Case study Essay

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Case study Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 738

  • Pages: 3

Case study

Inuit was founded in 1983 by Scott Cook (Former Procter & Gamble employee) and Tom Proulx (Stanford University Programmer), that develops and sells financial and tax solution software for consumers and small to medium sized businesses. The company has always thrived to revolutionise people’s lives by solving their important business and financial management problems. Quicken was its product that was launched in 1984 and struggled the first year, but due to positive reviews in trade journals and print campaign strategies, Intuit got its first break and by 1988 Quicken was the best selling finance product on the market. Early 1990’s saw Intuit growing due to success of Quicken, QuickBooks and Turbotax. These products made some significant contribution in small businesses.

Porter’s five forces Analysis for Inuit:

Any organization strategy that you develop needs to include gaining a thorough understanding of the external environment that the organization is operating in. The most widely tool that can help you to do this is Porter’s five force analysis. Porter’s model considers five forces that determine the attractiveness of your market by analyzing the competitive intensity. Similarly Porter’s five forces will help Intuit the position of the market and how much do they really stand a chance in this competitive industry, with Microsoft trying to buy them off.

1. Threat of new entrant:
Intuit’s marketing strategies have helped the company evolve. Positive word of mouth an exceptional customer services is its most effective marketing tools. Roughly 8 out of 10 customers have bought Intuit’s product and hence engaging with customers directly and communicating with customers on a timely basis has helped distinguish its products. This leads to a very low threat of new entrants in the market. Due to this it is very difficult for new company’s to enter the market and compete with Intuit.

2. Bargaining Power of Buyers:
Since Inuit is not the only one in the market, Microsoft being the biggest competitor it increases the bargaining power of buyers giving them more than one option to choose from. Intuit is very well aware of this fact and hence spends significant amount of time and money on consumer research every year. It is very critical for Intuit to know how customers use and feel about their products. This is possible by adapting Site Visit, Lab Study and Remote study conducted by Intuit.

3. Bargaining Power of Suppliers:
The only product that Intuit needs is a compact disc and since there are many suppliers of compact disc in the market, the bargaining power of suppliers is very low. This leads to huge competition between suppliers and Intuit has an advantage.

4. Threat for Substitute Products:
There is no substitute product available for tax and financial planning software’s apart from hiring specialised people in your company in that field which is turns out to be very expensive and also time consuming. Hence there is no threat for substitute products for Intuit in the market.

5. The intensity of rivalry:
Intuit faces huge competition in the market for the products they offer. Microsoft, one of their biggest competitors has tried to buy off Intuit but failed and also withdrawn its money product line after a 18 year battle with Quicken. This has been a great win for Intuit over the software giant. There are many companies providing mobile devices which have become very popular among the younger consumers and hence this increases the intensity of rivalry in the market that will be faced by Intuit.

Potential Market entry methods for Intuit:

Intuit has a very few ways it can enter the potential market i.e. mobile devices. Depending on various factors, Intuit can adopt acquisition. This will be very quick and fastest way to enter the mobile devices industry. Intuit can acquire some firms that are already in the mobile device business, have a strong customer base and have all access to the company’s network files.

Reference:
Pearson Education Limited (2012). Marketing Management (14th ed.). Kotler Keller: Author.

Submitted by:
Anchal Pathak

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Case Study Essay

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 327

  • Pages: 1

Case Study

If I could describe McDonald’s business strategy in one word, I would definitely say ‘smart’. And I mean that in the best-rounded way. I very strongly agree with McDonald’s CEO, Steve Easterbrook, when he says, “If you get the people right, the rest will follow”. I believe that it is all a domino effect in the way an organization works; happy employees make for better production. McDonalds has proven itself as a good employer because of its five “people principles” that focus on keeping the employee happy and comfortable first and foremost. I think that they are successful because of the way they hire their employees. Because McDonalds strives for excellent service and quality, they work hard at finding the correct employees and retaining them, thus creating an experienced and capable taskforce.

2. McDonalds has aligned its business, human resource, and staffing strategies by connecting all three of these fields to one main source: the employees. By raising its hiring standards, McDonalds has hired, trained, and retained employees that are enthusiastic about giving their all to the customer. 3. Some possible talent-related threats that could eat away at McDonald’s competitive advantage would be when their teenage employees are ready to move on to other companies where they can build a career. Higher turnover would definitely be a problem for all companies, not just McDonalds. I don’t believe a tight labor market in which it is difficult to find talented people would be a problem for McDonalds because you don’t have to be highly educated or have any educational qualifications to work at the company. To maintain its competitive advantage over the next five years, I recommend that McDonalds simply continue doing what they are doing. They look for all the right qualities and potential in their employees, so I believe they will always be successful on the ‘people part’.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1382

  • Pages: 6

Case Study

Teamwork Challenges at Stryker Corporation The Stryker Corporation was built on innovation. “When Dr. Homer Stryker, an orthopedic surgeon from Kalamazoo, Michigan, found that certain medical products were not meeting his patients’ needs, he invented new ones. As interest in these products grew, Dr. Stryker started a company in 1941 to produce them. The company’s goal was to help patients lead healthier, more active lives through products and services that make surgery and recovery simpler, faster and more effective.” Homer Stryker started Orthopedic Frame Company to sell devices for moving patients with spinal injuries. A short time later he invented the first power tool  the oscillating cast saw  for removing plaster casts after patients’ broken bones had healed. After that, the company began providing hospital beds. These early initiatives, the oscillating cast saw in particular, formed the foundation of what is now the Stryker Corporation, one of the leading companies in the worldwide market for orthopedic devices.

Stryker employs over 15,000 people with most of its operations being in the United States, Europe, and Japan. As a leading medical technology company and one of the largest in the global, multibillion dollar orthopedic market, the range of products that Stryker manufactures is amazing –replacement joints such as shoulders, knees, and hips; high technology tools like imaging systems that help surgeons reconstruct body parts; and a variety of other medical devices and products, including surgical tools and hospital beds. One of Stryker’s recent orthopedic innovations was a navigation system for hip replacement surgery that permitted surgeons to observe via a computer screen the precise positioning of a hip prosthesis. Due to the nature of the procedure, the navigation system had to have the capability of withstanding the various physical stresses put on the equipment, including pounding with a surgical hammer. In addition, the navigation system  especially its sophisticated electronics  had to survive repeated sterilization under 270-degree-Fahrenheit steam pressure.

However, shortly after field testing of the hip replacement navigation system began, significant problems were discovered. Numerous complaints were received from surgeons and the systems were returned to Stryker. Examination of the returned units revealed that the precision electronics of the system frequently failed and metal parts were broken or damaged. Finding a solution to the navigation system problems was assigned to Klaus Welte, vice president and plant manager for Stryker’s Freiburg, Germany facility, which was acquired in 1998. Under its previous owner, Leibinger, the Freiburg facility had developed a magnetic imaging navigation system for use in neurosurgery. After the acquisition by Stryker, the Freiburg facility applied its expertise to developing other surgical tools, including ones for orthopedics.

Thus, the Freiburg facility was given the responsibility for solving the problems with the hip replacement navigation system. Welte’s first challenge was assembling a team to work on solving the navigation system problem. Welte believed that the team’s success “would require both a clear view of what had to be accomplished and a deep understanding of each team member’s abilities.” Welte assembled a team of the best people at Freiburg in operations, computer-aided design, engineering, and research. One team member was talented

in structural analysis, communication, and follow-through. Another member provided the ‘social glue, for the team and would never stop until all tasks were complete. Still another team member was an organizer who helped keep the team on task and from rushing ahead before it was ready. Yet another team member was especially knowledgeable regarding how a product design will successfully survive the manufacturing process. Another person was noted for highly innovative  indeed visionary  product design ideas. Although each team member’s abilities were important, how those abilities fit together was equally important. According to Welte, “Creating an effective team requires more than just filling all the job descriptions with someone who has the right talent and experience. …

By no means can you substitute one engineer for another. There are really very, very specific things that they are good at … and how well the team members’ abilities combine is as important as the abilities themselves.” How well the Stryker team jelled became evident in their approach to problem solving. Due to the number of problems with the hip replacement navigation system, the Freiburg team addressed each problem separately, beginning with the most crucial issue and working down to the relatively minor problems. The solution for each problem was thoroughly tested before moving on to the next issue. Consequently, the team did not have a fully assembled prototype until all the problems were addressed.

This approach proved successful, both in terms of the ultimate success of the prototype design and the team working effectively together as problem-solvers. In the first nine months after the redesigned hip replacement navigation system was released, the company did not receive a single complaint from surgeons  an incredible achievement for complex surgical equipment. Additionally, the navigation system quickly contributed to double-digit growth in worldwide sales in Stryker’s medical and surgical equipment segment. Although the redesigned hip replacement navigation system proved reliable and essentially problemfree, not the same can be said for the orthopedic hip implants themselves, the surgical insertion of which is guided by the navigation system. There were ongoing problems with the actual hip replacement joints manufactured by Stryker.

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a total of three warning letters in less than a year’s time regarding recurring quality problems. As Jon Kamp, a reporter for The Wall Street Journal, observes, “[s]uch letters require demanding and sometimes-costly changes and can be hard to shake. They also may crimp approval for certain new products, although Stryker doesn’t have many new products likely to feel an impact.” As an incentive for managers to “resolve quality control deficiencies and achieve world-class systems, Stryker … [decided to] link 25% of each senior executive’s and division president’s annual bonus to this issue.” In addition to the quality issue, Stryker, as well as four other companies  Zimmer Holdings Inc. and Biomet Inc. of Warsaw, Indiana, the DePuy Orthopedics unit of Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, New Jersey, and Smith & Nephew PLC of London, England  were charged by the United States government of financially rewarding “doctors who selected a company’s hip and knee implants, even when they weren’t necessarily the best for a particular patient.” All but Stryker agreed to pay $310 million to settle the government’s claims of the companies violating antikickback laws, whereas Stryker only agreed to government supervision; none of the companies admitted any wrongdoing. A subsequent subpoena from the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) sought information on the antikickback settlement; Stryker characterized the HHS request for information as “oppressive and overly broad.” The matter is still playing out in court as this case is being written.

iven the challenges that are plaguing Stryker’s orthopedic hip implants, could the company perhaps benefit from a team effort similar to that used in redesigning the hip replacement navigation system? (This case was written by Michael K. McCuddy, The Louis S. and Mary L. Morgal Chair of Christian Business Ethics and Professor of Management, College of Business Administration, Valparaiso University.) Discussion Questions 1. Discuss the extent to which the characteristics of well-functioning, effective groups accurately describe the Freiburg hip replacement navigation system team. 2. Explain why teamwork is important to effectively solve the problems which field testing of the hip replacement navigation system revealed. 3. Describe how the task functions and maintenance functions are operating within the Freiburg team. 4. Explain why diversity and creativity are important to the effective functioning of the Freiburg team. 5. How could Stryker utilize insights gained from the experiences of the Freiberg team to address the ongoing quality problems with the actual orthopedic implants? 6. Obviously, close working relationships need to exist between companies that design, manufacture, and market surgical implants and the surgeons who use those implants. What impact might the antikickback issue have on the working relationship between Stryker and the surgeons that use its orthopedic hip implants?

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Case study Essay

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 405

  • Pages: 2

Case study

This case is about a sales supervisor, Debbie’s Ronson, having a group meeting with the sales department. The meeting was held to discuss two things, one last week’s performance, and two Debbie handed out a memo outlining a new format for scheduling their calls. At the end of the meeting Debbie discussed the meeting to one of her fellow supervisors, saying she gives them a chance to talk in the meetings but there is never a response. Debbie believes they are either shy or disinterested in her meetings. Statement of Problem

In this case Debbie, the sales supervisor, held a meeting for the four basic meeting purposes, give information, exchange information, find facts and solve problems (296-297) using the leader-controlled approach(p.297). During the first half of the meeting Debbie discussed last week’s performance. After discussing it she asked if there were any questions, no response. The second half of the meeting Debbie discussed the new schedule for calls, once again no response no ideas. The overall problem Debbie is having is the non-responsiveness from her sales department during meetings. Solution

There are a few ways as to how Debbie can fix this problem. One she can take a second and see if this meeting is actually necessary to have asking herself “why are we here?” and having a clear purpose which is also enabling other pre meeting plans to be developed to support the purpose of the meeting p301. Two Debbie could, clarify her expectations of the meeting (p304).

At the beginning of the meeting Debbie can explain why this meeting was called for and that she is expecting to give information as well as hearing feedback from the group. 1. What might be some reasons for participants not saying much at Debbie’s meetings? Her department members could feel as though the meeting is pointless and would like to get back to their jobs, that to the department members, their job is more important. 2. Assume that you are a facilitation consultant.

What advice would you give Debbie for encouraging participation in future meetings? If I was a facilitation consultant I would suggest Debbie to make sure she is prepared, that she is asking the right questions during the meeting.

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 166

  • Pages: 1

Case study

The resource allocation for each activity for each week and the total weekly resource assignments are show in Figure 1, which is a Gantt chart along with a histogram. Now, examine Figure 1 closely. Using the concept of resource leveling, determine the flaws in this resource schedule, write down the disadvantages of such resource loading and develop a more leveled schedule. This forms your Exercise 2 for this week. Candace Given below is the information about the IT project we discussed in our Lesson 5 commentary under Resource Leveling.

Also given below is the current resource loading Gantt chart along with a histogram. Now, have a close look at figures given below and using the concept of resource leveling, determine the flaws in this resource schedule, write down the disadvantages of such resource loading, and develop a more leveled schedule. For your ready reference, an Excel sheet (ResourceLevelingExercise. xls) is provided to complete this exercise.

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 689

  • Pages: 3

Case Study

1. Refer to Exhibit 3-3. How would a first-line manager’s job differ in these two organizations? How about a top-level manager’s job?

Different managers perform at different levels and require different skills. To meet the demands of performing their functions, managers assume multiple roles. In Organization A, strong attention would be given to detail, with little innovation and risk taking. Teamwork would not be encouraged, and employees would be viewed as a means to an end. Strict controls would be placed on workers, and task achievement would be most important. The supervisor would have little latitude and would do things “by the book.” In Organization B, innovation and risk taking would be highly encouraged. The supervisor would have more autonomy in how to achieve goals. Employees would be given the opportunity to provide input, and a team approach would be used. People would be viewed as important contributors. The supervisor’s job would be more like that of a coach, encourager, and facilitator.

2. Describe an effective culture for a relatively stable environment and a dynamic environment. Explain your choices.

An effective culture for a relatively stable environment would likely emphasize outcomes such as quality and productivity and would give significant attention to detail. It would not require high levels of innovation, risk taking, or aggressiveness. Conversely, an effective culture for a dynamic environment would likely em-phasize aggressiveness, innovation, risk taking, and team orientation. To stay on top of continual environmental changes, this organization would have a culture that celebrates productive work behaviors.

3. Classrooms have cultures. Describe your classroom culture, using the seven dimensions of organizational culture. Does the culture constrain your instructor? How? Educators today hear a lot about gaps in education – achievement gaps, funding gaps, school-readiness gaps. Still, there’s another gap that often goes unexamined: the cultural gap between students and teachers.

4. Can culture be a liability to an organization? Explain. organizational culture could be a liability. In the global environment, a society that discriminates on the basis of ethnicity or gender or in the exploitation of workers could experience a backlash from the reactions of consumers in other nations.

5. Why is it important for managers to understand the external forces that are acting on them and their organization?

All outside factors that may affect an organization make up the external environment . The external environment is divided into two parts:

Directly interactive: This environment has an immediate and firsthand impact upon the organization. A new competitor entering the market is an example. Directly interactive forces include owners, customers, suppliers, competitors, employees, and employee unions.

Indirectly interactive: This environment has a secondary and more distant effect upon the organization. New legislation taking effect may have a great impact. indirectly interactive forces. These forces include sociocultural, political and legal, technological, economic, and global influences. Indirectly interactive forces may impact one organization more than another simply because of the nature of a particular business.

6. “Businesses are built on relationships.” What do you think this statement means? What are the implications for managing the external environment? organizations depend on their environment and their stakeholders as a source of inputs and a recipient of outputs. Good relationships can lead to organizational outcomes such as improved predictability of environmental changes, more successful innovations, greater degrees of trust among stakeholders, and greater flexibility in acting to reduce the impact of change.

7. What would be the drawbacks to managing stakeholder relationships?

Stakeholder theory is widely recognized as a management theory, yet very little research has considered its implications for individual managerial decision making. But maybe the company’s stakeholders aren’t working to help the company instead they work for their own good maybe to steal or something else

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 566

  • Pages: 2

Case Study

We have a couple in their mid forties. Christopher works in the media and earns $135,000 p. a. before SGC and salary sacrifices an extra $10,000 p. a. His wife Anne works in IT and earns $145,000 p. a. before SGC and also salary sacrifices an extra $10,000 p. a. Next month Anne is to receive a bonus of $15,000 which she is planning to contribute to super as a concessional contribution. They bought their home 2 years ago with a mortgage of $1,250,000. The home is now worth $1,450,000.

The mortgage is a standard principle and interest loan over 25 years and costs them $7,491 per month. They have four children: a 19 year old, a 16 year old, a 14 year old and a 10 year old. The three youngest go to a private school costing $60,000 p. a. There are 4 terms in the year and the fees are due at the beginning of each term. A new term commences next month. The 19 year old is apprenticed to a local restaurant and is training as a chef. He earns $16,500 p. a. before SGC and works an average of 120 hours per month and goes to college.

Christopher and Anne have their own Self Managed Superfund. Christopher has $175,000 in the fund and it is invested in cash. Anne has $180,000 in the fund and it is invested in a listed debenture issued by XYZ Ltd, a large property development company. Over the years Christopher and Anne have tried to diversify and have the following investments: 3 years ago they used a margin loan of $135,000 to purchase 90,000 $2 shares in a newly listed mining company. Unfortunately in the last day or so the shares have fallen in value and are now only worth $1. 0 each.

The mining company does not pay a dividend. 4 years ago they purchased, as joint tenants, an apartment/unit for $450,000 by way of a Line of Credit for $450,000 at 5. 45% p. a. The unit is managed by an agent and they receive $500 per week as rent. The agent has told them it is now worth $585,000. When Christopher’s father died 4 years ago Christopher inherited $35,000 which he used to purchase a listed debenture. The debenture pays 6. 5% p. a. on a quarterly basis and matures in exactly 12 months time.

The current market for the debenture is 5. 75%. They have a joint savings account with $5,000 for emergencies. He has a savings account for $7,000. They have 3 personal loans: Payout of $29,196 9. 00% p. a. 4 years to maturity. No early termination fee. Payout of $11,902 8. 25% p. a. 2 years to maturity. No early termination fee. Payout of $6,705 8. 65% p. a. 1 year to maturity. $550 early termination fee. Their credit card has an outstanding amount of $35,560 with a maximum of $40,000 and they make the minimum payment of 3. %.

They are concerned that although they feel they should be doing better the credit card keeps getting worse each month and that schools fees are due for next term and they do not know where the money will come from. Anne’s mother has asked Anne to be executor of her will. The mother has been diagnosed with an inoperable brain tumour and has been told that towards the end she will not be able to communicate. Both David and Jennifer have wills they executed prior to their marriage. Neither has been married before.

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1274

  • Pages: 5

Case study

Case study research is considered one of the most in depth research measures, it considers and analyzes the historical developments of the subject being studied carefully, it tries to develop answers for questions found in the study area. Because of the detailed nature of this type of research it often takes considerable amount of time to conclude. Case studies usually looks at their subject of study from its past history to the present behavioral manifestation. The researcher usually maintains a reasonable passivity, he monitors the characteristics of the subject as they present themselves.

One of the good points associated with case studies is that they have the capacity to show casual relationships, primarily because of the length of time that is applied. (Polit 1989). Case studies as research tools have been criticized because the researcher may get to intimate with the study subject and therefore skew the results of the study. The other argument against it is that the volume may be too thin for it to be generalized as an objective research avenue. There are several types of case studies, including snapshot case studies, longitudinal case studies, pre-post case studies, the patchwork case studies and the comparative case studies.

The snapshot case study is described as the study of one research subject with detailed objectivity. It employs comparative analysis of sub-entities. The longitudinal case study studies one subject many times. The pre-post case study focuses on studying one subject at two separate periods, between major events that could have affected the study subject. The patchwork case study studies the subject on several occasions by using the longitudinal, the snapshot study, and the pre-post studies.

The result of this kind of study is often a complete more comprehensive report. (Garson, David G). The comparative case study uses the quantitative and qualitative research methodology. According to Soy 1997, there are required steps that a case study ought to go through in order to secure valid and objective conclusions. Following Soy’s protocol case studies should start with: the determination and definition of the research questions, followed by selecting the cases and determining data gathering and analysis.

The next step should be preparation for data collection, and then data collection in the field, evaluation and analysis of the data and lastly preparing the report. According to Soy’s first step, the researcher must decide and define his question of focus. By deciding what the primary or overarching question would be the researcher has essentially set his entire study focus in motion. This is then followed by looking at other connected issues in the subject of interest. These issue may vary, but they will give the researcher good insights as to what the questions ought to be, and therefore a good base to begin to develop the answers to those queries.

It is recommended that researchers do reviews of previous literature on their subject of interest, and that would give them some ideas on how to position and refine their questions. ( Soy 1997). For step two, when the techniques of data gathering are formulated, the researcher would be confronted on making relevant decisions on whether to choose single case or an array of cases.

To increase the objectivity and the validity of the study, the researcher must be sure to choose his cases very carefully, he should also be particular about the ultimate research measure that would be used in the study. To make a clever decision on all factors that would be incorporated into the study, it is necessary to return and examine the true objective of the case study. So he must always remind himself as to what the purpose of the study is at all time. The employment of array of techniques and multiple studying tools always benefits case studies. (Soy 1997). On step three, preparation for data collection.

Usually case studies produces enormous amount of data, so the researcher would need to be highly organized and prepared in order not to be overpowered by the enormity of the information. He must plan in advance how to organize and retrieve the information, and in what order. It would not make sense to acquire all the important data only to lose it to poor organization before it is used for the necessary analysis. For step four, collection of data in the field, its already clear that the researcher would be dealing with enormous amount of data, but in order for the data to be available for ready access, and for the researcher to allow himself the opportunity to identify causal revelation, then he would need to save his data in a system that would be readily referenced and sorted.

The researcher must know how to document his data in a systemic, non- confusing format. It is highly recommended that researchers in the field maintain a field note. With the field note a researcher could record events in real time. It could be used to record emotional changes, and records of emotional changes may be helpful in determining some bias may be creeping up to the researcher or if he remains able to separate himself from the study.

Field notes could also be used to record questions prompted by unanticipated events. But the researcher should always bear in mind that his field note is separate from his data. For step six, the evaluation and analysis of data. Here the researcher is expected to review the data and identify links between the object, the resultant outcome of the study and the research query. It is suggested that the researcher take advantage of all possible avenues that the case study research offers in order to ensure an objective valid result. It is suggested that the researcher sorts through the data by as many different ways as possible.

By looking at the data from different angles some insights that could have been missed may show up. And that may help find unexpected or conflicting information. A conflicting information that results from multiple eyes sifting through the data would require closer checking of the study, and that could only be advantageous for the whole study. The researcher could also go back, repeat some of the steps that had already been take, and that could help in finding new information or some other observations that may have been missed.

The other system known as “cross case search for pattern” helps the researcher to avoid wrong or invalid conclusion. More professional examination of the study could only elevate the validity of the study as opposed to the other way around. The last step on Soy’s step is the sixth, here the researcher is expected to present the case study report in a way that the reader could comprehend. Although the case study might have been a difficult subject with complex information, the researcher would need to locate a system that would enable him to present it in a simplified understandable format.

The written communication would have to be understood. Some researchers go the extra length by finding an audience that would critique the presentation of the entire work before it is released officially. The researcher ought to always remember that case study research is complicated, it produces abundant amount of data, and it often requires multitude of sources, but there is no doubt that it is useful in generating important information on real life studies, and professionals are continuing to use it as data. It may need some patience, but it remains relevant.

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