits are key for healthy lifestyle not just at a young age but through your whole life. Because no matter how old you are their will always be a punishment for your disobedience, whether it’s disobeying your parents or it’s disobeying a police officer, either way your going to have to disciplined enough to take responsibility for your actions. And if your making bad decisions or choices then you’ll probably have a worse punishment whether it’s a spanking or you go to prison. Punishments just get worse as we get older so might as well be disciplined now then end up in jail.

In conclusion, I see corporal punishment as a very effective way for children to learn not to disobey your parents but to also just be obedient in general. Even though some researchers say it has evidence leading to violent behaviors and aggression, their research seems to be inadequate when it comes to the results and observations of research. Research trying to support the outlaw of corporal punishment even says the evidence presented is not strong enough to permit a conclusion that it has been proven that smacking causes long term adverse effects on children (Larzelere,2005). Proving my point that corporal punishment is not a direct link to issues down the line, and I would like to reinforce that corporal punishment is an effective way of punishment if used for the right reason and depending on the context of the behavior, and that it has personally directed me and influenced me in more of a positive way.

Abstract

After using the information I was able to gather from R. E. Larzelere, J. E. Grusec, P. Hersch, as well as J. Rosemod to help support my idea that corporal punishment is still an effective way of punishment in today’s society. Even though there is so many argued topics on the issue at the moment, I still concluded from my research that corporal punishment has no direct link to violence, aggression, and behavioral problems. Even after looking at evidence from E. Gershoff that tries to support the idea that corporal punishment causes behavioral problems as well as violent behaviors, a thorough understanding of whether and how corporal punishment affects children has not been reached. It hasn’t been reached because the research that is being used is unreliable and some of the parents are not aware of how to properly use corporal punishment on a child, so they are actually doing harm to their child because they are punishing the child out of anger rather than the sole reason to stop a behavior. Therefore, I believe corporal punishment is an effective way of punishment and helps direct children the correct way down the road in life with quality traits like discipline, responsibility, and respecting and obeying your authorities.

Reference
Robert E. Larzelere & Brett R. Kuhn, Comparing Child Outcomes of Physical Punishment and Alternative Disciplinary Tactics: A Meta-Analysis, 8 CLINICAL CHILD & FAM. PSYCHOL. REV. 1, 32 (2005) [hereinafter Larzelere, Meta-Analysis] Joan E. Grusec & Jacqueline J. Goodnow, Impact of Parental Discipline Methods on the Child’s Internalization of Values: A Reconceptualization of Current Points of View, 30 DEV. PSYCHOL. 7 (1994) PATRICIA HERSCH, A TRIBE APART: A JOURNEY INTO THE HEART OF AMERICAN ADOLESCENCE 12 (1998) JOHN ROSEMOND, JOHN ROSEMOND’S SIX-POINT PLAN FOR RAISING HAPPY, HEALTHY CHILDREN 179-80 (1989) Gershoff, E. (2002). Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: A meta-analytic and theoretical review.Psychological Bulletin, 128(4), 539-579. Retrieved from http://www.comm.umn.edu/~akoerner/courses/4471-F12/Readings/Gershoff (2002).pdf

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Corporal Punishment Essay

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Corporal Punishment Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1121

  • Pages: 4

Corporal Punishment

For hundreds of years, it has been customary for a child to receive a spank or slap as a form of discipline, one that parents of all cultures have used. Corporal punishment of a child by a parent or teacher has been legal in Canada since 1892, though 51% of Canadians believe that the use of corporal punishment does not reflect the attitude of Canada’s majority (Barnett). In recent years, corporal punishment has had more investigation, showing that, “corporal punishment by it’s nature can escalate into physical maltreatment” (Gershoff and Larzelere). Child abuse can be defined as “Physical, sexual, or emotional ill treatment or neglect of a child especially by those responsible for its welfare” (dictionary.com).

Child abuse researchers suggest that physical punishment increases a child’s chance of developing a mental illness, incites antisocial behaviour, and stunts intellectual growth. The psychological effects of corporal punishment directly influence to a child’s mental and emotional stability. Corporal punishment is permanently damaging to a child’s development, and should be considered child abuse. Corporal punishment increases a child’s chance of developing a debilitating mental illness, specifically those caused by internalising problems, such as depression and anxiety (Smith). By using Ivan Pavlov’s theory of Learned Reflexology, it can be deduced that the high anxiety levels of children who have been routinely punished by a physical means is caused by the expectation of being stricken.

It was “found that the stress of corporal punishment shows up as an increase in post-traumatic stress symptoms such as being fearful that terrible things are about to happen and being easily startled”(ScienceDaily). Physical punishment produces a large amount of stress and feelings of hopelessness in a child, leading many adults who were corporally punished in childhood to develop anxiety-related mental illnesses. “According to Strauss (1999), mental health problems are associated with physical punishment due to their being an outcome of the suppression of childhood anger associated with being hit by adults who children depend on for love and nurturance”(Smith).

The main role of a guardian in a young child’s life is to protect and provide for the youth and, through corporal punishment, the child-parent relationship is damaged, producing children with antisocial tendencies. By using corporal punishment as a means of discipline, a child learns to distrust parents or other guardians, resulting in antisocial behaviour. When an adult the child trusts implements corporal punishment as a means of discipline, feelings of hostility and betrayal develop. This hostility is a result of the duplicity of a parent’s role to protect the child, causing many children to feel as though their parents and others dislike them.

Said an adult who had been physically punished for delinquent behaviour as a child, “My parents were very strict…I was basically very good and I was hit frequently…It made me go out and do the same thing again, what I’d been smacked for. The message I got from them when they hit me was not ‘what you’re doing is bad, don’t do it again’. The message I got was ‘we don’t love you’.”(Smith). When rule-enforcing figures disappear, delinquent behaviour emerges, suggesting, “that parental corporal punishment erodes the parent–child relationship and in turn decreases children’s motivation to internalize parents’ values and those of the society, which in turn results in low self-control (Hirschi, 1969)” (Gershoff). Corporal punishment does not stimulate reasoning skills in a child, resulting in low-self control, as mentioned, and thus a shorter span of cognitive ability.

Intellectual development begins when children are very young, and by using corporal punishment as a means of instruction, a child’s intellectual development is permanently damaged. A child that is spanked in the first grade is proven to score 5 IQ points lower than a child that was not spanked at all (Talawar, Carlson, and et al). Studies show that “[c]hildren in a school that uses corporal punishment performed significantly worse in tasks involving “executive functioning” – psychological processes such as planning, abstract thinking, and delaying gratification – than those in a school relying on milder disciplinary measures […]” (Talawar, Carlson, and et al ).

Executive functioning tasks require self-control, a skill that children who have been disciplined physically, as opposed to with reasoning and explanation, do not have. “Thus, poorer cognitive outcomes may result if parents who physically punish their children make less use of inductive methods of discipline, such as explanation and reasoning- procedures that are likely to enhance cognitive growth” (Smith). By contemplating the effect of an action and the whether or not the action is appropriate, children exercise executive functioning processes, which will give a child the skills to contemplate problems of academic or real-world nature. Corporal punishment has a permanent, negative effect on a child’s future mental stability, sociability, and intellectual potential.

The Canadian Human Rights Act says that, “the prohibited grounds of discrimination are race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family status, disability and conviction for which a pardon has been granted”( RSC 1985, c H-6). The continuation of corporal punishment in modern society, “encourages a view of children as less worthy of protection and respect for their bodily integrity based on outdated notions of their inferior personhood” (Barnett).

51% of Canadians do not feel that the physical punishment of a child is right or just (Barnett), and believe that it should not be used as a parenting technique. Corporal punishment’s damaging effect on a child’s psychological well-being, both in child and adulthood, proves that it is a form of abuse. There are alternative parenting techniques that are proven to produce better results, and encourage the progress of a child’s development. “Children are one third of our population and all of our future,”(quotegarden.com). Should the future not have the right to the same amount of protection as their predecessors?

Works Cited:
Barnett, Laura. Parlaiment of Canada. Law and Government Division. The “Spanking” Law: Section 43 of the Criminal Code. Ottawa: , 2008. Web. . “Children who are Spanked Have Lower IQs, New Research Finds.” ScienceDaily. 24 Sep 2009: n. page. Web. 23 Jan. 2012. . Gershoff, Elizabeth. “Corporal Punishment by Parents and Associated Child Behaviors and Experiences: A Meta-Analytic and Theoretical Review.” endcorporalpunishment.org. American Psychological Association, 2002. Web. 21 Jan 2012. . Gershoff, Elizabeth, and Robert Larzelere. “Is Corporal Punishment an Effective Means of
Discipline?.” American Psychological Association 26 06 2002. n.pag. American Psychological Association. Web. 23 Jan 2012.

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Corporal punishment Essay

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Corporal punishment Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1337

  • Pages: 5

Corporal punishment

Introduction The performance of most South African schools fluctuates from time to time. These fluctuation trends are as a result of the micro-evolutionary mechanistic changes that consistently take place throughout the country. Some schools in the urban areas perform extremely well, but some perform poorly despite the available resources that the school have.

For example some of these schools have laboratories that are highly functional and also well structured for experimental as well as practical work which enhances skills in learners and also intensifies the existing theoretical knowledge that the learners have, whereas in schools geographically featured in remote areas or should I say rural schools, these resources are scarce. Privileged learners in these schools (urban) do not utilize these resources appropriately. Most learners in rural areas come from very disadvantaged homes and go to disadvantaged schools.

However, the performance in some of these schools is satisfactory. Some learners academically excel irrespective of the harsh conditions they have to encounter on a daily basis. These Excellencies are facilitated by educators, parents/guardians or community members who act as “steering” in the learning environment. Educators in these schools sympathize with their learners and thus dedicate themselves in everything they do which effectively enhance as well make active the mindset of learners irrespective of their spectral backgrounds.

We often hear of these educators who play such critical roles in learner’s academic life in newspapers, community radio stations and also on televisions. Some of the work of these educators may not be globally recognized but the outcomes are truly appreciated in the South African context. Distinction between resilience and excellence The restoration from form unfavourable conditions due to environmental factors is referred to as resilience. Generally resilience according to Akhurst and Sader, 2012 is “the process of recovering quickly from misfortune or illness”.

If resilience was to be explained in scientific terms: It can be explained as follows, “let’s consider a typical plant cell and see what happens when you place it in a saturated solution( solution containing an excessive amounts of solutes) , the plant cell shrinks, becomes smaller in size and temporarily lose form and shape. During the process, its contents are rearranged, altered and functionality ceases to operate. When you take the same plant cell and place it in pure water, the cell regains its contents and gets restored back to its original form.

The plant cell does not die because there is a “resilient force” which prevents it from total annihilation. The plant cell stays dormant until its physiological conditions get restored”. Similarly in the context of resilience in schools, some schools are able to overcome the barriers associated with learning and continue with the production of good results irrespective of external factors. Excellence in simple terms can be described as the ability to do well or the production of positive outcomes. Excellence in schools can be assessed differenty depending on the schools primary purpose.

For example schools that do well in mathematics regard themselves as being excellent whereas schools that perform well in Speech and drama also regards themselves also as being excellent. So in actual fact, the description of the excellent depends on the desired outcomes of that particular context. Excellence in schools Resilience in Relation to Excellence Corporal punishment was another way of shaping learners, that mischiveously stood on the way pathway of learners with the willingness to perform to produce outstanding results. (Christie, P, 2001, p52).

Even though this is very unlawful, meetings based on corporal punishments are first discussed with the parents/guardians of the learners before a decision is taken. Some learners parents/guardians agrees, specifically those with children’s from black schools. The reason why they (parents) permit educators to give corporal punishment is simply because they were raised in a similar way which in a way instilled good discipline and also helped them to be responsible individuals. “Some parents still believe that abandoning corporal punishment by the government is the reason why learners perform poorly in their subjects at school.

However, according to Christie, 2012, the banning of corporal punishment could not be the reason for poor performance in South African schools, because no evidence was gathered in the apartheid era. Some resilient learners were greatly aspired by pupils in the community, these included church, and community services. This is true, for example in my case after trying to give on school . i. e. at high school, some grown up folks that lived in the same neighbourhood as me, folks that i used to hang up with and take drugs encouraged and told me that dropping out of school was not an option for a person who really wants to be successful in life.

At first when they said this, i questioned them about why did they drop out at standard 8 and 9, now known as grade 10 and 11 respectively? Unfortunately these guys did history while still at school and the response they gave was a quotation from former S. A president, Nelson Mandela, which stated that “A 70 year old can never think like a 30 year old, and being 70 years of age gives you the licence and priviledge that the 30 year old can never have”. The second quotation they gave was from Malcom X, which stated that,”The future belongs to those who prepare for it today”.

Well at that stage all of this was meaningless to me as a science learner, but after being triggered by a discussion I had with one of my EDPD610 colleague (Ms Moodley) during the first contact session, I started to realise the in depth meaning that these guys were trying to convey to me 11 years ago. Conditions at that time for me were unfavourable, both mom and dad were uneducated, consumed liquor and I had to watch my father beat my mother almost every weekend, the home turned into a “gladiator ring” with my elder brother and I as the referees.

I was good in mathematics and science at grade 8, but when I reached grade 10, the performance started to deteriorate because I started to take drugs and abandoned my soccer training in the afternoons. I joined wrong friends and isolated myself from my primary school buddies. Unfortunately one of my science teachers, Mrs S Padayachee detected the problem and confronted me directly. I received help, woke up and dusted myself, but it was too late for me to catch up with the material covered in grade 12. I ended passing with bad symbols and decided to repeat my matric.

After repeating, I passed with good symbols, enrolled for Bsc degree at UKZN, graduated, and now i’m a science educator, with less than a year experience. Generally I feel revived, resurrected, and restored and have this immense power of wanting to infiltrate knowledge to South African learners. I managed to excel academically despite the repulsive forces that acted upon me, I managed to excel in overcoming my negative thoughts, I managed to excel in making my family proud of me because i’m the only person in the family to reach matric and have a degree.

Best practices of teacher’s resilience in their schools Conclusion References 1) http://web. uvic. ca/hr/managertoolkit/changeandtransition/takingchargechange. pdf( date accessed 13/03/13) 2) Botha ,R. J(2004). Excellence in leadership : The demands the professional school pricinple. Retrieved 08 March 13, 2013http://www. ajol. info/index. php/saje/article/viewFile/24995/20678 3) Christie,P. (2001). Improving school quality in South Africa: a study of schools that have succeeded against the odds. Journal of Education , 41,45,52 4) Hattie, J (2003). Teachers make a difference: what is the research eveidence.

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Corporal Punishment Essay

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Corporal Punishment Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1154

  • Pages: 5

Corporal Punishment

The question of whether corporal punishment is an effective method of discipline is greatly debated. Corporal Punishment is a form of physical discipline that may cause pain for wrongdoing, or to bring for change in ones attitude which may seem disrespectful. Corporal punishment should not be allowed in my opinion because to what extent is this type of punishment considered abuse, it could traumatize children and it may cause the child to grow up thinking that violence and love is ok. In 20011, a CBS news reporter by the name of Maura Kennedy reported that a man from Colorado had been facing charges of child abuse for spanking his own son. ”

His child was sent to school like any other normal day when his teacher noticed marks on his bottom. Allegedly the child had stated that, he had been “giving a spanking” the night before. Minutes later his parents were notified of the situation in which his father replied, “ I spanked his butt out of love, I don’t want him act out in school or to think it’s ok to talk to parents like that “.

According to Colorado’s Criminal Code, child abuse is defined as “when a person acts with knowledge or recklessly and the child results in any injury”. But with a law so broad, it can also overrule the way couples choose to scold their kids. If this is so when it comes to discipline the same should apply in the schools. Discipline of the same sort in the home or in the schools both imply the same thing. Even though corporal punishment is legal in nineteen schools I feel as though if it’s already being enforced in the homes of the students that’s where the line should be drawn.

In the book, “Beating the Devil out of them: Corporal Punishment in American Families and its effect on children”, Murray A. Straus, one of the world’s leading researchers on family violence, discusses the extent to which parents in the united states use corporal punishment (such as spanking and slapping) and its effects on their children based on the studies of 9,000 families. Straus, states that the phrase “pain, but not injury” helps to distinguish corporal punishment from the physical abuse: our subject is socially acceptable and legal corporal punishment.

He also implies that the phrase “with the intention of causing a child to experience pain” could mean anything that causes pain, such as sterilizing a scrape. The most focal forms of corporal punishment are acts that require more than enough force to move the child. Using objects may lean more to the physical abuse than to corporal punishment. Physical punishment can easily be more abrupt and tiptoe along the lines of abuse and serious bodily harm, when a particular object is used. The use of corporal punishment in children may also results in depression as adults.

Depression is when a person responds to things that occurred to them as a child when they’re older. As a child when you are physically abused it may take a while for you to respond to them, so once you grow older the delayed reaction because a suppression. When the mind suppresses it remembers events of unacceptable things, thoughts or memories from the mind. When the mind relapses on such things it may cause a person to feel alone. Children become emotionally detached from parents who have hit them. This type of things may also bring forth thoughts of suicide.

After being a product of corporal punishment kids start to think “who can they tell” about the situation when the person that is doing the hitting is the one of authority. “Males that were hit as teenagers have a twenty-three higher chance of depression as for women there is a eighteen percent difference”. Especially as parents because they’re the ones to nurture kids and protect them that’s when they start to think otherwise. When one feels like they have no one else to turn to they become outcast, no friends, they just want to be to themselves.

But depression can make your mind think things that are ok are really not. Depression of this sort can be contributed by the aggression from hands of their parents. Another result of corporal punishment could be that the child may grow up thinking that violence and love go hand in hand. Thus, meaning that if you love them that it is ok to cause physical violence among oneself. Since the parents proclaim to administer “spankings” to a child out of “love” when they grow up as adults they begin to think that abusive relationships are ok.

Corporal violence also teaches that violence is an acceptable solution to frustration and anger involving people. Research shows that children who were abused will become more defiant in the future. As they enter the adult stage of life they become violent, destructive and also a threat to society as well as others around them. Effective types of discipline such as, talking to the child and addressing the problem, letting them know what the issue at hand is, and taking away things; like toys, video games and things us such may teach self control, guidance and also molding.

When scolding a child telling them what is and what may not be acceptable could pretty much be enough. A simple raising of the voice or distraction when it comes to infants may also be effective. As parents one must think before they react, be sure of the approach you take when handling kids. In conclusion, Corporal punishment is an effective form of discipline to a certain extent. Somewhere between the line of discipline and abuse there is indeed a thin line. Anything can cause pain but not injury. There are other methods of discipline that may be used when it comes to children.

Using physical force is not always the answer. Talking to a child, pointing out their mistakes, letting them know what is acceptable and what isn’t may help a great deal. Sometimes hitting a child may cause them to rebel and want to act out. Physical abuse may lead to all types of difficulties when children reach their adult lives. Things that happen as a child are always in a childs mind. By saying “ with love” , children may think that love involves violence because that’s what the mother or father has instilled in them as kids. Works Cited

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Corporal Punishment Essay

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  • University/College:
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  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1189

  • Pages: 5

Corporal Punishment

Attention getter: Astrid Lindgren-author of “Pippi Long stocking, told a story of how she was young with her first child and didn’t believe in striking and spanking kids, although spanking kids with a switch pulled from a tree was standard punishment at the time. One day when her son was four or five, he did something that warranted a severe spanking-the first of his life. She told him that, he would have to go outside and find a switch for her to hit him with. The boy was gone a long time, and when he came back, he was crying. He said to his mama, “Mama, I couldn’t find a switch, but here’s a rock that you can throw at me.” All of a sudden the mother understood how the situation felt from the child’s point of view that if my mother wants to hurt me, it makes no difference what she does it with; she might as well do it with a rock.

The mother took the boy onto her lap, and they both started crying. Then she laid the rock on a shelf in the kitchen to remind herself forever: never violence. And that is something I think everyone should keep in their mind because violence begins in the nursery, one can raise children into violence. Relevancy statement: putting an end to corporal punishment will result in positive changes in behaviors of children with time Credibility: I have a whole lot of experience in child discipline as I have lived in Africa for 14 yrs. I have experienced corporal punishment from switches of trees, to belt slapping. Hitting or spanking a child will only teach them violence. If the child learns to behave, that’s for sure out of fear which is temporary. It is more effective to explain to the child why their behavior was wrong and devise a reasonable punishment Transition: Firstly, let’s look at what corporal punishment is, and its dangers. BODY

A. What is corporal punishment?

1. According to Susan Lawrence in favor of HB 1787, Section 1 of Chapter 265 of the General Law of some states, corporal punishment is the willful infliction of physical pain, including but not limited, to hitting, whipping, slapping, spanking, kicking, biting, poking eyes, twisting limbs, boxing ears, shaking “hot saucing”(putting hot undiluted Tabasco sauce or soap in the mouth), administering electric shocks, or any other unreasonable (Lawrence, 2005) 2. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, 142,000 children are seriously injured from corporal punishment every year in this country, 18,000 are left to suffer permanent disability due to their injury. (Lawrence, 2005)

3. Violence breeds violence- 99% of jail inmates were victims of corporal children. Based on a study by Elizabeth Gershoff, “corporal punishment is associated with increased aggression” and “one study showed that use of corporal punishment to halt aggression increased risk for aggressive behaviors by 50%. (Gershoff, 2002) 4. Adults may not know their strength- according to Oley Kammetskiy of Credit News Digest, “Homicidal Deaths of infants and toddlers were usually the result of parental attempts to control child vulnerability of the child who is smaller than the attacking adult. (moroz, 2005) Transition: Corporal punishment of children is not only dangerous, but unethical, inexcusable, and morally reprehensible. B. Corporal punishment is unethical

1. If you hit another adult you can be arrested and sued, after all, so shouldn’t our smallest, weakest citizens have a right to equal or even more-than-equal protection under the law? After all, so shouldn’t our smallest weakest citizens have a right equal or even more-than-equal under protection law? (Kazdin, 2008) 2. So, is it right to use corporal punishment? The answer is a resounding no!!!! Parents, schools, faith organizations, and others, typically use corporal punishment when they themselves are without answers or solutions to correct or resolve a problem.

3. If corporal punishment is a good idea, why not use it in our legal systems to resolve traffic of violations, and other minor offenses? Why not use corporal punishment? According to Dr. Asa Don Brown, each time in our global community that corporal punishment has been made allowable and permissible, people suffered at the hands of individuals who lost control. (Brown, 2011) Transition: Now that we have seen how unscrupulous and dangerous it is, let’s look at its effectiveness C. Effectiveness of corporal punishment.

1. The child won’t repeat the behavior because they are afraid of being hit, not because they think that what they did was wrong. (Gershoff, 2002) 2. Instilling fear in children will not gain their respect; rather, make them feel lonely, sad, and abandoned. (Alam, 2011) 3. The child will still engage in bad behaviors if there’s no chance of the parent catching them. (Alam, 2011) 4. According to Slade and Wissow, white non-Hispanic children who were frequently spanked (five times a week) before age two were four times more likely to have behavioral problems by the time they started school. (Osofsky, 2004)

5. Straus and Paschall found that the more prevalent the corporal punishment, the greater the decrease in cognitive ability. Considering other studies, which showed that talking to children, including infants, is associated with increased neural connections in the brain and cognitive functioning, the researchers hypothesized that if parents are not using corporal punishment to discipline their child, they are very likely verbally interacting with that child, thus positively affecting cognitive development. (Osofsky, 2004)

CONCLUSION

A. Transition to conclusion: at this point, I hope you will agree with me that corporal punishment is just not the right way to discipline a child, but rather, explaining to the child why their behavior was wrong. B. So far, we know that, corporal punishment endangers the child, it is unethical, inexcusable, and reprehensible. In a nut shell, corporal punishment is cruel and not pleasant for children to bear. C. Memorable closing: American Medical Association, (1985): “inflicting pain or discomfort, however minor, is not a desirable method of communicating with children.”

References
Alam, S., (2004, May). Corporal Punishment is Unethical. Retrieved from http://nospank.net/n-u31.htm Brown, A. D., (2011, August). Corporal Punishment-Discipline. Retrieved from http://www.ccpa-accp.ca/blog/?p=956 Gershoff, E., (2002). Corporal Punishment by Parents, Associated Child Behaviors’, and Experiences. Retrieved from http://www.endcorporalpunishment.org/pages/pdfs/Gershoff-2002.pdf Kazdin, A., (2008, September). Spare the Rod-Why shouldn’t your hit your kids? Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/articles/life/family/2008/09/spare_the_rod.html
Lawrence, S., (2005, June). Testimony of Susan Lawrence, in support of, HB 1787 Massachusetts state legislature. Retrieved from http://www.nospank.net/hb1787b.htm Moroz, K.J., (2005, June). Psychological trauma: corporal punishment. Retrieved from http://www.mentalhealth.vermont.gov/sites/dmhfiles/reports/cafu/dmh-cafu_psychological_trauma_moroz.pdf Osofsky, J.D., (Ed) (2004) young children and trauma, intervention and treatment. New York, NY. The Guilford Press.

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Corporal Punishment Essay

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Corporal Punishment Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 2162

  • Pages: 9

Corporal Punishment

Corporal punishment is a subject that has a lot of emotional opinions for me. The Collins English Dictionary describes corporal punishment as punishment of a physical nature, such as caning, flogging, or beating. The description of caning, flogging or beating should be enough to indicate that it is not needed for children. Corporal punishment has a tone that is too close to child abuse to be comfortable with any form of it. I suppose the clarity should be to try to define the line between discipline and abuse. Corporal punishment in my mind is abuse, not discipline.

Discipline should not leave marks, bruises or cause lasting physical or emotional pain. It should be something that gets the child’s attention and offers correction, but too many parents or adults simply just don’t know where the line is and when they have so clearly crossed it. I realize that psychological marks or bruises maybe difficult to read but I believe that there can be some tell-tale signals that indicate how effective it was in a child’s upbringing or how ineffective it was in the same measure.

Corporal punishment in families is a controversial practice in the United States and worldwide. (Zolotor, A. J. , & Puzia, M. E. (2010). 229-247) Zolotor indicates that advocates of corporal punishment deem it to be a necessary practice for well-behaved children. He further states that it harms children psychologically and interferes with development. Ask any parent, “do you spank your children? ” and, many will quickly admit that they do. However their definition of spanking and the reality of corporal punishment are often too close to each other to separate discipline from abuse.

I grew up in a family that discipline meant instant harsh responses to someone’s disfavor of your actions. In my family, discipline could be dealt out by anyone your senior including aunts, uncles, grandparents, older siblings, older cousins, or just about anybody who would have a reaction to a child being a child and investigating their limitations and curiosities. When I think about whether or not corporal punishment is effective or not, I have to admit that I have a severely tainted view and opinion. It is not easy to see clearly how punishing a child for discipline sake and having hem scream, “I am scared” when they are about to be disciplined can possibly mean the same thing. As I sit here preparing to provide opinions or belief systems in my life that do not support corporal punishment, I think of the moments in my childhood that I remember most. I remember a sad day in my mother’s life when she, for some reason, asked me what I remember most about my childhood and I said, “The beatings, mom, I remember the beatings most”. I saw the pain in her eyes and it provided no consolation for me or peace for me.

I realized in that moment, I probably hurt my mother emotionally more than she ever hurt me physically. I wasn’t trying to be dramatic or even trying to punish her for the life I led as a child. It was just the truth as it stood that day. I am almost fifty years old and I must admit that I still flinch when I am walking through a door and happen to have a woman walk in at the same time or behind me. My father used to smack the boys in the back of the head if we did not remember our manners and hold the door for women.

He would scream some unusable obscenity and tell us to be a man of respect and manners and just about knock us to the ground in the process. The argument might be that it was effective because I will almost break my arm to hold a door open for a woman entering a room or a building regardless of the situation. I just think that chivalry is not dead and just do what is expected of a man who provides appropriate respect to women. Twenty-four countries have passed legislative bans on corporal punishment since the passage of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Coleman, D. , Dodge, K. A. , & Campbell, S. (2010). This would seem to be sufficient information to indicate that there is strong evidence to prove that it is not a practice that can be tolerated or supported. If the leadership of twenty-four countries have agreed that this is not a proper way to take care of discipline issues with children, someone must have decided that there was enough evidence that proved children need to be protected from the ignorance of their parents.

This statement holds a lot of credence for me because this had to be a subject that drew national and international attention at some time in the recent past. Someone brought up the subject of corporal punishment to the leadership of twenty four countries who all agreed that it was an ineffective form of discipline. I remember when I was a child in school at a small school in Arkansas, the principal, Mrs. Hewey, would have a conversation with my brother and me at least twice a week.

The conversation was usually followed by the use of a two and a half foot long board that was about five inches wide and had holes drilled in it. Depending on our offense that day we would see anywhere from one to three good solid swats from that board and I swear that she would lean back all the way into the hallway to get a running start at the swing before it viciously collided with your backside. I don’t think this was really that effective but it usually took less than two days for my brother and me to be right back in her office for another try at that board.

The only real problem was that every day we had this interaction, we were sure to get some more when we got home from one parent or the other and possibly both if the offense in school was strong enough. Children whose parents approved of and used corporal punishment were more likely to endorse hitting as a strategy for resolving interpersonal conflicts with peers and siblings. (Simons, D. A. , & Wurtele, S. K. (2010) Reading this statement alone provides insight on the problems with relationships today.

Whether it is factual or just opinion, it would seem that this is reason for other relationship issues that deal with conflict and conflict resolution. It would seem that we could easily expect to hear someone say, “if he hits you, hit him back” and this would be the fantastic wisdom they provide their children as they also are swift to find reason to administer swift punishment for simply being a child. I was once in a grocery store and overheard an overzealous father telling his son, “If he hits you again, you hit him back and if you have to do it when he is not watching, but you hit him and hit him again and again.

He will certainly leave you alone if you do. ” I immediately thought how awful this child’s youth and teenage years were going to be if he followed his father’s misguided advice. I must admit that in hearing just thirty seconds of a conversation, I felt sadness for the boy and disappointment and pity for the father. I thought that someday he is going to be one of those fathers who receives a phone call that says his son is in the hospital or worse because he followed his advice. He will never associate the situation with the advice he gave his son in his most impressionable years.

He will just think evil of the people who harmed his son. HE will then respond in the only way he knows how, he will strike back too. Proving again that the discipline he received and the discipline he provided lacked wisdom and only invited sadness and loss in it. According to an article written by Hicks-Pass in 2009 entitled, “Corporal Punishment in America Today: Spare the Rod, Spoil the Child? ” Hicks-Pass described findings that supported an intergenerational cycle of violence; parents who experienced frequent corporal punishment during childhood perceived its use as acceptable and frequently spanked their children.

Basically, this means that whatever environment you are raised in will more than likely become a part of your belief system up to and including your approval of the use of corporal punishment. I have often that the exact opposite about some things as I look back on my youth and early parenthood, I found myself saying, “As a father, I refuse to repeat this behavior with my children” and worked very hard to recognize the responses in me that would have or could have led to the use of corporal punishment.

I am a long way from perfect but there are a lot of ways that I have separated myself from the intergenerational beliefs systems that could have overpowered my desire to be different and in some cases better. Some of the ways that I believe a parent can discipline a child that are far removed from corporal punishment are: a) Communicating with them on their level and at a tone of instruction. Yelling is not allowed. This takes patience recognizing that a child doesn’t understand at the same pace or academic level as an adult.

So it is one that requires parents to sit down and talk things out with the child explaining the right and wrong behavior and the expected behavior from the parent’s standpoint and then enforcing the change through limitations. b) Time outs that separate them from the situation completely and give them time to calm down and for the parent to do so as well. My children have a five-minute egg timer that we use when they need some time to stop and regroup.

We have a place in their room where they have a chair and the egg timer. Once seated there, they cannot move until the ding of the egg-timer goes “bing”. Then they have to bring the egg timer and the explanation of the situation. Then as a parent, I explain to them the difference between what is expected and what they were doing and then ask for their confirmation of understanding. With five year olds, this takes patience because their attention span is so much shorter. ) Take aways – When my twins begin to argue about something it is usually because one of them has something the other wants and they both begin to fight for it. It is funny that they do not want it until it is firmly in the grasp of the other twin and then they begin to fight for position or possession. Here I just simply take away whatever it is they are arguing about until they can calm down and realize that it is not appropriate or fair to be jealous of someone else especially when they were doing something that you had no interest in until they began it.

This is usually over the use of the I-Pad, Computer, or some form of their homework or books in their room. Through it all, the idea is simple. If twenty-four countries have made corporal punishment illegal, then it would only make sense that we have to begin to educate those families caught up in the circle of violence that it more often than not follows. We have to also educate them with alternatives and coach them through it as they learn alternatives methods of providing discipline and guidance.

I can’t remember how many times, my father was providing his discipline and was saying something like, “I told you not to do this and you are going to get it even if I have to beat it into you! ” The fact is I don’t think I ever really got it and therefore have spent most of my adult life separating myself from it. If we start with ourselves and help educate others, we can make a difference but it will take generations to do so. It will not come quickly enough and many children with suffer the wrath of parents who have become their parents.

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Corporal punishment Essay

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Corporal punishment Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1337

  • Pages: 5

Corporal punishment

Introduction The performance of most South African schools fluctuates from time to time. These fluctuation trends are as a result of the micro-evolutionary mechanistic changes that consistently take place throughout the country. Some schools in the urban areas perform extremely well, but some perform poorly despite the available resources that the school have.

For example some of these schools have laboratories that are highly functional and also well structured for experimental as well as practical work which enhances skills in learners and also intensifies the existing theoretical knowledge that the learners have, whereas in schools geographically featured in remote areas or should I say rural schools, these resources are scarce. Privileged learners in these schools (urban) do not utilize these resources appropriately. Most learners in rural areas come from very disadvantaged homes and go to disadvantaged schools.

However, the performance in some of these schools is satisfactory. Some learners academically excel irrespective of the harsh conditions they have to encounter on a daily basis. These Excellencies are facilitated by educators, parents/guardians or community members who act as “steering” in the learning environment. Educators in these schools sympathize with their learners and thus dedicate themselves in everything they do which effectively enhance as well make active the mindset of learners irrespective of their spectral backgrounds.

We often hear of these educators who play such critical roles in learner’s academic life in newspapers, community radio stations and also on televisions. Some of the work of these educators may not be globally recognized but the outcomes are truly appreciated in the South African context. Distinction between resilience and excellence The restoration from form unfavourable conditions due to environmental factors is referred to as resilience. Generally resilience according to Akhurst and Sader, 2012 is “the process of recovering quickly from misfortune or illness”.

If resilience was to be explained in scientific terms: It can be explained as follows, “let’s consider a typical plant cell and see what happens when you place it in a saturated solution( solution containing an excessive amounts of solutes) , the plant cell shrinks, becomes smaller in size and temporarily lose form and shape. During the process, its contents are rearranged, altered and functionality ceases to operate. When you take the same plant cell and place it in pure water, the cell regains its contents and gets restored back to its original form.

The plant cell does not die because there is a “resilient force” which prevents it from total annihilation. The plant cell stays dormant until its physiological conditions get restored”. Similarly in the context of resilience in schools, some schools are able to overcome the barriers associated with learning and continue with the production of good results irrespective of external factors. Excellence in simple terms can be described as the ability to do well or the production of positive outcomes. Excellence in schools can be assessed differenty depending on the schools primary purpose.

For example schools that do well in mathematics regard themselves as being excellent whereas schools that perform well in Speech and drama also regards themselves also as being excellent. So in actual fact, the description of the excellent depends on the desired outcomes of that particular context. Excellence in schools Resilience in Relation to Excellence Corporal punishment was another way of shaping learners, that mischiveously stood on the way pathway of learners with the willingness to perform to produce outstanding results. (Christie, P, 2001, p52).

Even though this is very unlawful, meetings based on corporal punishments are first discussed with the parents/guardians of the learners before a decision is taken. Some learners parents/guardians agrees, specifically those with children’s from black schools. The reason why they (parents) permit educators to give corporal punishment is simply because they were raised in a similar way which in a way instilled good discipline and also helped them to be responsible individuals. “Some parents still believe that abandoning corporal punishment by the government is the reason why learners perform poorly in their subjects at school.

However, according to Christie, 2012, the banning of corporal punishment could not be the reason for poor performance in South African schools, because no evidence was gathered in the apartheid era. Some resilient learners were greatly aspired by pupils in the community, these included church, and community services. This is true, for example in my case after trying to give on school . i. e. at high school, some grown up folks that lived in the same neighbourhood as me, folks that i used to hang up with and take drugs encouraged and told me that dropping out of school was not an option for a person who really wants to be successful in life.

At first when they said this, i questioned them about why did they drop out at standard 8 and 9, now known as grade 10 and 11 respectively? Unfortunately these guys did history while still at school and the response they gave was a quotation from former S. A president, Nelson Mandela, which stated that “A 70 year old can never think like a 30 year old, and being 70 years of age gives you the licence and priviledge that the 30 year old can never have”. The second quotation they gave was from Malcom X, which stated that,”The future belongs to those who prepare for it today”.

Well at that stage all of this was meaningless to me as a science learner, but after being triggered by a discussion I had with one of my EDPD610 colleague (Ms Moodley) during the first contact session, I started to realise the in depth meaning that these guys were trying to convey to me 11 years ago. Conditions at that time for me were unfavourable, both mom and dad were uneducated, consumed liquor and I had to watch my father beat my mother almost every weekend, the home turned into a “gladiator ring” with my elder brother and I as the referees.

I was good in mathematics and science at grade 8, but when I reached grade 10, the performance started to deteriorate because I started to take drugs and abandoned my soccer training in the afternoons. I joined wrong friends and isolated myself from my primary school buddies. Unfortunately one of my science teachers, Mrs S Padayachee detected the problem and confronted me directly. I received help, woke up and dusted myself, but it was too late for me to catch up with the material covered in grade 12. I ended passing with bad symbols and decided to repeat my matric.

After repeating, I passed with good symbols, enrolled for Bsc degree at UKZN, graduated, and now i’m a science educator, with less than a year experience. Generally I feel revived, resurrected, and restored and have this immense power of wanting to infiltrate knowledge to South African learners. I managed to excel academically despite the repulsive forces that acted upon me, I managed to excel in overcoming my negative thoughts, I managed to excel in making my family proud of me because i’m the only person in the family to reach matric and have a degree.

Best practices of teacher’s resilience in their schools Conclusion References 1) http://web. uvic. ca/hr/managertoolkit/changeandtransition/takingchargechange. pdf( date accessed 13/03/13) 2) Botha ,R. J(2004). Excellence in leadership : The demands the professional school pricinple. Retrieved 08 March 13, 2013http://www. ajol. info/index. php/saje/article/viewFile/24995/20678 3) Christie,P. (2001). Improving school quality in South Africa: a study of schools that have succeeded against the odds. Journal of Education , 41,45,52 4) Hattie, J (2003). Teachers make a difference: what is the research eveidence.

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