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American Revolution Essay

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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

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  • Pages: 2

American Revolution

The American revolutionary period started in 1763, following a series of succession by the British forces at the end of the French-Indian War ended the French forces threat to British North American colonies. The British colonies had imposed a series of direct taxes preceded by other laws that intended to show the British power, all of which proved extremely infamous in the United States. The colonies did not have a representative in the British parliament, thus, most, colonists took the laws to be illegitimate and a violation of their rights as Englishmen. In the beginning of 1772, some groups of colonists started to form Commitees of Correspondence that would head them to their own Provincial Congressess in most of the colonies. However, the Provincial Cogressess denied the Parliament and replaced the British ruling apparatus, concluding in 1774 with the organizing First Continental Congress. The British responded by sending combat troops to Boston and dissolved the local government and imposed heavy direct taxes. Subsequently, the colonies mobilized their military and war broke out in 1775.

The trigger of the American revolution was that the American repelled Britain’s power. The colonists started protesting British taxes and tension emerged over the distinct perceptions on representation and form of British colony. The distinct perceptions caused the crisis to develop more than a simple breakdown in the imperial association. The events following the outbreak of the war led to the evolution of civil wars in America. America established different perceptions about liberty, which is best represented in the Declaration of American Independence on 4th July 1776, which main objective was to remove tyranny completely. The British did not respect the Native Americans, neither did they consider them as equal. Everyone thought that independent people owned and cultivated land and since the Indians were hunter, they could not be eligible for American citizenship. They were regarded as outsiders.

The American revolution had a powerful impact in eventually bring an end to slavery in America, it effectively abolished the social and intellectual surrounding that had permitted slavery to occur everywhere for decades without significant questioning. Moreover, the Republican society evolved following the weak central power that was created through the Articles of Confederation. In addition, tyrannical power of state legislatures developed. Trade also required to be controlled, which could only be done by the Central government. This resulted in the creation of the constitution.

The Declaration of Independence in 1776 promoted the natural sovereignty of the colonists. It is ultimately an assumption of the right of revolution. The main objective of the Declaration of Independence was to introduce the consent of the governed. It stated that people had the right to fight back when their rights were violated. It was half the war and shortly after it was signed, the British and the colonists engaged in war. The war was exhaustive and took many wars such as the Battle at Saratoga to restore the colonists morale, whereby they had a strong believe that they would emerge as the winners.

The American Revolution led to the emergence of the thirteen irrelevant colonies whereby America developed into a democracy. The revolution truly changed America. Slaves were abolished and the America economy grows due to the creation of a central government that controlled the resources. The cause of the American revolution was most in section to economic discrimination due to the reoccurring acts that taxed on arbitrary items, but it was social because the unjust treatment of the colonist resulted to the development of more political ideas in actions.

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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 432

  • Pages: 2

American Revolution

The American Revolution is said to be one of the most impacted events that shaped America into what it is today. The American Revolution was also known as the American War of Independence, which lasted for eight long dreadful years. There were many causes that caused the revolution which also lead to terrible events afterwards (although some of the outcomes were good). One of the causes was the Stamp and Sugar Acts, 1763–1766. The Stamp Act (1765) was “designed to raise revenue from the American colonist in the thirteen colonies.” (landofthebrave.com) The Sugar Act (1764) set a tax on sugar and molasses that was imported into the colonies, and also taxed other foreign trading goods. (historyrocket.com) Another cause of the American Revolution was the Boston Massacre and Boston Tea Party, 1770-1773. The Boston Massacre was a “protest against the tax collector’s, government officials and merchants,” British troops were called in to handle the crowds, but when they got there the crowd had grew.

When the crowd and troops fought, only 5 civilians were killed. The Boston Tea Party happened on December 16, 1773, which was when the crowd in Boston dressed up disguised as American Indians, then they boarded ships which contained the tea, and then proceeded to dump 342 chests of tea that belonged to the East India Company into the sea. Another cause of the war was that the American colonies had a growing demand of freedom, to get away from the British. One of the effects that came out of the American Revolution was the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of independence was written in July of 1776, by Thomas Jefferson. It “explained why the colonies have overthrown their ruler and chosen to take their place as a separate nation in the world.” (sparknotes.com)

The Declaration Independence was to express the way that the colonies were now their own, not under British rule anymore. People in the United States of America now celebrate this very special holiday every year on July 4. Another effect of the American Revolution was the Bill of Rights, December 15, 1791. The first ten amendments of the Constitution are known as the Bill of Rights, and are ten of the most important amendments written in many peoples opinion. After the war, trading with other countries in the Mediterranean became even more difficult. This was because there was a lack of protection by British navy from all of the pirates out in the open sea.

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 401

  • Pages: 2

American Revolution

* Write a well-organized essay that explains how the Americans won the Revolutionary War. Your essay should include at least two paragraphs. Submit the brief essay to your teacher by the due date to receive full credit.

1. When the American Revolution began, it looked like the colonists faced unbelievable odds. How did a ragtag band of volunteers without enough food or equipment manage to defeat the most powerful army and navy in the world? How did each of the following contribute to the success of the American Revolution? * George Washington’s leadership abilities

* financial help and military support from other countries * the colonists’ spirit and determination

Answer:

How the American’s won the Revolutionary War. In my opinion, it was purely by determination and luck. If the British had actually known where their “feet were planted” so to speak, they probably would’ve won. They just didn’t know the territory and therefore, they walked directly into attacks that they were not expecting. The British thought that they had the war won when they stepped foot onto our soil. But, yet, they didn’t. They didn’t have a clue as to what would happen. They didn’t know of the determination that the colonists had to be free.

George Washington’s leadership abilities helped greatly. He did not try to take it all upon himself. He delegated things to other commanding officers, and that was the right move to make. The financial and Military support from France helped quite a lot. If France hadn’t helped them in this war, it would most likely have been lost. Because we did not have the military support that we needed without them. The determination and spirit of the colonists is the best of all. Because no matter what, they kept fighting for what they thought was right. Even if they happened to be wrong on something, I’m pretty sure they would’ve kept fighting. That is what really kept the war alive and kept us from losing the great nation that we call home today. Because the colonists kept pushing through the harsh winters and the attacks lead on by the British. We just kept fighting.

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  • University/College:
    University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1603

  • Pages: 6

American Revolution

 In many societies, music has been a way of life uniquely defining a particular society. Centuries ago, the now African Americans were taken to America as slaves. They went with a rich African musical culture applying it in their places of work like the fields. There they sung work songs, field hollers, chants and shouts. In the 19th century they were granted freedom under the American Revolution and this had an effect on their lives. They could no longer meet in the field where they sung communally they still needed a way to self express themselves.

They therefore adopted a more self centered and personalized kind of music the so called blue music. Blue music was not actually a new kind of music, but it was a new concept in music that was personalized. Much of the former songs they involved a group of people in performance. There were soloists and the respondents. However, this new concept in music was more personified, the singer responded to himself or herself. There were teachings that existed, the Haratio Alger model, and which also led to emergency of blue music.

The assumption that one self destiny was influenced by him/herself motivated personalized kind of life and therefore the blue music (McElrath, J 2000) Blue music is very important in African American music platform. Over the years, it has evolved from blue, to rhythm and blues (R&B) to the hip hop a popular kind of music in the modern world. The introduction of the guitar to the rural black habitations in the post civil war periods was significant in the emerging of blue music. They could now play more flattered notes otherwise called the blue notes.

It also influenced other kind of music for instant the rock music, jazz tunes, guitarist music. (New York Times, 2007) Blue music was not limited to anyone. Unlike other kind of music, they were not based on age, season, setting or even location. In fact, they were played by all ages, at any season, any setting for instant workplaces, homes churches. Their main target was expressing immediate individual feelings, pain, hope, desire, pride and suffering. (Campbell et al, 2004) Blue music evolution can be classified in terms of time and location.

The Mississippi Delta area came up with a highly charged style of blue music performance which was of high degree. These were termed as Delta Blues. They were mainly slow tunes pioneered by music icons like Charley Patton (1934) Son House and Robert Johnson (1937). They guitar acted as a vocalist where it was played using a glass slide. This was different from the Ragtime Blues that existed in the middle south. These blues were light hearted. The singers used their fingers especially the thumb establishing a recurring bass picking a melody that emphasized the off beats.

Blind Boy Fuller (1941) and Blind Blake (1933) pioneered this kind of blues. The religious blues is another classification in blue music. Mainly they were sacred drawn from the ring shouts and spirituals that came before them. Blind Willie Johnson (1949) pioneered this class. There was migrating to the urban centers by the African Americans. There was need to reformat this kind of music to be more attractive and involve dancing. Previously, it was surrounded by some irregularities. This led to a class of blues called the Urban Blues.

William Christopher Handy (1958) is an important icon in this type of music. This was significant to Jazz singers. As time went by, the blacks needed to adapt to the urban cities. Those talented in singing had to be vigorous. They started singing even in clubs and bars. These places are generally noisy and needed an improved guitars sound to counter the noise. They started using the electric guitar evolving blues to what was called the electric blues. This occurred the period after the World War II. Important icons included Muddy Water, Howlin’ Wolf and B. B King.

Thereafter, blue music influenced the emergency of R&B that combined Jazz and pop too. (New York Times, 2007) The migration to the cities came with its impact. The African American women popularized the classic blues. In the cities, they had freedom over rural beliefs and stands. They could now sing out of the church. On the other hand, there was need to perform in entertainment, theaters clubs and dance halls. Women therefore started performing in these places. 1920s was significant for this kind of blues after Mimic Smith’s recorded ‘crazy blues’ which motivated other classical blues singers.

(Arc Catalging Genre Help sheet, 2002) The classical blues popularity declined with the rise of the country blues. The success of classical blues motivated recording companies to market more as those recording classical music made a lot of profits. There emerged competent male singers taking over the blue music field. (Chart communication Inc, 2006) Like any other kind of music, the blues have had an impact in the previous society, the present and will continue to the generations to come. Far from influencing the emergency of R&B music and hip-hop, it has changed the lifestyle of people.

Most of music stars are modeled by many people especially in their personality and fashion a base where many fashion developers advertise their products. Many people especially the youth have modeled these stars adapting their dress cord, personality, dancing style and others. Most of their video shooting incorporates seductive and suggestive moves if not romantic. Therefore it has had an influence on people’s sexuality behaviors. Due to its music culture, it has promoted drug abuse in the society especially among the youth. Some music stars are substances abuser and a model can adapt such personality.

Music has an effect on people feelings. In fact, blues are associated with personified feeling and therefore can influence crime by either promoting it or causing incitement. In history of blues, its evolution was highly characterized by performance in leisure places. It has influenced clubs, entertainment, dancing and alcohol use among other issues. (Jelsoft Enterprises, 2008) Generally, the nature of blue music has influenced not only the entire music industry the lifestyle of human beings but also other dimensions of life; economic, culture religion, politics and social.

The notion music is life is real considering its impact in the society. We can not derive that humanity is directly influenced by music and its effects that ranges from relaxation to incitement. Blues music is not an exception in this. Its popularity not only in United States but also in the entire world has economically empowered nations. African Americans economical capability has relied on entertainment, primarily on blue music. It has in turn influenced the economy of the entire nation.

The recording firms have emerged providing employment to the entire population and economically empowering the stars. The hip hop music has its roots on blue music. The rise of hip hop culture therefore can primarily be based on the blues music. It has therefore influenced culture significantly. In religion, music is one element of communication especially in it information delivery target. Indeed, most of the inspiring gospel music, the so called worshiping music, is blues. They have influenced prayers and the entire religious doctrines.

In politics, blues have been composed to send messages and inform people about issues related to politics. In fact, they have been used in political rallies to emotionally move people. In Russia it was associated with post communist phenomena’s. Not only have they been used in politics but also in social context. Blues have a reputation of being a base for most re known love songs and emotion expressions. These songs have been used in marriages, reconciliation and have had a big impact in social settings. Music impact on humanity is profound.

Their influence on life dimensions seeks its greater attention. Over the past years, the industry has recommendably been exploited changing the whole world. Pointing to the African Americans, their reputation has been characterized by their impact on entertainment industry especially the music industry, of course their music superiority rooting from blues. It is therefore worth to lift blues music, modernize them and mod it in a way that it will affect many other generations to come. We need to lift the burn that music is life and therefore, there is life in music.

References: Arc Catalging Genre Help sheet (2002) classic blues. Retrieved on Friday, November 14, 2008 from http://www. arcmusic. org/features/blues_guides/classic_blues. pdf Blood. Retrieved on Friday, November 14, 2008 from http://www. colinlinden. com/Media_Room/Reprints/chartattack. com_- _Jan_25_2006_-_Country-Blues_Runs_Deep_In_Colin_Linden_s_Blood. pdf Campbell, J, Chilcoat, L, Derby, S, Greenfield, B & Heller, B. C (2004) USA: Lonely Planet. Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd (2008) Sociological Observation: Impact of Music on Society.

Retrieved on Friday, November 14, 2008 from http://path-to- peace. com/community/showthread. php? t=23 McElrath, J (2000) The Blues and the Development of Personalized Song: about. com. Retrieved on Friday, November 14, 2008 from http://afroamhistory. about. com/od/bluesmusic/a/bluesmusic. htm New York Times (2007) The New York Times Guide to Essential Knowledge: A Desk Reference for the Curious Mind: Macmillan.

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American Revolution Essay

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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 2956

  • Pages: 12

American Revolution

Black American also referred to as African Americans are the US citizens with an African origin. Some of them are descendants of survivors of Africans who were brought to America as slaves to work in sugar plantations. Other black communities in America are as a result of voluntary immigration from the African community. African Americans make the largest minority group in the present United States of America. The African American community has for a long time been neglected and discriminated, they had little or no rights at all, which caused them to form movements to fight and campaign for the recognition of their rights.

In the United State, women have been facing harsh treatments from their male counterparts. They have also been denied quite a number of rights. This research is intended to look into the similarities and differences that exist between the progression of the black Americans and American women in the United States. (Felder, 1990) Progression of blacks For many years, blacks Americans in the United States have been the poorest community in the country. They were regarded as slaves and had no rights to own properties and work. As time went by, they were allowed to grow crops and keep livestock.

Though they could intermarry with other communities, they were still poor and could not have right over their spouses married from other communities. African Americans were regarded as immigrants to the country and therefore taken inferior to the indigenous communities. After several attempts to fight for their rights, they formed movements to champion for their rights as other communities in the United States. These movements were fighting for equality in different sphere of life including the right to own properties, the right to employment, to vote, and others.

The civil rights movement started in early 20th century. These movements were encouraged by the extending role of the government in developing the economy and society. This encouraged the starting of businesses and jobs for blacks, the establishment of judicial law to protect the rights of all Americans rather than protecting businesses and whites only. The former US president, Mr Franklin Roosevelt, who was in power by then, appointed the judges who favored the rights of African Americans. Mr Hugo Black was appointed to head the Supreme Court as the judge.

This contributed to blacks accessing schooling like whites without any sort of discrimination as before. The government was clearly supporting the rights of the black community in championing their rights. At the start of the Second World War in Europe, African Americans brought their demand to fair treatment than it was during the First World War. They said through Medias that for them to contribute in the war, African Americans enrolled in the military had to be trained like their white counterparts while other civilians were to work in the same industries the white worked.

In 1941, blacks organized a march to Washington lead by Randolph Philip A. to demand the government to have blacks contracted in the defense department as the whites. This encouraged the government to order the creation of equal employment committee to enforce the practice of fair employment. The formation of the committee did not solve the matter but discrimination of the blacks went on. During the war, though the blacks contributed to about less that a quarter of the military personnel, they were trained as pilots in the armed forces without any discrimination.

This did not fully solve the matter for there were others who were put in a delicate position without any combat. After the government allowed the equal employment of blacks and whites, many blacks migrated to north for employment in war industries than they had migrated to south during the First World War. This migration was encouraged by an urge to have a much better incomes as others. There was much tension in their new homes in fear of racial oppressions. Those who migrated to the north had to use their economic and political influence in supporting civil right for those who were left in south.

(African-American, 2008). The blacks had gained much influence and were widely working against racial discrimination and were even challenging the registrar of voters in southern courthouse and could sue school boards for equality in education provision. The movement was gaining after the blacks were able to fight racism in Europe and in America. The war encouraged more blacks to fight racism in Europe and later extended to Asia. After the war, the blacks had gained momentum which encouraged the president to have uniform civil rights in the country but was rejected by the congress.

This movement helped the blacks to have most of the rights that were initially enjoyed by the whites only including right to education, right to vote, and right to participate in politics. Since then, African Americans have greatly enjoyed full rights of citizenship of the United States. As a result of this, blacks are able to strive for higher seats in the government and in other areas. Recently the blacks have progressed to a point of vying the highest seat in the country. Example of this is Illinois senator Mr. Barak Obama. (History made, 2008)

After the war, rights movement continued with a success, different forms of discrimination had already been overturned and this time it was on equal education provision and opportunities. After much emphasis on equal education provision that challenged primary and secondary education, the court ruled that segregating racial education was against the constitution. Segregating education faced a major challenge by whites opposing the ruling of the court; this called the whites to have mass resistance in complying with the segregation orders.

Firing the black school employees who were on the favor of segregation was another tactic that was used by the whites and creating whites private schools other than boycotting the integrated schools that incorporated both races. During the first years, the schools were not desegregated, but this gradually proceeded as the schools as the segregation had already taken part in the neighborhood. In overcoming this some schools sent their students in different neighborhoods. After much struggle by the whites to fight segregation, they formed a group called Ku Klux Klan (KKK).

The group used all form of violence and threats against anybody who was supporting the desegregation or the rights of the blacks. With support from the media they performed all forms of terrorism especially in the southern states in the early second quarter of the 20th century. Though there were still threats and violence, this did not end the struggle for the rights of the blacks, it had to move beyond the education provision to challenge other affected areas like in public transport and other public service provisions. The black community was annoyed by the whites for being rude and abusive.

A bus boycott was organized in Alabama after a white passenger expected a black passenger to excuse him from the bus seat, this kind of harassment contributed to organizing for a boycott within a night which was a success, this called in court attention and the segregation in busses were to start immediately factors that helped in ending the continuous harassment of the blacks by the whites in the city. Martin Luther King who chaired the Montgomery Improvement Association, organized a boycott through his organization, King’s plea to Christians was to create a non discriminatory impression of people in the whole country.

King wanted the violent and harsh ways to a non violent way of encouraging segregation. In the University of North Carolina, four black students started yet another protest against the whites’ only counters, though it was not a new for of protest, it had spread through out Carolina within days, this lead to desegregation of restaurants across the southern states. This movement showed clearly that whites and blacks are alike and they could show they were against segregation openly. The students found a nonviolent committee in 1960, the formation of the committee was to help the students organize sit-ins movements.

It was encouraged that civil rights movements should only be based on individual communities of the blacks. This was to enforce change to the local communities rather than the national change. The voters’ registration campaign started in 1964, though the community level activism had started in 1961, there was a heavy commitment in heavily concentrated black territories mostly in rural areas of southern states. The blacks believed that voting was the only way to empower them and had to ensure that they participated in changing of the racism policies in the south.

The activist Robert Moses through Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) worked hard in registering blacks and teaching them the importance of voting, skills the required and the necessary responses applying for voter registration. The exercise faced a great opposition from the whites they went a head in threatening Robert and even beating and sending him to jail. The efforts of Mississippi to recruit both whites and blacks in colleges and other professions were thought to attract attention from the whole nation.

This lead in having more active politician who later formed Mississippi freedom democratic party (MFDP) after they were rejected by the white democrats as members in their delegation. The actions of the whites were challenged when the blacks participated in the media interviews to represent Mississippi. The voting right was initiated by the blacks and began protesting in court houses in Selma, when they were unsuccessful, they proceeded to Montgomery where they faced police beating and were tear-gassed, the scene was televised and shocked many, this encouraged King to lead hundreds of people to a 50 mile march to Montgomery .

The Selma march got great supports which in turn lead to enactment of the law which protected southern states blacks to vote. The president Johnson proposed the passage of rigors act by the congress in the 1965. After the amendment of the act, most of the requirements that restricted the blacks from voting were suspended. After this, the blacks were able to vie for major offices seats and were able to win in all districts. (Martin Luther King, Jr. 1958 ,46 ) Progression of women in the US Though the republic of America was founded on ideas of equality, liberty and freedom, it proved to be difficult to achieve in practice.

Women in the United States were not regarded as equal to men despite of their important roles they played in forming and shaping the US. Their lives were confined in the domestic world and were not given enough chances to spearhead their causes in the education, social and in political arena This led to the rise of women activism in politics. They started realizing the power of politics in constructing women identity in the society. They realized that they could also play an important role of Republic motherhood by instilling republican and freedom values to their children.

There were few women like Abigail Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, and others who become prominent public figure in the political arena. They championed for the rights of women. (History of women, 2008) During the American war with the British, women played great roles like boycotting of British goods and contributing to the economy of the country. They held several demonstrations that opened their eyes to some issues rather than being at home with their children. Some women participated in political activism that progressed women to another level.

Some women participated in the in the progression of women by serving in the army. Although it was considered abnormal for women to enter in the war, most of them broke these rules and directly participated in the war. Other women like Deborah Sampson played the role of men in order to be allowed to enter into the war and fight in the front line alongside men. (Morton, 1980) She presented herself as a volunteer using male names to be recruited in the army. The last time she participated in the war, she was recognized as Robert Shertliffe.

She served under the command of Captain Nathan for three years performing various duties until she was injured and could no longer continue fighting. She was later relieved of her duties and rewarded for the role she played in the army as a revolutionary warrior. Women played great roles in shaping the future of the counterparts. With the laid foundation by former women, modern women are able to compete with their male counterparts for the big positions in the job market, politics and in education achievements (Ellet, 1969).

Hilary Clinton is a good example of a woman who has fought against the odds and was competing for the highest seat in the country. Another example is John McCain’s running mate, Sarah Palin who would be the vise president if McCain wins; another woman who has fought to the higher seat is the American secretary of states Condoleezza Rice. (Mark, 2008) Similarities of blacks and women in America There are several similarities between the blacks and women in the United States. At first, they were regarded as people who were not much important to the society and their work was to serve the white man.

They had to proof their capability in order to be regarded as important figure in the community. With formation and participation in movements and demonstrations, they found objections and were termed as illegally demonstrating and were facing brutal beatings and other sort of punishments. Blacks’ participation in the movements and protesting the rule of whites brought about a great change that its impact is felt in the modern America. Blacks have equal rights as whites in the country and the can access anything as their fellow whites are accessing.

Were it not for the activists who volunteered and fought against the poor treatment of women by men, women could still be “stay at home mom” as they used to be. Blacks and women have climbed the ladder to the righted world and they have the right to do whatever a man can do (Wikipedia, 2008). In the current America, being a woman or black has no restriction in exercising ones right. None has more rights than the other and are all protected buy human rights which has not specified the race, religion or gender, provided its human being.

The voting right was initiated by the blacks and began protesting in court houses in Selma, when they were unsuccessful, they proceeded to Montgomery where they faced police beating and were tear-gassed. The scene was televised and it shocked many people, which encouraged King to lead hundreds of people to a 50 mile march to Montgomery. The Selma march got great supports which in turn lead to enactment of law which protected southern states blacks to vote. The president Johnson proposed the passage of rigors act by the congress in the 1965.

After the amendment of the act, most of the requirements that restricted the blacks from voting were suspended. After this the blacks were able to vie for major offices seats and were able to win in all districts. As each has gained the right to vote is a very important role in the welfare of the country, with all participating, democracy is exercised and only with majority supporters gains the access to any political seat. Conclusion The movement of civil rights in the United States has gone through major challenges before achieving a tremendous success.

The total commitment of the activists was of benefit to the whole nation’s blacks and women. The recognition of capability of blacks and women has brought equality and has contributed to the growth of the economy. The movement also helped the blacks to access education like any other American without discrimination and also led to segregation of schools and other public services. The enactment of voting rights gave the blacks and women an opportunity to exercise politics like their white counterparts which in turn brought a better service provision to all citizens.

Participation of blacks and women in national welfare activities like in war led to victory of the nation. Reference: African-American, 2008, retrieved from www. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/African_American on 3rd 10/2008 Ellet, E. 1969, The women of the American Revolution, New York; Haskell Felder, J. 1990, Black Origins and Lady Liberty, Daily Challenge. July 16, History made, 2008, Obama becomes first nominee of major party, retrieved from www. elections. foxnews. com/2008/08/27/history-made-obama-becomes-1st-black-nominee-of-major-party History of women, 2008, retrieved from www.

en. wikipedia. org/wiki/History_of_women_in_the_United_States on 3rd 10/08 Mark E, 2008, career progression of minority and women, retrieved from /www. defenselink. mil/prhome/careerprog. html, on 3rd 10/08 Martin Luther King, Jr. 1958, Stride Toward Freedom New York: Harper & Row Morton, M. 1980, The Liberty Daughters: the Revolutionary Experience of American women 1750-1800. Boston: Little brown Retrieved from www. African-American_Civil_Rights_Movement_ (1955-1968). htm on 3rd10/08 Wikipedia, 2008, African-American civil rights movement (1955-1968)

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American revolution Essay

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American revolution Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

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  • Words: 1028

  • Pages: 4

American revolution

Title The American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which rebel colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America. This was the first time a colony had rebelled and successfully asserted its rights to self-government and nationhood. This inspired many European nations and colonies to revolt. For the longest time, I have been led to believe that the American Revolution was the most glorious war of all American time period. However, at the consummation of American Revolution unit, my perception of the war had drastically altered. Not everyone wanted to fight; in fact, it was mostly the upper class trying to persuade the lower class to fight while the elite could buy their way out. According to “Give me liberty” book charpter 5, historian Foner thought Americna Revolution is a revolution about independence and freedom for maybe all of the races and classes of America. Most Americans understand the history of their freedom in an uncomplicated way: the Founding Fathers laid down principles of American liberty that their descendants have been applying ever since, steadily ”augmenting the happiness and value of life to all people of all colors everywhere,” as Abraham Lincoln said. Eric Foner disagrees.

”The story of American freedom,” he says, ”is not simply a saga of a fixed set of rights to which one group after another has gained access,” but ”a tale of debates, disagreements and struggles” with lots of bumps and wrong turns along the way. Moreover, American freedom itself is ”not a single idea” but a ”complex of values” that have changed over time, taking on meanings unknown to Jefferson and his contemporaries. Yet freedom, he says, provides a unifying thread for our national experience. Also Foner explains some of the ways in which the Revolution was a turning point for American slavery: The war created new opportunities for slaves to become free. American revolution definitely a representative event of seeking freedom and independence in all period of American history. But other historian or people might question it, is that a truly revolution for all of Amerian? In other word, is this celebrated revolution considered entirely the right and profit as it claimed? Compares to Foner’s idea of American revolution, historian Howard Zinn published article ” The untold truths about American Revolution “, which he thinks American Revolution is not truly revolutionary and “This is a good cause” to independence from England and let people immediately jump to “deserves a war.” He thinks that the revolution “it was run not by the farmers but by the Founding Fathers.

The farmers were rather poor; the Founding Fathers were rather rich.” So over all of his tendentious opinion in this article, he thinks ths revolution is not benifit for all of races or classes. As he said “when you look at the American Revolution, there’s a fact that you have to take into consideration. Indians—no, Indians didn’t benefit. “, “Did blacks benefit from the American Revolution? Slavery was there before. Slavery was there after. Not only that, we wrote slavery into the Constitution. We legitimized it.” All of this opinion pointed out the one conclusion “The American Revolution was not a simple affair of all of us against all of them. And not everyone thought they would benefit from the Revolution. ” And he also quotes a Carl Degler in the “A Kind of Revolution” of his book A People’s History of the United States: “No new social class came to power through the door of the American Revolution. The men who engineered the revolt were largely members of the colonial ruling class. George Washington was the richest man in America. John Hancock was a prosperous Boston merchant.

Benjamin Franklin was a wealthy printer. And so on.” According his article and his opinion so we can say it that the American Revolution is not truly revolutionary at least for me because there is not everyone was benfited from the war and the result of the revolution didn’t consider all races and classes as they claimed. Following the conclusion of the Revolution, no new social classes were formed: not even the smallest fraction of the poor became wealthy, and there was not even the slightest bit of social reform—the conditions that existed prior to the war were reinstated after the war. After all this is what the wealthy wanted. The members of the upper class threw around words like “liberty and equality” in order to excite the lower class just enough so that they would fight in a war.

Furthermore, according to Zinn, the members of the upper class wanted to accomplish this “without ending either slavery or inequality” because if either of those two things ceased to exist, then the upper class would lose its wealth and its power—two things that were very much valued by the establishment and elite. Moreover, both before and after the said “American Revolution,” the wealthy—the top five percent or so of the nation—ruled the other ninety percent of the people.

Edmund S. Morgan states in his book The Birth of the Republic that “The Constitution…represented a reaction…engineered by the rich and well-born,” Not only the upper class people ruled the war, but also the non-power class didn’t have any change after the revolution comparesto what they thought before. After studying the American Revolution I have recognized the significant evidence supporting the view that the American Revolution was not a truly revolution at all because the rich remained rich, the poor remained poor, the government remained in favor of those with more wealth, and those in power remained in power.

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American Revolution Essay

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American Revolution Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 1808

  • Pages: 7

American Revolution

“I’m going to make a name for myself. If I fail, you will never hear of me again” Edward James Muggeridge. True to his words he succeeded in making a name for himself and he created the first movie or “motion picture”. Movies are a rollercoaster ride that transcends people into a whole different world fresh out of somebody’s imagination as seen through the genres of horror, drama, and science fiction. The movie business allows people to break through the burden of everyday life. Considering today’s way of life, people would be lying if they did not admit that movies are an influential entity in our culture.

Movies have been successful in ingraining values and elements into society. Movies exaggerate, sensationalize and at times even trivialize the matters of society. It has also played a major role in media in positive developments such as fight against racism, fight against gender bias, and spreading awareness about world peace. Author Bill Swanson who wrote the text, “How Films Feed the Mind or When I’m Hungry, I Don’t Want to Eat Candy”, would also agree that movies play a significant role in structuring our society. In his text he explains movies have a big influence to people both physically and physiologically.

Swanson states that films are only analogies of the real world that condense time into a two-hour story. Furthermore, Swanson explains movies are part of people’s memories, and many compare and reflect movies into their own personal experience. There are numerous examples in which Swanson refers to movies that are influential and momentous. One of the movies that Swanson proposes is Raging Bull, he quotes that: “Raging bull is the irrational urge to define ourselves by violent acts of control and domination” (Swanson 240). Raging Bull requires viewers to have cultural knowledge in order to fully understand the film.

Martin Scorsese presents a movie that many critics would consider a classic. There are many characteristics that make this an astonishing film. The themes that make it an intricate movie are moral ambiguity, mixed motives, and one must have cultural knowledge to better understand the film. Often times in movies, we are presented with quintessential characters that are all placed into the conventional categories of either good or bad. In these pieces, we are usually able to differentiate the characters and discover their true intentions from looking at only the first part of the film.

Knowing the characters true intentions is defined as Moral Ambiguity. In the film “Raging Bull”, Martin Scorsese develops the morally ambiguous characters of Jake LaMotta, Vickie LaMotta, and Joey LaMotta. Scorsese provides us with an interesting film and gives us a chance to evaluate each character. Jake LaMotta is one of the most unfathomable characters in the film “Raging Bull”. Jake is ostensible, pitiful and tragic figure who becomes a terrible victim of his own preventable foibles. Admiring Jake’s heart about being a champion, but he is preoccupied by his own personal psychological drives.

For Jake, going into the ring is not an uplifting event that will lead to riches, fame and respect; rather it is a release of all his frustrations and energies that stem from his own personal demons. Jake’s wife, Vickie is a confident fifteen year old. Vickie seems like a goldigger, and is clearly not a saintly figure in the film. For example, she hangs around with the local mob figures when she should be with friends of her own age. Though, there is never a direct moment in the film that demonstrates Vickie as an adulterer, her husband does not believe that.

At one point, even accuses his brother sleeping with his wife. Joey is the younger brother of Jake. Joey may not be Jake’s physical match but he is definitely his verbal one. Joey seems as a noble character except he is kicking it with the mafia. Joey’s fearlessness reveals his inner strengths, considering that Jake could take him apart any time. At one point of the film, Jake accuses Joey of sleeping with his wife, and this is a moment of suspicion and paranoia. Movies as well as other forms of popular fiction are similar to literature.

This is due to the fact that viewers often have to critically think about each characters motives. Countless times in films, we are introduced to characters that are hard to recognize and unpredictable. Viewers usually make their first judgment on the particular character within the first few scenes, not knowing what their purpose might be. Not knowing what a characters reason or intention might be is also known as Mixed Motives. Within the film Raging Bull, the theme mixed motives comes about in many scenes, within Jake, Vikki, Joey and Sal or the Mafia.

One character in the film that has mixed motives is the middleweight champion boxer Jake Lamotta. Jake strives to be the best boxer, and be the heart of a champion. Jake is not afraid of anyone, and could care less what people think about him. Jake’s mindset is being the finest, and he does everything to be just that. Alternatively, often times Jake is insanely jealous toward his wife, he judgmental and resentment toward African Americans, and uses his fist not only in the ring, but as a way of life. Vikki is fifteen years old, and she knows what type of man she would like to have a relationship with.

Vikki would like to be in a relationship with powerful rich men who treat her with respect. In contrast, many fifteen year old girls have not really experienced life, and do not know what they would like. Vikki ends up with Jake, whom she later divorces. Although, Jake is a rich man he has no self-respect for his wife, whom he continually beats up. Jake’s younger brother Joey illustrates mixed motives within the first few scenes of the film. Joey has mixed motives between his family and his friends. Joey effortlessly helps his brother train for his boxing matches, and helps him in every way possible.

On the other hand, Joey would like to please the mafia, and win the bets that they put on his older brother. Lastly, Sal and the mafia have mixed motives as well. Sal and the Mafia abuse and exploit the neighborhood. They make the neighborhood frightened to even look behind their backs. Conversely, Sal and the Mafia would like to protect the streets and keep everything in order and not see people harassing others. One must have special cultural knowledge in order to better understand the film “Raging Bull”. The film was requires people to better understand life in the 40’s through the 60’s.

Throughout this span time four major marks in history are made. These marks include World War II, the Hyper-Patriotism of people, the cold war, as well as the Vietnam War. In numerous ways, Jake is much like the United States during the 1940’s. Jake pushed beyond his limits as well. Jake trains for hours, and even abstains from sex to succeed his goal. Similarly, the nation has the heart of a champion when they won World War II, and pushed past their limits. During this time hyper-patriotism was coming about. The news, protests, protests all influenced hyper-patriotism.

These all appealed to people’s feelings and motives about the war. In the film, the only sound that calmed the American citizens down was the sound of the national anthem. The cold war was similar to Jake because although there were not soldiers fighting physically, but rather mentally. Jake was fighting his own inner demons around this time, to making an utmost effort to win every battle in the ring. The Vietnam War is much like Jake Lamotta as well. At the end of the film, Jake losses everything he built up. The once strong, powerful man losses his shape, and becomes weak and monstrous.

Jake looks much like the Vietnam War. The nation lost the war against Vietnam. At this point, the nation looked grotesque and out of shape. As well as World War II, Hyper-Patriotism, The Cold War, and The Vietnam War, there were other issues that the nations were dealing with. These issues were desegregation, brown vs. board civil rights as well as women rights. While Jake was reaching his climax, the United States were slowly starting to desegregate schools throughout the nation. They started to desegregate schools due to the court case of Brown vs. Board and with the help of the NAACP.

Similar to Jake, Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. fought for what they believed in and hoped for. Although desegregation was slowly coming about, discrimination was still out on the streets. Jake is very racist toward African Americans and sexist. During this time period women voicing out their opinions as well. Women were not allowed to divorce at this time and stood by their men. In later years, when women got a chance they won their right to divorce and were not ashamed of it either. In the film “Raging Bull”, Vikki Lamotta stood by her husband, although getting abused from him left and right.

Vikki would get not only physically abused but emotionally as well. Later on in the film, Vikki happily divorces what she called a “nightmare marriage”. Furthermore, one must have special cultural knowledge have the Italian-American life, boxing, and the mafia’s relationship toward boxing. Jake Lamotta himself was from Italian descent, and was living as an Italian-American. Even though many Italians culturally assimilated in the United States, they still kept their culture alive but putting Italian music, and eating their main dishes.

Boxing was another key thing for the Italian people and the American people. For many individuals, boxing was a sport. For many boxing was a way of life, and leaving organized crime. Either it was being good at a sport, or going to the military at this time. Even the Mafia were involved in boxing. They were involved in the matches by doing their “under the table deals”. The Mafia would gamble and bet for the best boxer. The Mafia also controlled boxing much like they controlled the ghetto’s.

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American Revolution Essay

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American Revolution Essay
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  • University/College:
    University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Words: 824

  • Pages: 3

American Revolution

? The Northern Native Americans were known as “savages” by the European settlers, but actually they created some of the greatest civilizations in history. The lands and social cultures that European explored thought they “discovered” had in fact been developed way before they had arrived. When the European settlers arrived in North America they found an unknown continent largely populated by around 350 Native American civilizations.

The Northern Native Americans ways of life may have differed but they were all able maintain and create advanced civilizations with an effective use of land and agriculture, a well-organized social structure and adequate living arrangements . One of the main reasons why Northern Native Americans were able to create such strong civilizations was due to their effective use of land and agriculture. With different native societies being located in the Southwest, South and Northeast of America, they all had to overcome different climatic and geographical hardships to survive.

The Pimas and Papagos had to deal with the overwhelming fact of Southwest dryness and find a way to create an effective civilization that would thrive. The Pimas and the Papagos were able to make irrigation farming possible with narrow bands of vegetation in wet sands found along rivers to the Gulf of Meixco and Californina for nearly 3,000 years before European colonization. The Natchez and the Indians of Florida in the South lived in a climate that was perfect for farming with wide-ranging fertile plains and rich bottom land which made farming even more possible.

Since agriculture is such a large part in all Native American civilizations, with the perfect climate and geography for farming enough food and plants were grown to support thousands of people. The Native Americans of the Northeast were blessed with varied geographical features but not as blessed with having to deal with growing seasons since it got very cold in the winter. In the Northeast cultivation became strongest support of the Native American economy. The Iroquois women were able to grow and harvest food to support 50 longhouses.

Due to the way the Native Americans were able to adjust to their geographic and climatic hardships farming became prosperous. Along with agriculture, social structure is also a key factor in a successful civilization. The Pimas settlements were located a large distance apart and were governed by assemblies of men with one headman to manage the irrigation works. The Pueblo people had a strict code of behavior to abide by along with a government system and ceremonies of rituals. The Natchez had their own leader they called the Great Sun and they lived in a class based society where public torture and human sacrifice was common.

The Indians of Florida had a similar social structure living in chiefdoms that were characterized by a class system. The Iroquois nation founded a confederacy that was able to control the period of persistent violence. This confederacy became one very powerful as it suppressed violence and outlawed warfare among member nations. By forming some sort of government, each Native American civilization were able to control their people and reach stability. The advanced civilizations would not have been stable if ample living arrangements for the large population of Native Americans did not exist.

In the Southwest, the Pimas and Papagos lived in detached settlements that were separated up to a mile apart which allowed limited interaction with other people. The Pueblos lived a communal village life, living in dwellings of interconnected apartments. Due to the commitment of communal village life, the Pueblos populated the oldest continuously occupied towns in the United States. In the South, the Indians lived in villages of twenty to large towns of thousands; depending on their ways of life.

The Iroquois of the Northeast lived in 400ft long homes called longhouses that housed dozens of families. Their villages were surrounded by wood walls which was evidence of conflict between groups. Algonquian communities consisted of smaller independent villages than those of the Iroquois people. The statement “By the eve of European Conquest, North Native Americans had constructed good civilizations” is true because way before the European settlers believed they found a “new world” the Native Americans were advancing and establishing strong civilizations on their own.

When the Europeans came to settle, they encountered hundreds of Native American communities that were highly advanced for the time period. Even with limitations of their homeland due to geographic and climatic hardships, the North Native Americans were able to create livable and advanced civilizations. These civilizations thrived due to the Native Americans being able to adjust to their surrounding allowing great use of land for agriculture, strong social structures and organized living. .

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