Annotated Bibliography Essay

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Annotated Bibliography Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 815

  • Pages: 3

Annotated Bibliography

In this case, Yun, Cox & Sims carried out a study the main purpose being to investigate how to develop a (TOCB) Team Organizational Citizenship Behavior. They examine whether there is a unique relationship between leadership and TOCB. They first offer a theoretical study presenting a literature review on citizenship and leadership behavior. They take citizenship as a result of leadership and probably mediated through job satisfaction. They went further to explain research method present results and finally move on to the discussion and implication part.

According to earlier research carried out in this field, it revealed that leader characteristics such as consideration, participation and fairness are linked as evoking (OCB) Organizational Citizenship Behavior at personal level. In this research, they tested whether TOCB relates to other forms of a leadership typology. They also investigated the mediating responsibility of job contentment. Yun, Cox & Sims concluded that leader characters influence TOCB both indirectly and directly via job satisfaction, and distinct kinds of leaders’ traits were developed to manipulate both TACB and TOCB. Whilst empowering and transformational leadership revealed that, TACB and TOCB have indirect impacts to job satisfaction. They also indicated that if employees are forced to do what they do not want they will feel less contented than other people will. The aversive managers will not contribute to unhappy employees. The study also indicates that transactional leadership has no impacts on job satisfaction, while transformational leadership has a positive result which is in line with earlier researches that showed that an augmenting competence of transformation leadership.

This research is extremely helpful to the organization on how to create team organization behavior. The research, however, did not cover group level of analysis. This is a gap identified in this reserach or call for a further research.

In this article, Wray-Lake & Syvertsen look at how adolescents and children can make a positive input to community, and development knowledge during this period also create the arena for citizenship thought the life span. They start by defining social responsibility and explaining how it develops. They aim at understanding environmental and personal traits in adolescence and childhood that undergird the enhancement of social responsibility. They define social responsibility in relation to the development at the same time stressing on focal aspects that are communal along theoretical traditions. In development viewpoint, they aim at identifying elements of adolescence and childhood that stand for opportunities for development in social responsibility. They then move on to context, discussing the proximal scenery of young people everyday lives that motivate social responsibility. Lastly, they move on to seedbeds of social responsibility that comprise of communities, peers families and schools. Still in this last context, they discuss techniques of developing social responsibility.

Wray-Lake & Syvertsen review regarding procedure through which social responsibility is earned in adolescence and childhood throughout the context propose quite promising avenues for changing development route of social responsibility. They argue that a single aspect is not significant; instead, a number of setting such community, family, school, peer environment can lead to seed of social responsibility via both indirectly through cultivating socio-emotional and cognitive competence and openly socialize social responsibility. They also conclude that adult who works together with youth can explicitly integrate a social accountability lens into relations. Assisting young individuals develop bridging community capital via forming connections with various others, for instance, is every potential way for promoting social responsibility. In addition, Wray-Lake & Syvertsen think that a social responsibility is mainly controlled by some steady forces and yet has an element that is open to review across the lifetime.

Wray-Lake & Syvertsen consideration of social responsibility in adolescence and childhood is the substantial aspect for citizenship across lifetime. If all these aspects discussed in this article are put into consideration, then, we can develop adults who are socially responsible. This can further contribute to a community rooted with moral responsibilities. Wray-Lake & Syvertsen article assist in identifying factors to consider and breach the gap that they have not considered in studying social responsibility in youth and childhood in drafting the final essay.

References

Yun, S., Cox, J., & Sims, Jr, H. P. (2007). Leadership and Teamwork: The Effects of Leadership and Job Satisfaction on Team Citizenship. International Journal of Leadership Studies (pp. 171 – 193). Virginia: School of Global Leadership & Entrepreneurship, Regent University.

Wray-Lake, L., & Syvertsen, A.K (2011). The development roots of social responsibility in childhood and adolescence. In C.A Flanagan & B.D Christens (Eds) Youth civic development: Work at cutting edge, New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 134, 11-25

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Annotated Bibliography Essay

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 684

  • Pages: 3

Annotated Bibliography

Based upon the journalist research of web based learning environment and different learning styles; it seems that web based learning environment is an excellent medium for enhancing learning, due to its ability to adjust to individual student learning styles and preferences. The article investigates the impact of students learning style and their performance.

Online degrees have increased since 2006. More learners are becoming more technologically savvy, and it is those learners that are technologically inept, who relies on instructional design from classroom settings and interaction with instructors and peers. The investigation leads to the assessment and learning style on student achievement in a Web based learning environment. If it was just a matter of instructional learning it would be a good fit for all, however, all does not possess technology abilities. If all learners had these abilities, web based learning styles would increase. Web based instructional design modules are not conclusive to certain learning styles. Consideration should be given to the learners characteristics whether the learner is able to grasp the material via the web based instruction.

Learners should consider their learning style, motivational level, ability to interact with the instructor and their peers. However, without these abilities, students’ learning styles will be impacted because they lack the abilities to learn via web based instruction modules. Lai, I K. W. & Lam, F.K.S. (2010). Perception of various performance criteria by stakeholders in the construction sector in Hong Kong. Research is conducted to examine different points of views of the importance of performance outcomes in a construction project in Hong Kong. ANOVA was used to analyse the data relative to how the performances were measured. Performances were measured using a performance criteria starting with the most important first, which is time. Timely completion of a project would prevent loss of revenue and penalities to the contractor. Lai and Lam noted that construction projects require concise planning, and are divided between the consultant and the contractor. However, each party plays a significant part in the projects’ success.

The difference between the client and the contractor; the client usually push for timely completion and would offer an incentive bonus for timely completion, however, the contractor would prefer a reasonable duration of time, therefore to avoid penalities to the contractor. The client, consultant, and the contractor, all parterner together to make the project a success by bringing job satisfaction, quality, safety, environment, generation of innovative ideas, performance criteria, and effectiveness to the project. Avoiding any mishaps that will delay or keep the project from running smoothly. Williams, A BTM7101-8 Activity 6, pg 2 The results of the research found that time was the most important factor of the project and should be taken into consideration early on in the planning process, and certain allowances should be factored into the budget, such as time constraints, delays, and mishaps that could happen during the construction of the project. References

Wang, K.H., Wang, J.H., Wang, W.L. & Huang, S.C. (2006) Learning styles and formative assessment strategy: enhancing student achievement in Web-based learning Wang T., Wang K., Wang W., Huang S. & Chen S. (2004) Web-based Assessment and Test Analyses (WATA) system: development and evaluation. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 20, 59–71

Ford N. & Chen S. (2000) Individual differences, hypermedia navigation and learning: an empirical study. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 9, 281–312.

Seckel, S. (2007 Characteristics and Responsibilities of Successful e-Learners

LAI, I. K. W. (2010). Perception of Various performance criteria by stateholders in the construction sector in Hong kong.

Assaf, S.A. and Al-Hejji, S. (2006) Causes of delay in large construction projects. International Journal of Project Management, 24(4), 349-57.

Naoum, S. (2003) An overview into the concept of parternering . International Journal of Project Management 21(1), 71-6.

PAH (2008) Project Administration Handbook for Civil Engineeering Works, 2008 Edition.

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Annotated Bibliography Essay

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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 712

  • Pages: 3

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography
Aggression and Violence and the Achievement Gap Among Urban Minority Youth (Basch, 2011) is this article the author explains how the issue of violence and aggressive behaviors has become a growing problem in schools and is negatively effecting the success rate of minority students. Students who acted out violently and with aggression were once looked at as a problem to be handled by the criminal justice system. Today schools and public health systems are focusing on the problem and recognize that these behaviors are interfering with the academic success of students and peers. I chose this article because it relates with the current population of students that I am working with within my career. After reading this article it lead to some unique ideas that can possible be implemented within the school district that I currently work with. This article has current credible research to support its finding and was found in a peer reviewed journal. The research outlined the external effects that lead to violence in aggression in youth today that many people ignore. Furthermore defeating this problem is a must to close the achievement gap amongst students. Do to this, educators, community and public health programs must come together and implement evidence based school programs and policies that include educating the community and parents on ways to adhere.

The second article Using Urban Fiction to Engage At-Risk and Incarcerated Youths in Literacy Instruction by Guerre (2012) discussed ways of engaging at-risk and incarcerated youth to reading. The author’s research implied that this population was found to be more engaged and prone to read when they could identify with the material. Urban fiction has been a successful
genre of reading for at-risk and incarcerated youth and one of the best way to promote leisure reading. Using urban fiction in the classroom with this population does show a positive correlation with academic success, improved vocabulary and reading and comprehension when used. This article, like the first addresses an issue of interest to me because it is a population that I often work with. This will help me to promote awareness of the positive effects this may have in the students that I work with and a useful tool when working with youth who are being transitioned out of detention facilities. This article was found in the journal of adolescence and literacy, the research is up-to-date and supported by others in the field.

Lastly, the third article, Exemplary Efforts in Psychology to Recruit and Retain Graduate Students of Color (Rogers & Molina, 2006) studies eleven university Psychology master’s programs that are making great strides in their recruitment and retention efforts of minority and student of color. This study was developed due to previous research that found the campus community and other social and personal factors discouraged minority students of color to enroll to universities. The goal of this study was to find unique ways of making minority students of color feel comfortable in these universities, break down any misconceptions they may have and get them enrolled and guide them through the completion of their program. I chose this article because it is an effort that I am truly passionate about. Minority representation in higher education is a great way to move toward elevating stereotypes and really helping people to feel empowered and motivated. This article was peer reviewed and supported by distinguished experts in the field of psychology who study the trends of recruitment and retention efforts.

References
Basch, C. (2011). Aggression and violence and the achievement gap among urban minority youth. The Journal Of School Health, 81(10), 619-625. doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2011.00636.x Guerra, S. F. (2012). Using Urban Fiction to Engage At-Risk and Incarcerated Youths in Literacy Instruction. Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 55(5), 385-394. doi:10.1002/JAAL.00047 Rogers, M. R., & Molina, L. E. (2006). Exemplary
efforts in psychology to recruit and retain graduate students of color. American Psychologist, 61(2), 143-156. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.61.2.143 Retrieved from http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=pdh&AN=fam-25-4-461&site=ehost-live&scope=site or Digital Object

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 442

  • Pages: 2

Annotated Bibliography

In order for NHS to satisfy its requirement to transmit large medical imaging files in a timely and secure manner, they must be able to subscribe to circuits of the appropriate bandwidth at each remote office to address the local needs. Unfortunately, the remoteness of some of these locations have resulted in the limitation of network connectivity options. Therefore, the cost-effective alternative to expensive, high-bandwidth internet circuits is to use a WAN optimization solution.

A WAN optimization solution consists of a network appliance at each location that focuses on increasing network performance. It accomplishes this through the use of a combination of data compression, content and object-caching, data deduplication and protocol optimization. A WAN optimization appliance works in conjunction with the available bandwidth at a location. The host site would have an appliance that would build ‘acceleration tunnels’ to each of the appliances located at the remote sites. The appliances at the remote sites would be sized based upon the number of users and the available bandwidth at that location.

This solution has a number of advantages. It is a very cost-effective approach. Higher bandwidth circuits in remote areas tend to be expensive. The purchase of network appliances are normally a capital expenditure that can be amortized over the life of the product. This timeframe is normally 3 to 5 years. On the other hand, the addition of larger circuits is an operational expenditure that incurs a higher recurring cost on a monthly basis. Secondly, these appliances are transparent to the end user. They do not require additional software on the users’ computers, or require any special setup on a per-user basis.

NHS would very likely fall into the Early Adopters category in the Technological Acceptance Curve for this solution (Rogers, 2003). These individuals quickly buy into an idea when the possibility of real benefits have been established. They are primarily concerned with finding a strong match between their needs and the expected benefits (Moore, 1999). The use of WAN optimization appliances would be an excellent fit for NHS and would be easily accepted by NHS management due to the ability to provide an optimal, technical and cost-effective resolution to the issue they are facing at the remote locations. This solution would allow them the means to meet their requirement to transmit large data files.

References

Rogers, Everett (2003). Diffusion of Innovations (5th Edition). New York, NY: Free
Press
Moore, Geoffrey (1999). Crossing the Chasm. United States: Harper Business
Essentials

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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1433

  • Pages: 6

Annotated bibliography

The violence portrayed in the media tends to make the public more aggressive and susceptible to violence by the simple factor of imitation. Moreover, due to the amount of violence exposure, the public ends up having a falsified idea of the world in which they live. Media violence has always been an emerging topic. We live in a world in which media is present in our everyday lives; whether we are watching the news, or watching a film, listening to a song, or even playing a video game. Many studies have showed a clear correlation between the amount of violence exposure and the aggressive and violent behaviour reflected in a certain individual. Moreover, after being constantly exposed to violent contents, the public ends up believing the world is a cruel and unsecure place. This topic is therefore very interesting to pursue and study in order to have a better understanding of it. The research I will follow will help show whether the media is in fact affecting the users’ minds and behaviors.

Before taking on the topic I picked, I decided to go to the library to find relevant sources discussing violence in the media. I was sure to find credible and accurate sources from the AUD database, as all the articles are peer-reviewed. Moreover, as I am a media student in the school of communications and information studies, I am currently reading a book available at the library, entitled “Media, Culture and Society” by author Paul Hodkinson. It was interesting to find a section discussing television violence. There was also an interesting experiment led by Albert Bandura in order to study the behavioral effect that media violence has on the population. These sources would be extremely beneficial and useful to my research paper. Moreover, I was impressed by the great number of journal articles discussing this specific topic, and they were easy to find on the AUD database entitled Expanded Academic ASAP.

I also managed to find many online sources on search engines such as Google. However, it was hard to evaluate the reliability and credibility of the sources as some important information were missing, such as the author’s name, and the date the article was published. Therefore, I chose to include only a few specific electronic sources, the ones that seemed most accurate to me. Finally, I thought it would be interesting to do a short survey consisting of questions such as the amount of TV consumed daily, the video games played, the most violent movie ever watched, if they were ever in a fight. However, my survey cannot be part of my paper as the people I targeted were classmates, and were in majority highly educated and media literate; therefore, the media they consumed is not believed to make them more aggressive.

Annotated bibliography

Callahan, Sidney. “What We See, We Do: Violence and the Media.” Commonweal 123.1 (1996): 6+. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Describes how people learn violent behaviour by seeing it enacted. States that even children who are not directly affected by aggression learn the behavior and remember how it’s done. They end up having a tendency of imitating the act of violence. Claims “people psychologically accept and become what they see through the media”. This article would be interesting for my paper as it highlights the power of media and the power of imitation.

Diorio, Geri. “The Mean World Syndrome: Media Violence & the Cultivation of Fear.” School Library Journal Dec. 2010: 61. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. This documentary portrays media scholar George Gerbner who explains his theory concerning the effects of being exposed to high levels of media violence. Gerbner believes that the public is in constant thought that the world is a cruel place; the public therefore always feels insecure. The documentary discusses a study showing some statistics on crimes rates and people’s beliefs on the number of crimes occurring every year. It would be interesting to discuss this study in my paper.

Gentile, Douglas A., and David A. Walsh. “A Validity Test of Movie, Television, and Video-Game Ratings.” Pediatrics June 2001: 1302. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Discusses movie, television and video-game ratings. Indicates that parent ratings and industry ratings differ regarding the amount of violent content and portrayals of violence. Proposes that industry ratings systems should be revised with the help of professional communities to improve their reliability. Based on secondary sources. This article would be interesting for my paper as it shows that the ratings are not fully credible, and many people manage to trespass them.

Hodkinson, Paul. Media, Culture and Society: An Introduction. London: SAGE, 2011. Print. A section in the book, entitled “Bobo Dolls and short-term behavioural effects” undertakes an experiment led by Albert Bandura who is influenced by the social learning theory, “which focuses on the capacity of individuals to learn behaviours by observing others”. This experiment is therefore useful and interesting for my paper as it takes on a valid study.

Lemish, Dafna. “‘Will This Happen to Me?’ Children’s Exposure to Disaster, Violence in the News.” Gateway Journalism Review (2013): 10+. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Examines children’s exposure to violence in the news. States that children and young people are audiences too and are frequently exposed to news voluntarily or accidently. They end up having a very negative image of the world the live in. The author discusses her point of view and gives accurate examples that would be useful for my paper.

Markey, Patrick M., and Kelly Scherer. “An Examination of Psychoticism and Motion Capture Controls As Moderators of the Effects of Violent Video Games.” Computers in Human Behavior 25.2 (2009): 407+. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Examines the potential moderating effects of motion capture technology and participants’ own level of psychoticism on their hostility and aggressive thoughts after playing violent video games. Shows that participants with elevated levels of psychoticism are much more affected by violent video games than other participants. Provides factual information based on formal studies.

“Media Violence.” Pediatrics June 1995: 949+. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Describes the role of pediatricians in the entertainment industry and the media. Proposes that pediatricians collaborate with TV stations and networks to limit children’s exposure to violent content and counsel parents to monitor their children’s TV viewing habits by limiting them to a few hours. Based on secondary sources and provides information from formal studies. Nikkelen, Sanne W. C., et al. “Media Violence and Children’s ADHD-Related Behaviors: A Genetic Susceptibility

Perspective.” Journal of Communication 64.1 (2014): 42+. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Provides insight into the role of genetic factors in media effects. Examines the relationship between media violence exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and states genetic disposition as a possible cause of individual differences in children’s use of and susceptibility to media violence. It would be interesting to mention in my paper how genetics can also be a factor in media effects. Swani, Kunal, Marc G. Weinberger, and Charles S. Gulas. “The Impact of Violent Humor on Advertising Success: A Gender Perspective.” Journal of Advertising Oct.-Dec. 2013: 308+. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Examines this convergence of humor and physical violence in advertising. Provides two studies of the responses of men and women to violence in humorous advertising.

The results suggest there may be risk in the use of aggression with female audiences and that such gender effects can be explained by differences in men’s and women’s perceptions of humor and violations of social norms. Accurate examples and statistics are given based on multiple studies. Tompkins, Aimee. “The Psychological Effects of Violent Media on Children.” The Psychological Effects of Violent Media on Children. AllPsych Journal, 14 Dec. 2003. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Examines the correlation between aggressive behaviour and exposure to media violence. States that violent video games have a greater impact than television as the participant is acting out the violence instead of simply watching it, he/she ends up identifying with it and performing it r egardless of the consequences. . Gives specific news coverage examples on violent acts such as crimes, which would be extremely useful for my paper.

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Annotated Bibliography Essay

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1551

  • Pages: 6

Annotated Bibliography

Bibliography
Gastaldo, E. (n.d.). New on FBI’s Most Wanted. Retrieved from http://www.newser.com/story/169670/new-on-fbis-most-wanted-ex-usc-prof Walter Lee Williams faces charges of sexual exploitation of children. He taught anthropology, gender studies and history and now is one (police headquarter, 2013)of FBI’s 10 Most Wanted fugitives. Williams, 64, became the 500th name added to the list in its 63-year history. The extensive traveler and Fulbright Award winner is accused of sexually exploiting at least 10 children between ages 9 and 17 while abroad. Because of his status he has the means and access to children is what makes him dangerous man. Bibliography

police headquarter. (2013, july 23). Sex crimes. Retrieved from http://www.kcmo.org/police/crime/sexcrimes/sexcrimes/index.htm

Sex Crimes are about power and control and are often reported later because the victim feels scared or ashamed. Sex Crimes are one of the most under-reported crimes. The Sex Crimes Section handles all reported ADULT (17 years of age and older) sex crimes whose victims are heterosexual or same sex. These crimes include: Rape is sexual intercourse with another person by the use of forcible compulsion. Sexual Assault is sexual intercourse with another person knowing that the victim is unconscious, drugged, intoxicated or sleeping. Sexual Misconduct- is any form of sexual activity or sexual contact including harassment, which is unwanted that occurs as a result of intimidation, threat of force, use of force or other coercive behavior or which occurs without consent. Sodomy which is deviant sexual intercourse with another person by the use of forcible compulsion. Stalking which is a pattern of repeated, unwanted attention, harassment and contact. All these acts are forms of sexual crimes.

Bibliography

Lelis, L. (2012, January 7). Retrieved from Orlando Sentinel: http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/2012-01-07/news/os-carol-sheridan-obituary-20120107_1_crime-victims-victim-compensation-and-assistance-crime-act

Carol Lee Sheridan was among the first to serve as advocate for victims of crime the late 1970s. She worked with victims of crime, helping victims of rape or domestic abuse with their questions about the law-enforcement investigations and court cases. She was part of the first team for the Orange County Sheriff’s Office of what would be called victims’ advocates, Victims sometimes don’t know what to do and are often lost. When you’re traumatized and have lost your daughter to a heinous, you need guidance and information.

Bibliography
Matsota, O. (n.d.). Sex Crimes. Retrieved from Helping Human Trafficking Victims: http://ezinearticles.com/?Sex-Crimes:-Helping-Human-Trafficking-Victims&id=5656185

Human trafficking involves trafficking of human beings across borders. There are several ways a person can be trafficked. One is the by kidnapping and selling. A person may be deceived with a false promise for job and lured into crossing international border. There the person may be forced into forced slavery or indentured servitude. A person may accept prostitution due to lure of drugs. In USA for instance a minor (below 18 years) is considered as a trafficking victim, although no movement has taken place. This is in accordance to the U.S. Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000

Bibliography

Noceda, K. (2013, February 19). Police. Retrieved from Victim in Hummer Mom’ Sex Crimes Target of Cyberbullying: http://livermore.patch.com/groups/police-and-fire/p/police-investigating-report- Hubbs a 44 year old woman, was recently released from prison after serving two and a half years behind bars for sexual relationships she had with two teen boys. The former Livermore resident is now back in jail after a suspected parole violation, according to court records. Hubbs violated terms of her parole when she was found with possession of pornography in Hayward, according to a KPIX report .Hubbs got the nickname “Hummer mom” because of the vehicle she drove around, sometimes with her victims accompanying her.

Bibliography

Reuters. (2013, July 19). Virginia: Charge Against Air Force Oficer. Retrieved from Alteredhttp://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/19/us/virginia-charge-against-air-force-officer-is-altered.html? A charge of sexual battery against an Air Force officer was dropped on Thursday, and the prosecutor instead will pursue a charge of assault and battery. The officer, Lt. Col. Jeffrey Krusinski, was chief of the Air Force sexual assault prevention and response branch when he was arrested in May and accused of groping a woman in a parking lot. After a closer investigation of the facts and a review of the status of the case law, the more appropriate charge is the assault and battery, not the sexual battery charge,” said Theo Stamos, the prosecutor. She declined to comment about the evidence in the case.

Bibliography

Travis, A. (2013, January 10). One in Five Womaen Are Victims of SExual Offense. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2013/jan/10/sex-crimes-analysis-england-wales The first joint statistical overview of sexual offending in England and Wales by the Ministry of Justice, Home Office and Office of National Statistics confirms that only a very small proportion of sexual offences lead to a conviction. In the last three years court statistics show an average of 5,620 offenders convicted each year for all types of sexual offences, with 1,070 convicted for rape. The estimate that there are 473,000 victims of sexual offences every year, of whom 400,000 are women, is drawn from the Crime Survey for England and Wales. It estimates that there were 97,000 victims of the most serious sexual offences last year, of which there were around 69,000 female victims of rape. The analysis adds that 90% of such victims knew the perpetrator.

Bibliography

Ward, C. (2013, July 18). Scout Leader Accused of Sexual Assault at Wisconsin Camp. Retrieved from
http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/suburbs/glen_ellyn/chi-scout-leader-accused-of-sex-assault-at-wisconsin-camp 20130718,0,897229.story A Boy Scout leader from DuPage County has been charged with sexually assaulting a Scout at a Wisconsin camp according to Wisconsin law enforcement officials. Marquette County sheriff’s police identified the man as Jeffrey L. Borneman, 54, of the 22-W-000 block of Stratford Court in unincorporated DuPage County near Glen Ellyn. He was charged with sexual assault of a child under 16 years of age and was released after posting a $5,000 cash bond Thursday, Marquette County District Attorney Chad Hendee said. The assault is alleged to have taken place on July 5 at Camp Freeland Leslie, a Boy Scout facility near Oxford, about 25 miles from the Wisconsin Dells.

Bibliography
West, C., & M. (2013, March). Sexual Violence in the Lives of African American Women. Retrieved from http://www.nsvrc.org/publications/articles/sexual-violence-lives-african-american-women This Applied Research paper reviews the sociohistorical context of Black women’s sexual victimization, the characteristics of Black rape survivors and their experiences, and the risk factors that elevate Black women’s vulnerability to rape and consequences thereof. Culturally sensitive techniques to promote resilience are offered. The institutional pattern of rape was well established before the newly enslaved Africans reached the Americas. During the transatlantic voyage, crew members routinely raped and impregnated Black women. In preparation for sale, enslaved women were stripped naked and placed on auction blocks. African American women’s economic value. Bibliography

Woo, J. (2013, June 18). South Korea Toughens SEx Crimes Law. Retrieved from http://blogs.wsj.com/korearealtime/2013/06/18/south-korea-toughens-its-sex-crimes-law/ South Korea took a big step toward clearing legal hurdles in the fight against sex crimes against women and minors. The government has made more than 150 revisions to the current law related to sex crimes that will take effect on Wednesday. One of the biggest changes is the abolishment of a 60-year-old law under which a prosecutor can’t pursue a sexual assault case if a victim and an attacker reach an agreement on not taking legal action. Critics have said the law often led to situations where attackers bully victims into dropping legal complaints.

Works Cited
Gastaldo, E. (n.d.). New on FBI’s Most Wanted. Retrieved from http://www.newser.com/story/169670/new-on-fbis-most-wanted-ex-usc-prof Lelis, L. (2012, January 7). Retrieved from Orlando Sentinel: http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/2012-01-07/news/os-carol-sheridan-obituary-20120107_1_crime-victims-victim-compensation-and-assistance-crime-act Matsota, O. (n.d.). Sex Crimes. Retrieved from Helping Human Trafficking Victims: http://ezinearticles.com/?Sex-Crimes:-Helping-Human-Trafficking-Victims&id=5656185 Noceda, K. (2013, February 19). Police. Retrieved from Victim in Hummer Mom’ Sex Crimes Target of Cyberbullying: http://livermore.patch.com/groups/police-and-fire/p/police-investigating-report-of-cyber-bullying-to-victb3d8e9589b police headquarter. (2013, july 23). Sex crimes. Retrieved from http://www.kcmo.org/police/crime/sexcrimes/sexcrimes/index.htm Reuters. (2013, July 19). Virginia: Charge Against Air Force Oficer. Retrieved from Alteredhttp://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/19/us/virginia-charge-against-air-force-officer-is-altered.html? Travis, A. (2013, January 10). One in Five Womaen Are Victims of SExual Offense. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2013/jan/10/sex-crimes-analysis-england-wales Ward, C. (2013, July 18). Scout Leader Accused of Sexual Assault at Wisconsin Camp. Retrieved from http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/suburbs/glen_ellyn/chi-scout-leader-accused-of-sex-assault-at-wisconsin-camp-20130718,0,897229.story West, C., & M. (2013, March). Sexual Violence in the Lives of African American Women. Retrieved from http://www.nsvrc.org/publications/articles/sexual-violence-lives-african-american-women Woo, J. (2013, June 18). South Korea Toughens SEx Crimes Law. Retrieved from http://blogs.wsj.com/korearealtime/2013/06/18/south-korea-toughens-its-sex-crimes-law/

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Annotated bibliography Essay

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Annotated bibliography Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 850

  • Pages: 3

Annotated bibliography

Source 1:http://business.time.com/2011/08/31/will-steve-jobs-departure-hurt-the-economy/ Summarize: This article discusses how big of an impact Steve Jobs has on the economy we live in today. Apple is a multi-billion dollar company. It has more financial ammo than most sovereign countries, by financial ammo I mean it has much more money than others companies in sovereign countries.

Apple trumps the Gross domestic production of Denmark, Thailand, and Greece, which makes the company a true power house in today’s Society. If someone were to ask me what this article is about, I would tell them it explains in detail the impact Steve jobs had on the global economy. Mr. Jobs affected many countries from japan to the United States in a multitude of ways. Assess: This source is useful because it exemplifies the impact of Steve jobs from the Economic perspective.

This source is very reliable because it is covered with update information and it is an original written article. The author of this article is not biased; the article exhibits both pros and cons. The goal of this article is to explain the impact Steve jobs had on the economy. Reflection: This source is genuinely helpful to me because it brings forth perfect points that I can connect to while I write my paper. It states how apple affects not only the United States Economy but other countries’ economies as well.

This article helps my argument because it says that Steve jobs have a very big effect on the economy. An example of this is in the stock market, when Steve jobs stepped down as CEO of apple, the stock market dropped 5 percent. That is a bona-fide example of how he affects the economy in contrast to the prime Minister of Japan.

Source 2: http://www.economist.com/node/21551058
Summarize: This article predominantly talks about how Apple is a major economy innovator. In the last 11 years, apple has come out with 3 products that have completely changed the market. The iPod, iPhone, and iPad. Apple has provided ways to effortlessly surf the internet anywhere anyone wants to, with a beautiful design. Apple has basically created its own mobile generation. Apple has demonstrated that even though the economy is strict, consumers are willing to pay for a “must have gadget”.

Assess: This source is ideally useful because it describes how apple has surpassed its competitors. Within the last 11 years apple has come out with 3 products that have changed the economy not only in the United States but in other countries too. The information presented in this article is reliable, because all the information is authentic. Also this article is not biased; it shows both the pros and con of the affects Apple has on the economy. The goal of this source is to show how Steve jobs affected the economy in various countries.

Reflection: This source will be used to represent how much money Steve jobs generates and how people are willing to do to get this “must have product”. For an example there was a near-riot in Beijing when customers could not buy the latest iPhone. This source is useful to me because it shows how Steve jobs effects the economy, again when your product runs out and it starts a riot, it is clearly affecting the economy of that region. The source will shape my argument because it helps me show people just how much of an affect Steve Jobs has on the economy, his products are so well loved that if there aren’t any left people start to riot over it.

Global Politics:
Source 1: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/22/business/apple-america-and-a-squeezed-middle-class.html?pagewanted=all&_r=2& Summarize: This article mainly discuses the comment made by President Obama. As Steve Jobs was speaking, President Barack Obama interrupted and asked him “what would it take to make iPhones in the United States?Why can’t that work come home?” He said that because apple was saying that their products were made in the United States but practically all of the 70 million iPhones, 30 million iPads and 59 million other products that Apple produce were sold last year, were manufactured overseas.

Mr. Jobs responded with“Those jobs aren’t coming back.” He said that because 700,000 people engineer and build and assemble apple parts, in addition to the 43,00 people apple employs in the United States and the 20,000 they employ overseas. Nearly none of those 700,000 people live in the United states, they work in other countries. Some part of the iPhone are American. The software for the iPhone, for instance, and its marketing campaigns were created in the United States. Apple recently built a $500 million data center in North Carolina.“Also another advantage for Apple was that China provided engineers at an extent the United States could not

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1490

  • Pages: 6

Annotated Bibliography

Juleen K. Buser, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development 37.2 (April 2009): 94-104 This article is a great article that relates to African Americans seeking mental health treatment at lower rates than whites. The article states that this disparity can be attributed to attitudes toward services, alternate coping, and differences in care. This article also illuminates biases in counseling. Snowden, Lonnie R, Barriers to Effective Mental Health Services for African Americans, Vol. 3, Issue 4, 181-187 (Dec. 2001). Social Services and Welfare, Psychology This article states that many African Americans do not seek proper mental health care. It states that the ones that do generally drop out. The article attempts to define the causes and the effects that would help alleviate this problem. McField, Edward, Culture, acculturation, and social capital: Latinos and use of mental health services. Loma Linda University, 2010. 3405317 This article states that Latinos suffer from the same mental disorders as others, but when they do, they receive less than standard care.

The article gives the results of studies that state that state that there is an association between acculturation, models of illness, stigma, need, and mental health service use. Organista, Kurt C. New Model for Latinos in Need of Social Work Services, Social Work, 54.4, (Oct 2009). 297-305 This article is wonderful in that it gives some of the best pragmatic models and concepts in the cultural competence literature. This article states ways in which to enhance cultural sensitivity, as well as increasing awareness of the Latino experience and understanding of problem patterns in their historical, social, and cultural contexts. Borup, J. (1999, May/June). Foundations of social work practice with lesbian and gay. Families in Society, 80.3, 308-309.

Describes a foundation for helping gay and lesbians for the human services worker. When helping or working with a person who is gay or lesbian it is important to have knowledge of professional literature, experiences from professional peers, history, and the actual case information. It is also important to remember the family history, for this characterizes and confronts any myths associated with this particular lifestyle. The lack of social support and homophobia can create consequences to those who are not accepting of this community. The author is educating students about the knowledge and facts on working with the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community and the most important is the code of ethics for social workers. Cavet, J. (2000, Oct).

Children and young people with a hidden disability: and examination of the social work role. British Journal of Social Work, 30.5, 619. The recent study described that children and young people with hidden and impairment received a social work service which was at a minimal level. It is recognized that the level of social services intervention available to these families may be a reflection of a low priority assigned to disabled children. A change in priorities is needed which recognizes the importance of knowledgeable support to disabled children as a means of improving their environment and reducing families stress levels and the likelihood of abuse or rejection.

Copeland, C.A. (2011, January/February). School librarians of the 21st century using resources and assistive technologies to support students’ differences and abilities. Knowledge Quest, 39.3, 64-69.

This article describes the many ways librarians can help differently abled children realize they are special. And by librarians having all the resources (informational and technical) they can further help these differently abled children understand how truly especially able they are. It opens their eyes to their own gifts and abilities and this helps the librarians these abilities to develop the information literacy skills and multi-literacies necessary for lifelong learning. The National Center for Education Statistics shows that approximately one in seven students have one or more characteristics society defines as a disability. Technologies can be selected and so they can best meet the needs of the students who are differently abled.

Donahue, P. (2005, July-September). Current perspective and future directions for social work practice and research. Families in Society, 86.3, 359-366. This article describes the aging gay and lesbian community. Past research of this community focused more on the gay White man, well-educated, active in the gay community and high socioeconomic backgrounds. This study examines current roles of social work regarding research with older gay men and lesbians and presents recommendations for both practice and research in the years ahead. Not only is this community of sexism, they are also victims of ageism. Future work must strive to be more representative of older lesbians, geographic diversity, and classes because these variables play an important role in shaping the gay aging experience.

Bell-Tolliver, L., Burgess, R., & Brock, L. J. (2009). African American therapists working with African American families: An exploration of the strengths perspective in treatment. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 35(3), 293-307. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/220979644?accountid=35812 When working with African Americans and Native Americans human service workers must consider important factors. When doing a study researches found 5 strengths that African Americans showed. They have strong kinship bonds, strong work orientation, adaptability of family roles, strong achievement orientation, and strong religious orientation.

African American family” is defined as … an intimate association of persons of African descent who are related to one another by a variety of means, including blood, marriage, formal adoption, informal adoption, or by appropriation; sustained by a history of common residence in America; and deeply embedded in a network of social structures both internal to and external to itself (Bell, 2009). Waites, C. (2009). Building on strengths: Intergenerational practice with African American families. Social Work, 54(3), 278-87. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/215269004?accountid=35812 These families are diverse groups of people with their own ideas, opinions, and values. African American families have strengths, and that the use of those strengths within the therapeutic setting can lead to successful outcomes.

We also believe that understanding the strengths of African American families can help mental health professionals develop successful treatment outcomes for families. It is critical that professionals gain an understanding of how these strengths impact the functioning of the African American family to empower families who are struggling. When helping this group we should focus on their strengths and not their weaknesses (Waites, 2009). Michael, T. G., & Eugene, F. P. (2000). Red as an apple: Native American acculturation and counseling with or without reservation. Journal of Counseling and Development: JCD, 78(1), 3-13. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/219014436?accountid=35812 The United States Bureau of Indian Affairs (1988) legally defines Native American as a person who is an enrolled or registered member of a tribe or whose blood quantum is one fourth or more genealogically derived from Native American ancestry.

When working with Native Americans one must remember that they are very religious and hold traditional values and beliefs. They practice only traditional tribal customs and methods of worship. However some Native Americans may be more willing in the practices of other cultures. That is why the counselor must not make assumptions without gathering further information (F.P, 2000). Kathleen, A. E. (2000). Counseling with Native American Indians and Alaska Natives. Families in Society, 81(5), 543-543. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/230163172?accountid=35812 Culturally based treatments may be needed. This group can be offended very easily and the counselor must be careful not to overbear (A.E, 2000). Latino-Kuglin, M. (2009).

Latino outreach. Children & Libraries, 7(3), 42-46. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/212161869?accountid=35812 “It’s a way to celebrate Latino heritage, literacy, and families coming together at the library,” said Watts. She said Día celebrations at HCL have two goals. The first is to “celebrate the heritage of the community that we see already. We’ve got libraries that have large Spanish- speaking populations that actively use the library, so this is a way to celebrate and acknowledge the community that is already there. “‘No-show’: Therapist Racial/ethnic Disparities in Client Unilateral http://psycnet.apa.org. N.p.

In the present study, the authors examined the source of racial/ethnic minority disparities in unilateral termination form of dropout that is associated with poor alliance and outcome. First, the authors must be tested whether some therapists were more likely to have clients who reported unilaterally terminating as compared with other therapists. Next, the authors examined 2 competing hypotheses regarding the therapists role in termination disparities: (a) that racial/ethnic disparities in unilateral termination are similar across therapists and thus due to other components of the treatment process or (b) that racial/ethnic disparities in unilateral termination are specific to therapists, where some therapists are more likely, on average, to have higher rates of unilateral termination with REM clients as compared with white clients.

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Annotated Bibliography Essay

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1768

  • Pages: 7

Annotated Bibliography

In this assessment I shall describe an Annotated Bibliography on Autistic Spectrum Disorder. The important factors of inclusion in educational settings will be discussed and how parents as partners can help children’s development.

Autism is a condition which affects children’s development their whole life. Autism is a brain disorder that is diagnosed normally in early childhood and autistic children can show bad behaviour and can become fairly aggressive and temperamental. Many education settings have provided additional support to young children alongside other children, however this is to include an inclusive practice.

Children with autism have many difficulties in three main areas:

1) Social Awareness – Find making friends and interacting with others very difficult, and do not always make eye contact when someone is talking to them.

2) Language Communication – Find it hard to explain how their feeling and what their thinking and they also communicate in high pitch tones and have severe delay in speech.

3) Imagination – Do not always understand that others have thoughts and feelings and have limited imagination.

Reid (2005, p.29) quotes “There may also be evidence of obsessive and inappropriate behaviours. Some students within this spectrum may also have limited imaginative thought”.

In society before, children with autism were misunderstood and their negative behaviour was labelled and because of their negative behaviour children were punished frequently. During that time there was no guidance and support available for children with autism from the government and local authorities. There was none specialised equipment/resources for children to learn and develop further, which would help with this particular disability.

There are many barriers for children with autism in mainstream schools like adapting activities, schools may not have enough space and specialised equipment for making the activity adaptable. Children may have certain needs to be tended to so staff need to be trained to deal with children with autism, so some staff would need further training. However, another barrier could be that the parents do not admit that their child has autism, so parents do not attend meetings with staff and acquire the right guidance and support. Some parents may feel that their child is not normal, as the community they come from might have an ideal image of a family, for instance referring to a child who has perfect physical appearance. The medical model sees society or a practice to cure a disability to fit into society, and the social model sees that the child is not the problem, but the attitudes towards disability is the problem.

Adults need to provide children with a safe and enabling environment for them to learn and develop in, so children with autism should be treated equally and fairly, like all children and must feel included in their environment. Meanwhile, when providing activities for children with autism adults must give children time for themselves and let them explore, so they can learn at their own pace. Reid (2005, p. 29) states that “It is important to allow for opportunities that will enable the student some time on his/her own”. However the adult should also involve other children when doing a specific activity for the child with autism, so the child does not feel alone, even though children with autism prefer to play alone.

The adult should support and encourage the child and help them complete the activity, by helping the child using hand in hand contact for example the adult holding the child’s hand etc. The adult’s role is to talk to the children slowly and calmly, and use simple words so they understand and an effort should be made towards them so they feel the sense of security. Vygotsky was a theorist and his theory was on the Zone of Potential Development (ZPD), his theory stresses the importance of when a more knowledgeable adult/child helps a less knowledgeable child, so by helping him/her complete the task he/she could not done alone, he called this ZPD.

Vygotsky saw that adults need to be involved with children strongly. Lindon (1998, p.66) clearly states “He saw early language as an important social tool for children which brought them deliberately into contact with others”. Adults should provide children with activities where they can use all their senses like touch, smell, taste, sound and sight, so providing them toys with flashing lights, soft toys and puppets which will show affection etc. Vygotskys theory is seen as a scaffolding process where the child imitates the practitioner’s actions, and is a one to one process centring the child individual needs first.

Involving parents in these situations can be very difficult, so it is very important to build a relationship with trust and respect, this will help the parent to feel comfortable. Cheminais (2006, p. 101) quotes that “Clear communication and mutual respect help to promote positive productive working relationships between the two partners”. In my nursery we have a folder for a child with autism and in that folder we have IEP sheets where we constantly observe and monitor the child. We also give some IEP sheets to the parent as well so they also monitor the child at home, this helps us to see how the child is doing at home and at nursery. We then have meetings with the parents, where we can discuss the child’s progress, this helps us to see the stage of development. Furthermore these sheets help us to plan and provide for the child further. Communication books can also help as the parent can read them, as this will have the child’s daily routine written in, so parents will feel reassured that their child is safe. (Johnston and William, 2009, p.399-402)

Schools and settings can support children with autism by having SENCO’s (Special educational needs co-ordinator), so children who need extra support can have one to one attention from one main person. Meanwhile they can provide specialised resources like sensory based toys like flashing light toys. Also having family workers can help children, as they can support and guide parents, by having regular sessions where they can discuss where the child needs help and if necessary involve outside agencies.

An inclusive environment for children with autism is essential for children to reach their full potential, as this will build their self esteem and confidence. The environment must be warm and friendly for children and parents, however having posters of children with SEN will help children’s parents see there are many types of SEN children. The room must be facilitated to meet children’s needs for example tables and chairs must be at the child’s level and layout of the room must be spacious for wheelchair users, so ramps and stair lifts must be provided. Activities must be adaptable for children with, so they can participate and learn from different experiences, just like all children. Children with autism must be given a range of resources/specialist equipment, therefore this will meet their needs so they are equally included.

Resources like flash cards, textured materials, soft toys, flashing lights, also natural resources aswel like plants, must be provided as children with autism respond to sensing materials. In my nursery where I work, there is a child with autism, he likes to line objects horizontally and vertically and when playing he constantly repeats the same pattern. The child repeats the same pattern again and again, he shows some independence and confidence in this situation, and repeats his schema. Piaget was a theorist and his idea of schema was, Lindon (1998, p. 72) says “Patterns of behaviour that are linked through a theme and from which a child generalises and explores in different situations”.

There are many legal requirements that support the actions which need to be taken when a child may have special needs. The Disability Discrimination Act (1995) supports the actions which need to be taken, with children with SEN; this Act says that it would be illegal for settings not to make reasonable adjustments for people who have a disability. A perfect example of effective practice is Terry, J (2009, p.30) says “Autism is recognised as a disability under the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 1995 (DCSF, 2009), and some children and young people will have associated or additional complex developmental difficulties that require the high level of co-ordinated support delivered by Early Support”.

The Special Education Needs Disability Act (2001) also supports children with SEN. This Act is separated in two sections, part one develops the framework of SEN, to reinforce the rights of parents and their children to enter mainstream education and part two develops the Disability Discrimination Act (1995) to expand the rights of SEN children in schools. The main key points of these Acts are that children with disabilities are treated well, and that they are entitled to study the National Curriculum.

In conclusion it is very important for schools and settings to provide a learning and friendly environment for children with autism. Therefore they must provide useful and quality resources and specialised equipment to meet children’s individual needs, so children can reach their utmost best, build their self esteem and confidence and also enjoy themselves. Schools and settings can also work with outside agencies and help to meet parents and children’s needs. As a result parents can get advice and support from other professionals and other agencies, on the other hand children’s certain needs can be tend to and learning experiences maximised.

All staff must be trained to deal with children with autism so they can observe, plan and provide for children with certain needs which need to be met. So then children can develop their next stage of development, Furthermore parents working with teachers can help children’s development enormously as their needs are most likely to be met. As parents are their primary carers, so they know their child/children’s likes, dislikes and interests. Staff can then plan and provide children with challenging activities which children will enjoy and develop further.

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Annotated Bibliography Essay

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Annotated Bibliography Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 420

  • Pages: 2

Annotated Bibliography

1.) How do we choose which laws are just and which ones are not?

– Unjust laws are those that intentionally prohibit the person’s civil liberties, according to the articles.

2.) What laws do you see that would fit the model for what king would call unjust?

– Thanks to Dr. King and other people who have impacted the past of civil rights problems I don’t see many examples of unjust laws. The use of Marijuana is encouraged to be used in some religions, although in this country it is illegal.

Think of some unjust things you have witnessed and failed to act on.

1.) Had you acted on it alone, would your involvement have changed anything?

– No, I would have been out numbered and possibly put myself and my children in harms way.

2.) What if we all reacted too swiftly and jointly to matter of injustice?

– If most individuals would react too swiftly in a situation they would make irrational decisions and not take the time to think the situation through.

3.) How does the act of exercising of our first amendment rights, especially when we work together, help to shape the world we live in?

– The problem is too many people expect other people to fix their problems, so it may be difficult to encourage many of them to use their first amendment rights. If we could get to a point of a group of people working together then yes I do feel that we would be able to decide on a reasonable, legal conclusion.

4.) How did the Occupy Wall Street Movement (OWS) use civil disobedience to further its cause?

– They worked together and came up with their solution which wouldn’t cause any more situations or violence and hostility.

5.) Considering the outcomes associated with the OWS Movement, could we claim that the days of effective civil disobedience are over?

– No, in my opinion most large events that have large outcomes tend to occur at least once again in the future with double the power.

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Annotated Bibliography Essay

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Annotated Bibliography Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 610

  • Pages: 2

Annotated Bibliography

This research study investigated the increasing number of violence related arrests of adolescent girls which have become a social concern as it appears that girls today are becoming more violent as compared to boys, which also meant that the gender gap between violence is also closing. The concern over the increase of violence in girls has gathered much attention socially and in the academic circles. However, the data as presented by the Uniform Crime Reports is incomplete as it only identified violence which have resulted to police arrests, the incidence of violence and how it is construed by the girls have not been investigated.

The researchers hypothesized that the increase in violent girls is brought about by the changing social policies of the country as well as a change in how violence is defined. In order to measure the incidence of violence and the perception of the girls towards violence, this study made use of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVM) to identify the sex of the offender and the use of the Monitoring the Future survey and the National Risk Youth Behavior wherein self-reported violence are identified.

The data gathered extended over several yeas making the study longitudinal in design, this was done to establish whether was indeed an increasing trend of female violence and arrests. The UCR data was examined and the number of girls below 18 years old who have been arrested for violent assault was gathered for comparison purposes. Female adolescents who have completed the NCVM and the MFS and the NRYB most recently were also included in the analysis of the data. The study used the normative approach in the analysis of the social issue of increasing girls with juvenile records.

Using the Dickey-Fuller time series and plot displays, the researchers determined that the increase in violence in girls is not actually supported by the records in the UCR. The researchers found out that there a number of reasons why more and more girls are becoming violent as reflected in the recent reports in the UCR. The results of the study indicated that the definition of violence have become more encompassing and which have included behaviors that girls usually do not consider as violent, thus, more and more children are being labeled as a problem child.

Second, the policies about violence have also been extended and have become more apt to define behaviors common to girls as violent. The study has found that the phenomena of violence in girls are actually a social construct and that it is not supported by empirical evidence. The instruments used to determine violent behavior in girls had the same findings that there is really no such thing as an increase in juvenile girls but rather the changes in how violence is defined results to the said increase.

Moreover, it was also found that there is far less increasing trends in the number of violent girls as compared to boys, this further proves that the data as presented by the UCR is not accurate. The researchers conclude that violence in girls have risen because the policies toward violence have changed and it has contributed to the increasing number of ways in which girls can be arrested due to violent behavior which in the past was normative to the general population. The team recommends that the justice system look at the implications of the findings and that more and more girls are turning bad is a myth.

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Annotated Bibliography Essay

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Annotated Bibliography Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1988

  • Pages: 8

Annotated Bibliography

1. Cessna SG, Sears VE, Dickman MB, Low PS (2000):  Oxalic acid, a pathogenicity factor for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, suppresses the oxidative burst of the host plant.  Plant Cell. 12(11):2191-200.

The research carried out by Cessna et al. provides a description on the mechanisms behind oxalic acid in relation to oxidative burst in plants.  They provide conditions wherein oxalic acid can regulate production of hydrogen peroxide in tobacco and soybean cultured cells.  This is turn influences the physiology of the virulent fungus Sclerotina sclerotiorum which is an economically significant pathogen that affects plant crops.  The research article also describes the effect of acidity and the presence of calcium ions on the effects of oxalic acid in plants.

Many plants have the capacity to undergo oxidative burst in order to suppress pathogen infection hence this work is essential for a better understanding of the regulation of infection.  This paper suggests that if there were a sufficient amount of oxalate is present before an infection occurs, a specific amount of resistance could ensue within the plant.  The authors of this paper thus predicted that the production of oxalate oxidase in different plant species play a critical role in the suppression of fungal infection.

In addition, this study provides more information on oxalate inhibition, which is an interesting target for molecular targeting or RNA interference, which involves the inhibition of specific genes to result in specific molecular mechanisms within the cell.

2. Guimarães RL, Stotz HU (2004):  Oxalate production by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum deregulates guard cells during infection.  Plant Physiol. 136(3):3703-11.

This research article provides a comprehensive description of oxalic acid as a soluble solution in all biological species.  The paper discusses the way wherein oxalate play a major role in the pathways related to metabolic disorders and immunological disorders.  The role of oxalate in the virulence factor of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is also described, together with the mutants which show deficiencies in the generation of oxalate and are thus have less capabilities in infecting plants than wild-type fungi.  This research article examines the mechanisms behind the infection process of the pathogen into the host cell.  The authors suggested that the stomatal pores serve as entry points for the pathogen to enter the cell, which in turn is further distributed across the rest of the plant.

The timing of infection is also described and this generally occurs during night when the stomatal pores are open for transpiration.  This research also involved the employment of fluorescent-tagged proteins to track down the dynamics of oxalate as soon as it enters the plant through the stomatal structures of the leaves.  The paper also describes that the movement of the stomatal apparatus is strongly influenced by abscisic acid.  Hence the authors of this research suggested that resistance to the fungal pathogen in strongly correlated with the presence and amount of abscisic acid.

3.   Kesarwani M, Azam M, Natarajan K, Mehta A, Datta A (2000):  Oxalate decarboxylase from Collybia velutipes. Molecular cloning and its overexpression to confer resistance to fungal infection in transgenic tobacco and tomato.  J Biol Chem. 275(10):7230-8.

This paper describes the mechanisms behind oxalic acid and its influence on stress induction in plants such as Amaranth and Lathyrus.  The paper provides a comprehensive introduction of oxalic acid and its connection to plants resistance to fungal infections.  The authors employed molecular biology techniques such as total mRNA extraction in order to generate a full-length cDNA for oxalate decarboxylase which is enzyme that disassembles oxalate.  The research involved the use of 5’-RACE which is the rapid amplification of the 5’ end of the cDNA strand.  The researchers also perform a cDNA screen in order to identify a probe that will be further employed to determine homologous sequences in other regions of the plant cell.

They found the the cDNA they isolated was also localized in the cytoplasm and vacuoles of transgenic tobacco and tomato cells which showed normal phenotypic characteristics but still carried the transgenic traits that were of interest to this research project.  This work strongly shows that transgenic plants that carry oxalate decarboxylase genes have the capacity of resistance resistance from fungal infections.  This piece of work will benefits future efforts in generating transgenic plant crops because it provides information of which genes are essential in generating pathogen-resistant transgenic plants.

4. Rollins JA, Dickman MB (2001):  pH signaling in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: identification of a pacC/RIM1 homolog.  Appl Environ Microbiol. 67(1):75-81.

The paper of Rollins and Dickman describes the action of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the acidification of the immediate environment which results in the generation of oxalic acid.  The authors then connect the acidification process with the regulation of fungal infection in plants wherein they describe that plants that carry the capacity of generating oxalate have a higher chance of resisting fungal infection.  The research thus involves determining the effect of pH conditions on the process of resistance to fungal infection.  The authors observed that the increase in the amount of oxalic acid within a plant induce the production of endopolykalacturonase which is an enzyme that is responsible for regulating the pathogenicity and virulence of the fungus.

More importantly, the pH levels also influences the development of the fungus.  The authors provided a very detailed description of the putative transcription factor-encoding gene Pac1 that may possibly be engaged in the molecular signaling cascade that is involved in the control of the gene expression as a result of different pH levels in the immediate environment.  This paper is important for researchers and scientists who are keen in determining precise mechanisms in controlling the fungal infection process of specific plant species.  The gene mentioned in this paper may be the next molecular targets of RNA interference.

5. Drori N, Kramer-Haimovich H, Rollins J, Dinoor A, Okon Y, Pines O, Prusky D (2003):  External pH and nitrogen source affect secretion of pectate lyase by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.  Appl Environ Microbiol.  69(6):3258-62.

The research paper of Drori et al. describes the effects of external pH and nitrogen levels on the expression of pectate lyase in plants.  The paper starts with a good description of the action of ammonia as a nitrogen source in the basic physiological functions of a plant.  In addition, the paper also presents a comprehensive description of the process of alkalinization as a response to the acidic condition of a plant.  The research actually involves testing different pH levels and determining the effects of the amount of pectate lyase that is generated by plants.

The authors determined that pectate lyase was not produced when a plant is situated in an acidic environment, specifically pH 4.0.  This pH condition also influenced the process of assimilation of nitrogen, when there was not enough nitrogen accumulation when the plant is situated in an acidic environment.  Molecular analysis was also performed to support their in vivo experimental evidence regarding the effect of pH levels of plant physiological processes.  The research generated results that suggest that pH and nitrogen assimilation are separate events that influence each other in a plant.  This in turn affects the chances of a plant to be susceptible to fungal infection.

6.   Caracuel Z, Casanova C, Roncero MI, Di Pietro A, Ramos J (2003):  pH response transcription factor PacC controls salt stress tolerance and expression of the P-Type Na+ -ATPase Ena1 in Fusarium oxysporum.  Eukaryot Cell. 2(6):1246-52.

The paper of Caracuel et al. describes the mechanisms behind the regulation of pH and ion levels within a plant.  This research is important to agricultural sciences because it provides insights on how different environmental situations could be addressed by plant growers and breeder.  The authors explain that the fungal species are inherently capable of regulating the pH and ion levels of their immediate environment because it is adjacently located to the soil and air where it is situated in.  The authors also attempted to explain the function of the pH level on the tolerance of plants to different salt concentrations.

They employed different plant mutants that had lost specific genes that were related to salt tolerance.  They found that these mutants were more susceptible to lithium and sodium ions but not to acidic ions.  They thus suggested that the plant has a selective threshold and the plant reacts differently to each stimulus from the environment.  The results also employed the RNA molecular biology technique of Northern analysis to determine the efficiency of the transcription of salt-related genes.  Interestingly, the authors proposed a model on how genes control the ion levels within a plant, in relation to varying pH levels.

7.   Ruijter GJ, van de Vondervoort PJ, Visser J (1999): Oxalic acid production by Aspergillus niger: An oxalate-non-producing mutant produces citric acid at pH 5 and in the presence of manganese.  Microbiology. 145(Pt 9):2569-76.

The paper of Ruitjer et al. provides a detailed examination of the mechanism of production of oxalic acid in the Aspergillus species.  The paper starts with a comprehensive description of oxalic acid production, wherein the external pH plays a critical role in influencing its production.  Several oxalic acid mutants are also described with varying amounts of oxalic acid, depending of the level of pH that is present in the environment.  The authors describe that when the environment becomes acidic or when the pH is lowered, the production of oxalic acid is inhibited.  In addition, the production of an enzyme related to oxalate formation, oxaloacetate acetyyhydrolase, is also affected by the lowering of the pH level of the immediate environment.

The authors performed a good job in providing a detailed explanation of the pathway of oxalic acid production, which involves the cleavage of oxaloacetate and resulting in oxalate and acetate.  It is interesting to read that the authors employed the different mutant of oxalic acid production because there are actually different settings that are occurring in the natural environment.  This work is highly beneficial to agricultural scientists who would like to control the growth and development of economically significant plants crops that are at the same time susceptible to pathogen infection.

8. Ayala-Cordero G, Terrazas T, López-Mata L, Trejo C (2006):  Morpho-anatomical changes and photosynthetic metabolism of Stenocereus beneckei seedlings under soil water deficit.  J Exp Bot.  57(12):3165-74.

The paper of Ayala et al. provides a detailed examination of the variations in the morphology and anatomy of Stenocereus during extreme soil deficiencies.  The paper starts with a comprehensive description of the process of photosynthetic metabolism, wherein photosynthesis influences the characteristic of a plant in terms of its morphology and anatomy features.  Several succulent plants are also described with variation in metabolic pathways, depending on the amount of water present in the environment.

The authors describe that when the environment becomes barren or when the amount of water is plentiful, the metabolism and photosynthesis mechanisms oxalic acid are correspondingly influenced.  In addition, the production of enzymes related to these processes is also described in relation to the lowering or increase in the water levels of the immediate environment.  The authors performed a good job in providing a detailed explanation of the photosynthesis which involves the cleavage of the water molecule in the presence of sunlight.  This work is highly beneficial to agricultural scientists who would like to control the growth and development of economically significant plants crops that are at the same time susceptible to varying amounts of sunlight.

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Annotated Bibliography Essay

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 277

  • Pages: 1

Annotated Bibliography

Coupland, Christine, 2006, ‘Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility in Web-Based Reports: Currency in the Banking Sector? ’ Critical Perspectives on Accounting, vol. 17, pp. 865-881. In this article Christine Coupland explores and examines the quality of corporate social-reporting in web-based reports and stresses their importance to modern business world. The central argument is that accounting is an interesting endeavor based on social studies. Organizations are socially constructed and emergent. Examination of the quality is viewed as too simplistic and the author offers new ideas how to make examination more detailed.

The author employs discourse/textual analytic approach and she draws on media analysis techniques, and analysis of argument and rhetoric. The purpose of the paper is to challenge the perceptions of social and environmental responsibility and to show their benefits and limitations for organizations and web-based reporting. The article focuses on the following issues: examination of how organization is presented, and on the language as the site of action. In discussion of corporate social reporting the author bases his research on the following groups: Loyds/TSB, HSBC, The Royal Bank of Scotland, the Co-operative Bank and Barclays.

The article is useful to my research topic as Coupland suggests that critical examination of organizational construction highlights the rhetoric and strategic potential of organizational activity. The main limitation of the article is examination of the quality of corporate social reporting is too simplistic. Thus, the author indicates more extensive research should be done for developing methods to examine their quality more critically. The article will not form the basis of my research; however, it will be useful supplementary information.

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Annotated Bibliography Essay

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 724

  • Pages: 3

Annotated Bibliography

In this report, Hanna Rosin argues that increasing taxes on junk foods may encourage people to purchase healthy fruits and vegetables instead of high-fat, sugary snacks. According to Rosin, researchers have conducted experiments that tested whether people would choose low-priced healthy foods over regular-priced junk foods in vending machines and in high schools. In each experiment, she contends, sales of low-calorie snacks, fruits, and vegetables increased, and sales of unhealthy foods decreased.

These experiments, in the author’s opinion, suggest that increasing the cost of junk foods may promote healthy food choices. Schlosser, Eric. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2001. According to Eric Schlosser, author of Fast Food Nation (2001), the fast-food industry “took root alongside that interstate highway system, as a new form of restaurant sprang up beside the off-ramps. ” Fast food operators established restaurants in strategic places, targeting busy intersections and commercial hubs.

Schlosser said that McDonald’s, the largest fast-food chain in the world, is in fact one of the world’s largest buyers of satellite photography, using it to predict the direction of suburban sprawl. With the apparent “ubiquitousness” and the intense advertising schemes, Schlosser and other critics have feared that fast food does not only capitalize to attract us in spending our hard-earned money to buy their products, but they also act irresponsibly in failing to adequately inform consumers of the health risks involved in eating fast food. Fox, M. K. , Hamilton, W. and Lin, B. H.(2004).

Effects of Food Assistance and Nutrition Programs on Health and Nutrition vol. 3, Literature Review, Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Report no. 19-3. Washington: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. In this report, Fox et al. (2004) revealed that the U. S. Congress has recently allowed after-school programs in seven states–Delaware, Illinois, Michigan, Missouri, New York, Oregon, and Pennsylvania–to serve suppers as well as snacks to children in areas where more than 50 percent of the children qualify for free or reduced-price school meals.

With this program, some low-income children may eat three meals and a snack every weekday during the school year from federal food programs–a fact that highlights both the growing importance of the federal child nutrition programs for children in low-income families and the need to ensure that the foods these programs serve are consistent with the recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Graham, Rob and Kingsley, Sarah Williams. New Study Finds That Food is the Top Product Seen Advertised by Children – Among All Children, Tweens See the Most Food Ads at More than 20 a Day. Kaiser Family Foundation.

28 Mar 2007. 06 Nov 2007. http://www. kff. org/entmedia/entmedia032807nr. cfm. This news report revealed that childhood obesity is related to food advertising target children. Policymakers in Congress, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and agencies such as the Institute of Medicine (IOM) have clamored to have necessary changes in the advertising unhealthy foods. In the report entitled Food for Thought: Television Food Advertising to Children in the United States, the Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF) found that tweens ages 8-12 see the most food ads on TV, an average of 21 ads a day, or more than 7,600 a year.

Teenagers see slightly fewer ads, at 17 a day, for a total of more than 6,000 a year. Of all food ads in the study that target children or teens, 34% are for candy and snacks, 28% are for cereal, and 10% are for fast foods. Four percent are for dairy products and 1% for fruit juices. Alarmingly, of all the 8,854 ads reviewed in their study, there were none for fruits or vegetables targeting children or teens. Schlafly, Phyllis. Fat Kids: Who’s Responsible? Eagleforum, 17 Sept 2003. 06 Nov 2007.

http://www. eagleforum.org/column/2003/sept03/03-09-17. shtml. This position by Phyllis Schlafly declared that “public schools must take a big share of responsibility for the current epidemic of childhood obesity”. Schlafly maintained that rather than contributing to childhood obesity by providing easy access to junk foods and sodas, schools must take action to reduce it. In her opinion, schools exert a powerful influence over what children eat and the amount of time they spend exercising, and could thus be a powerful force in fighting obesity.

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1084

  • Pages: 4

Annotated Bibliography

In hospitals, especially emergency rooms and intensive care units, nurses encounter many critically ill patients. “One-fifth of the patients cared for by critical care nurses die in the intensive care unit” (Browning, 144), when these patients are nearing the end of their lives there are many decisions that need to be made by the patient if they are able and their family. Healthcare workers are put under tremendous amounts of stress in these situations, especially when they disagree with what the current code status of their patient. According to Rosenburg, the “current ethical codes provide guidance for supporting autonomy and for information sharing among clinicians, patients, and their family members” (83). This means that the patients and their families should be fully informed on all aspects of the care they are currently receiving and what measures and to what extent these measures would be taken to save them if they were to quit breathing or if their heart was to stop.

Most of the time patients and families do not understand the interventions used in these situations, they think what they see on television is an accurate representation; however when they are educated they are able to make the right decision for themselves. Santiago describes the dilemma that occurs when healthcare workers and those that are making decisions for the patient “disagree over the benefit and value of the continuation of “aggressive” medical interventions” (27). When they feel as if they are unable to appropriately advocate for their highest risk patients, “clinicians may experience tremendous anguish and torment, which can lead to compassion fatigue and moral distress” (27). It is easy for us as nurses to take this distress that Santiago describes home with us and this can cause distress in our personal lives. Ideally the patient will have their wishes known about their code status and end of life care before they are in a situation where they are unable to voice their opinions.

Some doctors may give narcotic pain medications or other medications to keep patients comfortable in their last hours. “Although the APA neither endorses nor opposes assisted suicide, they encourage psychologists to take active roles in both clinical practice and research involving end-of-life issues and in providing competent, culturally sensitive care to the dying and their families” (Rosenburg, 80). Dilemmas of this nature may be handled in many different ways; some may go before the ethics committee if a decision cannot be reached or if the nurse and the doctors do not agree on the course of action. The purpose of the ethics committee is “case discussion and consultation, policy review and development, and other appropriate interventions, and focuses on considerate and respectful decision-making that accords with fundamental precepts of health care ethics and human rights” (UNC Health Care, 2013).

The committee may meet at the request of the family or employee, many by an anonymous telephone call. Technology has brought healthcare to new higher standards than it has been held to in the past. This improvement has “brought with it the promise of more efficient treatment techniques, extending life inappropriately and futile prolonging of patients’ suffering have become commonplace for critical care nurses caring for dying patients” (Browning. 144). Seeing these patients sustained longer than the nurse feels is ethically responsible may cause a large amount of turmoil in his or her personal life, the profession of nursing is one that requires much of you. Nurses are there for their patients in ways that sometimes the families are unable. The patient’s right to choose is a major player in the ethical debate about end of life care.

According to Rosenburg the patient has the right to accept or decline any or all treatment, also Rosenburg says that “in addition to upholding patient’s dignity and relieving suffering, (clinicians) join their health care colleagues in ensuring that patients receive support for their autonomous decision making throughout care, and particularly in the context of their death” (78). The patient or family may choose no intubation, no Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) or may decide to sign an order of Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) as their nurse we should provide education and answer any questions they may have. “Moral distress occurs when nurses are unable to perform according to what they believe to be ethically correct” (Browning, 144). Often times as the patient’s advocate the nurse feels that he or she may know what’s best or what the patient would want. By being at the bedside of many patients’ in similar situations nurses see what the patients are put through during life sustaining acts.

Sometimes these acts are more traumatic than the illness that brought the patient into the hospital; many times in the emergency room this writer has heard nurses say, things like “we’re not doing them any favors.” This saying is normally when uttered when CPR is in progress or has brought back a patient that has a poor prognosis. Ethics is something that we encounter on a daily basis in much of our decision making especially with these critical patients, even outside the hospital in everyday lives ethics are in play. When it comes to decision about end of life care, it is best for the patient to make their own decisions but if that is not possible the family needs to be educated about all aspects of the processes and in terms that they are able to understand. End of life care is a very sensitive subject that should be approached with honesty while providing the patient with the utmost dignity.

References

Browning, A. M. (2013). MORAL DISTRESS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT IN CRITICAL CARE NURSES CARING FOR ADULTS AT END OF LIFE. American Journal Of Critical Care, 22(2), 143-152.

Rosenberg, T., & Speice, J. (2013). Integrating care when the end is near: Ethical dilemmas in end-of-life care. Families, Systems & Health: The Journal Of Collaborative Family Healthcare, 31(1), 75-83. doi:10.1037/a0031850

Santiago, C., & Abdool, S. (2011). Conversations about challenging end-of-life cases: ethics debriefing in the medical surgical intensive care unit. Dynamics, 22(4), 26-30.

UNC Health Care. (n.d.). UNC Health Care. Retrieved June 23, 2013, from http://www.unchealthcare.org

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