University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
All the tribes living in this hill district are mainly depending on agriculture. The primitive system of Jhuming cultivation are common among all the tribes. The practice of Jhuming not only destroy the micro flora and fauna but also affect ecological balance by destroying forest. So, an attempt has been made through this scheme to replace Jhum by permanent cultivation, terrace cultivation. Moreover the Soil of this hilly region is very suitable summer as well as winter paddy. Horticulture is the main occupation in the district of N. C. Hills farmers.
The altitude varies from 800meters to 1200 meters and average rainfall around 2300 mm and temperatures varies from 6 to 12 degree C in winter and 17 -33 degree C in summer. Out of total geographical area of 4888 sq. km. around 1. 88 lakh hectares is suitable for cultivation and 80% of the cultivable land is suitable for horticultural crops. Potential for horticultural development is very bright along with canning and processing industry as this district produces huge quantity of quality pineapple, oranges and ginger through purely organic method as use of agrochemicals is virtually non-existent.
However, all the tribes of this hilly district are mainly dependant on destructive slash and burn method of cultivation or Jhuming and in the process forest cover has been largely denuded and ecosystem has been damaged. According to topography, rainfall and other geographical factors the district has been divided into three parts, consisting of the development blocks, 1st Part— Diyungbra ITDP and Diyung valley Block.
This particular area comprises mainly of foothill and plains is suitable for field crops such as Sugarcane, Maize, Oil seeds, paddy, pulses and tropical horticultural crops like coconut, areca nut, cashew nut, mango, mousambi, litchi etc. 2nd Part—Sangbar development block has both low altitude and high altitude areas and crops suitable are both tropical and sub tropical crops. Main cultivated crops are sugarcane, Ginger, Turmeric, Pineapple and oranges. 3rd Part —comprises mainly of Jatinga valley block and Harangajao ITDP. Major crops grown are Paddy, Oranges, Ginger, Turmeric, Girenium etc.