Causes and Spread of Infection Essay

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Causes and Spread of Infection Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1131

  • Pages: 5

Causes and Spread of Infection

1.1 Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.

Bacteria, fungi and parasites are all considered as ‘living’ things,. Bacteria are single celled microorganisms that can only been seen through a microscope, they collect their nutrition from their surrounding and unlike viruses, they do not need a living host to reproduce. Viruses are difficult to destroy because they are enclosed in a protein coating. Viruses are disease-producing agents, far smaller than bacteria. Viruses are not considered as living because they are unable to reproduce. Fungi are placed into the plant category although they are very different from green plants. The basic part of fungus is a hollow tube, which is known as ‘hypha’. Fungi spread by releasing spores into its surroundings. Parasites are an organism that feeds and is dependent of its host.

1.2 Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.

Common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria include; Bacterial meningitis, Gonorrhea, Impetigo, Lyme disease, MRSA infection, Scarlet fever, Tuberculosis, Typhoid fever, and Urinary tract infections. Common illnesses and infections caused by viruses include; AIDS, Chickenpox, Common cold, Hand, foot, and mouth disease, Viral hepatitis, Influenza (Flu), Measles, Mumps, Rabies, Smallpox, Viral meningitis, and Viral pneumonia. Common illnesses and infections caused by fungi includes; Pneumocystis pneumonia, Fungal meningitis, Candida infection, Ringworm, and Athlete’s foot. Common illnesses and infections caused by parasites include; Malaria, Scabies, Stomach and gut worms (Threadworm, hookworm), and Hair and body lice (Head and crab lice).

1.3 Describe what is meant by ‘Infection’ and ‘colonization’

Infection means that the body is being invaded by bacteria, viruses and parasites that are not usually there, these are known as microorganisms.
Colonization is a bacterial infection manifesting on or in an individual, making the individual the carrier of the infection who may not necessarily have any signs or symptoms of the illness, however they do still have the potential to infect others.

1.4 Explain what is meant by ‘ systemic infection’ and ‘localized infection’

Systemic infection means the infection is in the blood stream, and is or has spread through the body. Lime Disease, AIDS, Tuberculosis and Septicemia are examples of Systemic infections. Localized infection means the infection is restricted to one area on the body i.e. small cut or ulcer that is infected. However if a localized infection becomes worse, and no medical treatment is given it could spread and become a systemic infection.

1.5 Identify poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection.

Not washing your hands after having contact with service users, food, hazardous substances, using the toilet etc. Not wearing the correct PPE when needed
Not storing food correctly
Not cooking food thoroughly
Not covering your mouth or nose when sneezing or coughing
Poor waste disposal and storage procedures
Inadequate cleaning/decontamination of environment and equipment

2.1 Explain the conditions needed for the growth of micro-organisms.

Four key factors are needed to make the perfect environment for microorganisms to grow, these include; moisture, nutrients, warmth and time. Moisture – moisture is essential to carry foods in solution into the cell, and carry the waste away from the cell. Nutrients – lack of food slows down the bacterial growth, therefore the sufficient nutrients are needed. Warmth – temperature plays a big role in the growth rate of the bacteria. Micro-organisms that are exposed to adverse temperatures are either destroyed or not able to multiply. Time – time to reproduce

2.2 Explain the ways an infective agent might enter the body.

An infective agent might enter the body through the nose, windpipe or lungs (respiratory tract into the lungs) this is how coughs, colds and other common airborne infections are contracted.

Infective agent may also enter the body via breaks in the skin, bites, scratches; puncture wounds from needles etc. will increase the risk of infection.

Infective agent can enter the body down the digestive tract (stomach, mouth and intestines). Swallowing contaminated foods or drinks can infect the stomach and bowels, which shows itself in the form of diarrhea and/or vomiting.

Infective agent can also enter the body up the urinary and reproductive systems (urethra, bladder and kidneys). The infectious agent will remain localized until/ if it enters the blood stream.

2.3 Identify common sources of infection.

Common sources of infection include food, water, sick people (colds and flu), animals and poor housing (invaded with pests such as rats and mice or damp and moldy), contaminated food, drinks, bodily fluids; vomit, tears, breast milk, urine, blood, mouth, nose, sweat and broken skin.

2.4 Explain how infective agents can be transmitted to a person.

The different ways that infective agents can be transmitted to a person include, Droplet contact; meaning when someone is coughing or sneezing near/on another person and not covering there mouth or nose. Direct contact; meaning touching a person who is infected, this also includes sexual contact. Indirect contact; meaning to touch a contaminated surface or soil contamination without realizing it is contaminated. Airborne transmission; means that the microorganisms can remain in the air for long periods of time. Fecal-oral transmission; which means the foods or waters you intake is contaminated. Lactogenic transmission; means after medical procedures via injection or transplantation of infected materials. Vector-borne transmission; this does not cause the disease but instead transmits pathogens from one host to another. Vertical transmission; means the mother passes on the infection to her child, either in the uterus or during childbirth. Sexual transmission; infection being passed of through sexual contact with another person.

2.5 Identify the key factors that will make it more likely that infection will occur.

The key factors that will make it more likely for infection to occur include; immunity being low due to already being ill or even vey young or old age, not being immunized, open wounds, poor practices such as poor housekeeping and misuse of PPE, poor personal hygiene, contaminated areas/surfaces and contaminated equipment or laundry, people living in the same environment such as a care home setting where many people share the same facilities, equipment, and washrooms.

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Causes and Spread of Infection Essay

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Causes and Spread of Infection Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 295

  • Pages: 1

Causes and Spread of Infection

1.1Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria – bacteria are extremely small singular organisms which are found almost everywhere. Viruses – it is a coated genetic material that invades cells and use’s the cells apparatus for reproduction. Fungi – it is a multi-celled living organism

Parasites – they are types of living plants and animals that derive benefit from the metabolism of other animals and plants.

1.2 Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria – Food poisoning, bronchitis, ear infections, tonsillitis. Viruses – common cold, stomach flu, warts.

Fungi – Athletes foot, ring worm, yeast infection.
Parasites – worms, malaria, trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)

1.3 Describe what is meant by infection and colonisation.
Infection – is an invasion to body tissues from a disease- caused microorganism. Colonisation – is multiplication of microorganisms without tissue invasion or damage.

1.4 Explain what is meant by “systemic infection and localized infection” Systemic – is when infection is distributed throughout the whole body. Localized – is when infection is limited to a specific part of the body.

1.5 Identify poor practises that may lead to the spread of infection. If you don’t wash your hands, not wearing personal protective clothing, not clearing surroundings, not covering your mouth and nose when you sneeze or cough.

2.1 Explain the conditions needed for the growth of microorganisms. Food. micro – organisms need food to survive.
They like high protein food to survive, eg. poultry & fish. Warmth. most

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Causes and spread of infection Essay

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 618

  • Pages: 2

Causes and spread of infection

1.1Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi & parasites.

•Bacteria is a microorganism, most bacteria is harmless. It is found in soil, water, plants, animals and humans; it can only be seen under a microscope. Antibiotics can help treat bacterial infections. Examples of bacterial infections are TB and MRSA. •Viruses live inside other living organisms. They can enter humans through the nose, mouth and breaks in the skin. Viruses can spread through bodily fluids, the air, and insects such as mosquitos. Antibiotics have no effects on viruses; however people can have vaccinations to help prevent viruses.

Examples of viral infections are Norovirus and influenza. •Fungi are an organism such as yeasts, molds and mushrooms. Fungi infections are common and can affect your skin, hair and nails. Examples of fungi infections are athlete’s foot and thrush. •Parasites are organisms that live on or in a host; they can cause disease in humans. Parasites use the host to for food and to breed. Examples of parasites are worms, ticks, lice and mites.

1.2Describe what is meant by infection and colonisation.

•Infections are when bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi enter the body and multiply, evading the body’s immune system. Infections can then cause illness, signs of infection are fever, pain, swelling, runny nose, sore throat, and rashes. •Colonisation is when bacteria and viruses are present in the body, but do not cause illness.

1.3 Explain what is meant by a ‘systemic’ and ‘localized’ infection

•Systemic infection is caused by bacteria or viruses that have entered the bloodstream and spread around the body. Systemic infections are illness such as colds and flu. •Localized infection is when the whole body is not affected; an infection that is not in the bloodstream. Localized infections can be an infected wound or cut.

1.4Identify poor practices that may lead to spread of infection.

•Poor hand washing techniques.
•Not wearing PPE.
•Not storing or cooking food correctly.
•Poor hygiene.
•Inadequate vaccinations.
•Incorrect dispose of waste.

2.1 Explain the conditions needed for the growth of microorganisms.

•Microorganisms need moist environments to multiply.
•Temperatures between 20-40c are ideal for growth of microorganisms.
•Time to grow.

2.2 Explains ways an infective agent may enter the body.

•Through openings in the body such as mouth, nose.
•Cuts and grazes on the skin.
•Surgical wounds.
•Medical devices such as cannulas.
•Transferred from mother to child.
•Sexual transmission.

2.3 Identify common sources of infection.

•Contaminated equipment.
•Contaminated food.
•Contaminated water.
•Contact with ill people.

2.4 Explain how infective agents can be transmitted to a person.

•Direct contact such as – touching, biting, sexual intercourse.
•Indirect contact such as – airborne.

2.5 Identify the key factors that will make it more likely that infection will occur.

•Weak immune system.
•Poor infection control practice.
•Vulnerable people such as babies & the elderly.
•Open wounds.

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Causes and spread of infection Essay

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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1500

  • Pages: 6

Causes and spread of infection

Bacteria. These organisms are made up of just one cell. They have the power to divide so can multiply on their own. Some bacteria are harmless and can be of use in the aid of digestion and are found in the intestines. Other bacteria can be the cause of diseases. These bacteria have to find a way in to the body to be of harm and can make their way through the skin or be digested and attack our immune system. Viruses. These micro-organisms are very tiny. They invade living normal cells and use these cells to multiply and produce other viruses like themselves. Eventually this kills off the normal cell and can make you ill. Parasites. These are micro-organisms that live off other organisms or a host so they are able to survive. Some parasites don’t affect the host. But others grow, reproduce, or can even give off toxins that make the host sick resulting in a parasitic infection. They include; protozoan, fungi, and multi-cellular organisms. Fungi. These are single celled organisms a little bigger than bacteria. They do not make their own food so they get their food from absorbing the nutrients from their surroundings. Common illnesses and infections causes.

Bacteria:

Acute Rheumatic Fever Anthrax, Bacterial Vaginosis, Botulism, Brucellosis,

Cholera. Diptheria. Gastroenteritis. Legionnaires Disease . Listeriosis.

Meningitis Salmonella. E.Col. Staphylococcus Aureus Infection. Tetanus.

Toxic Shock Syndrome.. Tuberculosis Typhoid . Whooping Cough (Pertussis)

Viruses.
Measles Mumps Rubella Influenza Polio Hepatitis A+B Herpes 1+2 HIV Noro Virus

Parasites
Sleeping sickness Thread, Hook and Tape worms
Scabies Malaria Head Lice Elephantiasis
Fungi:
Aspergillosis, Blastomycosis, Candidacies, Warts, Athletes Foot, Thrush Ring Worm Tinia Capitis.

Infection is when the the body is invaded with micro-organisms that multiply these can be bacterial, viruses and parasites which are not normally found in the body. Colonisation is the presence and multiplying of micro-organisms and can be found on or in an individual; the individual can be a carrier of the infection but may have no signs or symptoms of illness, although they can infect others. Systemic infection this means that the infection is widespread throughout the body and must be assumed to be in all organs. Localised infection. This means that an infection caused by bacteria is limited to a certain area. Bacteria invade the body at a specific point and remain there, multiplying, until treated.

Infection can enter the body by breathing it in, ingesting it by eating contaminated food. And absorption through the skin or via an open wound Poor practice that may lead to the spread of infection can be; Poor personal hygiene, not washing hands correctly, not using PPE. The incorrect disposal of rubbish and waste materials. not storing or cooking foods properly, not cleaning your surroundings, not covering your nose or mouth when sneezing or coughing, direct contact with bodily fluids not following policies or reporting outbreaks or episodes of disease, Conditions needed for growth of micro-organisms include:

Moisture: micro-organism need water to grow. Water must flow freely in and out of cells for the transfer of nutrients and waste products. Appropriate Temperature: The majority of human pathogens are Mesophilic. These can grow between a wide range of temperatures 5-63*C –Body temperature is 37 degrees; this is the ideal temperature for these bacteria to multiply. If it is too cold then the bacteria can remain dormant. And too hot a temperature can slow the growth down. Nutrients: All microorganisms need a food source. The food sources can vary, but the organisms extract nutrients from substances such as proteins, fats and carbohydrates.

Every micro-organism needs a mixture of carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, sulphur, water and vitamins. Proper pH: Most human micro-organisms are within the acidophilus group; this means that they prefer a pH or 0.0-5.4 Gases: Most micro-organisms require an environment of 5-10% CO2. Time: bacteria can multiply in 10-20 minutes in these conditions. In the correct conditions micro-organism are able to grow, respire, and reproduce. Sources of infection and how they enter the body:

Food all bacteria need food to grow. Vegetables and raw meat from any animal are significant sources of contamination. Bacteria are always present in animal intestines. These can spread through meat products during slaughter or when a product is minced. . The bacteria can then get carried through the food chain. If the meat product is not cooked properly then the bacteria enter the body through the mouth and are absorbed through the digestive system once we have eaten them.

Water: Stored, untreated or incorrectly treated sources of drinking water carry pathogenic micro-organism like rivers, lakes and reservoirs which can cause infections. These enter the body by the mouth and enter the digestive system once we have drunk the contaminated water. Soil: Dirt: there are many bacteria living in soil. These can cause infection if food is not washed properly in clean water and any food preparation surfaces that have been used need to be cleaned well. These bacteria can be then carried through the food chain and then enter the body through the mouth and again are absorbed through the digestive system when we eat. These bacteria can also be transmitted through touch and we can then ingest these as it is easy for our hands to become contaminated and if we put our hands in or near our mouths then we can ingest them.

Also if our hands are not clean and we touch un contaminated food it can easily end up becoming contaminated. People: Healthy people carry pathogenic bacteria this can be found in the mouth .nose. Skin, hair ears throat, cuts and spots. If suffering with an infection, diarrhoea and or vomiting you should not handle food. Infection can be transferred by touch. Some diseases like scabies and herpes can be transferred by direct skin to skin contact. People who have an infection like a cold and who then touch inanimate objects can leave germs these germs may be survive for a certain length of time, if another person touches these objects the germs can be passed on to them. Disease can also be passed on from person to person through coughing and sneezing.

Droplets can be sprayed into the air and these can enter a person’s body through inhalation when they breathe. Sexual contact and the exchange of bodily fluids like seamen can carry infections like HIV. Air, Dust, Dirt & Food Waste: dust and dirt are carried through the air and these contain millions of microscopic particles of dead skin, food and other debris that are covered in pathogenic bacteria. These bacteria can enter the body via the nose and lungs when we breathe. As they can also be found in the surroundings around us these can be transmitted and enter the body via touch.

Animals & Pests: insects and animals all carry harmful micro-organisms on and in their bodies. (You only need to think of the activities of a fly and what it lives and lands on). Their droppings, eggs, fur, nest materials, mites, and dead bodies can all cause contamination As animals are mobile these are transmitted very easily and infection can be spread where ever they go .some enter the body directly in to the blood stream like the spread of malaria via the mosquito. Others can leave the surroundings that are contaminated and spread through touch. These can enter the body when we touch ourselves or our food.

Sewage: contamination from this is dangerous it contains many pathogens and allergens that fester in sewage and are responsible for a great number of infections. Airborne infections can be caused by sewage these can enter the body via inhalation. These pathogens can also be present in the water supply and food in surrounding areas and can enter the body via ingestion. Infection can also be spread by touch and animals. RISK:

A person is more likely to pick up an infection if they have a poor immune system. The frail and elderly, babies and young children, people on immune suppressant medication as it compromises their immune system. People with long-term illnesses, cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. People who are convalescing, pregnant women and their unborn baby. There are also people who come into regular contact with infectious agents; these people have a higher risk of picking up an infection. For example; care workers, people who deal with infectious waste, medical staff. Sewage plant workers…

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Causes and Spread of Infection Essay

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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 902

  • Pages: 4

Causes and Spread of Infection

1.1 Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.

Bacteria are microbes with a single cell. There is no nucleus or membrane within bacteria, making its structure simpler than that of other organisms. Instead, the genetic information is contained in a single loop of DNA. Viruses are microscopic organisms consisting of genetic material surrounded by proteins, lipids, or glycoprotein coats. Fungi can be multicellular or single celled organisms. They can be found in almost any habitat but most live on land. A group of fungi called the decomposers grow in the soil and play an important role in the cycling of carbon and other elements. A Parasite is an organism that lives within another organism (the host). It is dependant on the host for its survival as it cannot live independently.

1.2 Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.

Common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are:

Bacteria: Salmonella, tuberculosis, MRSA, food poisoning, tonsillitis
Viruses: Common cold, warts, AIDS/HIV
Fungi: Athletes foot, yeast infection, ring worm
Parasites: worms, malaria

1.3 Describe what is meant by ‘infection’ and ‘colonisation’

Infection is the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms that are not normally present within the body. An infection tends to show symptoms and may spread through the whole of the body. Colonisation is when germs are within the body, but do not make the person sick. People who are colonised will have no signs or symptoms and they can feel fine.

1.4 Explain what is meant by ‘systematic infection’ and ‘localised infection’

A systematic infection is an infection that is spread throughout the ‘systems’ of the body, usually by the bloodstream. This doesn’t mean the infection is more severe than a local infection, it just affects a larger proportion of the body. A localised infection is an infection that is restricted to one small area of the body only. It is possible however for a localised infection to spread and become a systematic infection.

1.5 Identify poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection.

Poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection are:

not wearing PPE
not washing your hands
not covering your mouth when sneezing or coughing
not storing or cooking food correctly
not cleaning surfaces correctly

2.1 Explain the conditions needed for the growth of micro-organisms.

In order to grow, micro-organisms require certain conditions. For example, they must have a supply of water, mineral elements and gas, such as oxygen. A physical requirement needed for the growth of micro-organisms is temperature. Each species of micro-organisms have a minimum and a maximum growth temperature range. This allows the optimum growth of the micro-organism. Another physical requirement is the pH of the environment the micro-organism is in. For most micro-organisms, the optimum pH is between 6.5 and 7.5.

2.2 Explain the ways an infective agent may enter the body

One way an infective agent may enter the body is through the respiratory system. These infective agents can enter the body through the nose and then start multiplying. An example of this is the common cold. Another way an infective agent may enter the body is through the digestive system. These infective agents can enter the body through the mouth and can make a person feel sick when the body starts trying to digest the food. An example of this is food poisoning, from food that hasn’t been prepared correctly. An infective agent can enter the body by penetrating the skin. An example of this is tetanus. Another way infective agents may enter the body is via sexual transmission. The infected bodily fluid can enter the body and multiply. An example of this is HIV. An infective agent can also be transferred from a mother to a child in the womb. An example of this is rubella.

2.3 Identify common sources of infection

Common sources of infection are:
food
poor living conditions
water
animals
people who are sick

2.4 Explain how infective agents can be transmitted to a person

A way in which infective agents can be transmitted to a person is by direct physical contact, for example by touching an infected person. Another way an infective agent may be transmitted to another person is through droplet contact. This happens by coughing or sneezing on another person. Infective agents can also be transmitted by the micro-organism being in the air for long periods.

2.5 Identify the key factors that will make it more likely that infection will occur.

Key factors that will make it more likely that infection will occur are: poor immune system
poor cleanliness and hygiene
handling bodily fluids
exposure to infectious environments

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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 442

  • Pages: 2

Causes and Spread of Infection

1.1Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites

Bacteria are a single celled organism that multiplies by themselves. The majority of bacteria’s are harmless and beneficial to the human body but some can cause infectious diseases. A bacterium usually affects one part of the body and doesn’t spread across or through the body. Bacterial infections are normally treated with a cause of antibiotics

Viruses are made up of genes and proteins that spread throughout the body by invading the body’s own cells so they can reproduce and multiply in the body. They use the body’s cells as a host because they are unable to multiply on their own. They are normally spread directly from human to human.

Fungi like to grow in warm, moist places. Some fungi can be beneficial to us such as penicillin, but certain types of fungi can be harmful to our health. Symptoms for fungal diseases can be as common as itching, coughing, fever, wheezing, but they can also be as serious as meningitis or even death.

Parasites are organisms that use other organism for its survival. They draw nourishment and other needs from its host organism. Parasites that cause infection and disease are known as Pathogenic parasites.

1.2. Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites

Bacteria: Ecoli/food poisoning, MRSA, CDIF, Sickness and diarrhea Viruses: Common cold, Influenza, Chicken pox, Cold sores, HIV Fungi: Athletes foot, Thrush, yeast infections, Ring Worm Parasites: Tape worms, Scabies, Malaria

1.3 Describe what is meant by infection and colonisation

Infection – is an invasion of a host organisms and bodily tissues by a disease causing organism. Colonisation – occurs when any one or more species populate a specific area.

1.4 Explain what is meant by systemic infection and localized infection

Systemic infection – affects a number of organs or tissues or affects the whole body e.g. type 2 diabetes, aids and hyper tension. Localized infection – confined to one organ system or area in the body e.g. abscess, boil, sprain.

1.5 Identify poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection

Not wearing personal protective equipment such as disposable gloves, disposable aprons, washing hands and disposing of clinical waste in the correct way.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1330

  • Pages: 5

Causes and Spread of Infection

1) Infections are the result of the body’s inability to fight off microorganisms that can cause damage or disease if they are left untreated. They can be viral or bacterial in nature and might be caused by a fungus or parasite. There are many common types and there are some rare ones which all have varying causes and treatments. Common bacterial infections include strep throat, urinary tract infections and E. coli; the different types are caused by many different types of bacteria. Infections are caused by micro-organisms which are known as pathogens, there are three sources of pathogens; •Within a person’s body- called endogenous

•From other people through touching, coughs or sneezes called exogenous •From contaminated equipment or elements such as dust or water known as environmental. Viral infections are different than bacterial because they are caused by viruses which are smaller than a bacterium or fungus. When a virus infects healthy cells it prevents the cells from doing their job and causes sickness. Viruses infect a specific type of cell which causes viral infections to affect certain parts of the body. A cold is the most common type and generally affects the upper respiratory tract. Influenza is another common infection but symptoms can affect the entire body.

Outcome 1

1)Bacteria are very small singular organisms which can be found almost everywhere; they are the smallest living cells typically only a few micrometres in length. A number of bacteria can cause disease, these are called pathogenic bacteria. Not all bacteria is bad, we need bacteria to stay alive.

Viruses- it is a coated genetic material that invades cells and uses the cells apparatus for reproduction, this is why it is important to wash hands frequently.

Fungi is a multi-celled living organism, it is a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and moulds.

Parasites are types of living animals and plants that derive benefit from metabolism of other animals and plants.

Viruses aren’t living; they are made of complex proteins and nucleic acids. Bacteria, Fungi and Parasites are living organisms. 2) There are common illnesses and infections which are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria can cause food poisoning, ear infections, bronchitis, chest infections and tonsillitis. Viruses can cause common colds, flu attacks, sickness and diarrhoea and warts. Fungi can cause ring worm, yeast infections and athletes foot. Parasites can cause worms, malaria and sleeping sickness.

3) Infection in general terms in an invasion to the body tissues from a disease caused microorganism, it’s the illness caused by the growth of a germ on or in a person. The infection might not give any symptoms this is known as ‘asymptomatic’ infection. When the germ is found on our body without causing any illness it is known as colonisation. Colonisation is multiplication of microorganisms without tissue invasion or damage.

4)  A localised infection is an infection that is limited to a specific body part or region this could be infections such as cellulitis of the skin or a bladder infection. A systemic infection is the opposite, the infection is distributed throughout the whole body this could be illnesses such as a cold or the flu.

5) There are poor practices which may lead to the spread of infection, this could be not washing hands frequently, not wearing personal protective clothing, wearing jewellery, not tying back long hair, not covering your mouth and nose if you sneeze or cough. Wearing inappropriate clothing and footwear can also lead to the spread of infection.

6)  There are certain conditions which are needed for the growth of micro-organisms. Micro-organisms need food to survive, they like high protein food such as dairy products, raw eggs and uncooked fish. Microorganisms need moisture and warmth; they grow best at 20-40c. Air is needed for micro-organisms to multiply although some can do without.

2) Infections are caused by microorganisms known as pathogens, there are three sources of pathogens; 1)Within a person’s body called endogenous (For example, some microorganisms from the stomach can cause infections in other parts of the body) 2)From other people through touching, coughs or sneezes called exogenous 3)From contaminated equipment or elements such as dust or water- known as environmental. They could go down the respiratory tract into the lungs, coughs, colds and other common airborne infections are contracted in this fashion.

Anything that penetrates the skin, or for that matter the mucous membrane that lines the mouth or nose provides a route for infection to enter; this could be bites, scratches, puncture wounds by needles etc. They could also enter down the digestive tract, food, drink or other infected products can be swallowed and infect the stomach or bowels which reveals itself in the form of diarrhoea and or vomiting. An infective agent might also enter up the urinary and reproductive systems; the infectious agent may remain localized or may enter the blood stream. Sexually transmitted diseases most commonly infect the genitals; these can be transmitted in saliva, seminal fluid or blood.

3) The sources of infection are numerous, for each type of infection a specific source becomes more significant than others in the delivery of the infectious agent to the host. The sources of infection can be divided into two main groups, these are exogenous and endogenous sources. A source of infection is endogenous when the infectious agent comes from the persons own body. Exogenous sources of infection introduce organisms from anywhere outside to the inside of the body, this is the case the majority of the time. Infections can come from unwashed hands, ppe not being worn, unclean equipment being used generally if poor hygiene is used.

4) There are various ways that infective agents can be transmitted to a person, it is usually the transmission of microorganisms directly from one person to another by droplet contact. Droplet contact is either sneezing or coughing on or near another person without using a tissue or hand to try and shield it. Infective agents can be transmitted to another person by direct physical contact, touching an infected person could lead to this. Indirect physical contact could also cause infective agents to be transmitted to another person, usually by touching soil contamination or a contaminated surface. Airborne transmission is very common; if the microorganism can remain in the air for long periods of time it can lead to infective agents being transmitted. Faecal-oral transmission usually from contaminated food or water sources also transmits infective agents to others.

5) There are key factors that make it more likely that infection will occur, if a person does not practice a safe and hygienic way of working this could make it more likely that infection will occur and then spread. Using person protective equipment is vital when providing care for vulnerable people whose immune system will not be as strong as a younger person. If ppe is not worn correctly it exposes people to all sorts of infections which could have disastrous consequences. Wearing the incorrect uniform and footwear could also increase the risk of infection; not washing hands frequently is a very common form of how infection occurs. If someone who has a virus goes into close proximity to another it will make it more likely that infection will occur. Dirty or contaminated areas in which bacteria can grow also increases the chance of infection occurring. If standard precautions are not met it increases the risk of infection occurring a lot.

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Causes and Spread of Infection Essay

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Causes and Spread of Infection Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 535

  • Pages: 2

Causes and Spread of Infection

1. Understand the causes of infection.

1.1 Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria – a single cell micro-organism that gets its nutrition from its surroundings and can only be seen under a microscope. Viruses – are disease producing agents far smaller than bacteria. They are enclosed in a protein coating which makes them more difficult to destroy. Fungi – are included in the plant kingdom but are quite different from green plants. The basic unit of a fungus is a hypha which is a hollow tube. The hyphal threads spread out over and into the food material making a visible mesh or mycelium. Some fungi mass together to create toadstools. They spread by releasing spores into the environment. Parasites – an organism that feeds and is dependant of its host. 1.2 Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria – Lyme disease, Tuberculosis, tetanus, MRSA (methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus) Viruses – polio, Norovirus, common cold, flu, chicken pox

Fungi – tinea pinus, athletes foot, oral thush
Paracites- worms, ticks, lice, mites

1.3 Describe what is meant by ‘infection’ and ‘colonisation’. Infection – is a invasion of a host organisms bodily tissues by a disease causing organism. Colonisation – occurs when any one or more species populate a specific area. 1.4 Explain what is meant by ‘systemic infection’ and ‘localised infection’. Systemic infection – affects a number of organs or tissues or affects the whole body e.g. type 2 diabetes, aids and hyper tension. Localised infection – confined to one organ system or area in the body e.g. absess, boil, sprain. 1.5 Identify poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection. Not wearing personal protective equipment such as disposable gloves, disposable aprons, washing hands and disposing of clinical waste in the correct way.

2. Understand the transmission of infection.
2.1 Explain the conditions needed for the growth of micro-organisms.
* Psychrophiles grow below temperatures of 20°c
* Thermophiles grow above temperatures of 45°c
* Oxygen, pathogens vary in their oxygen requirements
* Food
* Most foods naturally contain suffucant moisture to provide bacteria with the water they need in order to grow

2.2 Explain the ways an infective agent might enter the body.
* food/drink
* natural orifices
* inhalation
* ingestion
* inoculation

2.3 Identify common sources of infection.
Droplets produced by coughing or sneezing, in air and dust, in water/food, carried by animals and insects.

2.4 Explain how infective agents can be transmitted to a person.
* food/drink
* air/dust
* touching contaminated items
* cross contamination
* direct (person to person)
* animals and insects

2.5 Identify the key factors that will make it more likely that infection will occur.
* Open wounds/sores
* Vulnerability/low immunity (children, babies, elderly)
* People already suffering from health problems
* Stress (suppression of immune system)
* Poor practice and infection control

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